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Schema focus therapy
National UNIVERSITY For MODERN LANGUAGES ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN.
 Advance Diploma in Clinical Psychology (Morning).
 Subject; Internship
 Presented by,
 Umar Zada.
 Abdur Rahim
 Zartashia
Schema
The word schema comes from the Greek word
(skhema) which mean shape or more generally
plan.
Definition: A drawing of thought that represent an
idea or theory and make it easier to understand.
Schemas
 A pattern of thoughts or behavior that organizes categories
of information and the relationship among them.
 Is a concept that informs us what to expect from a variety
of experiences. They are base on information we have
acquired by previous life experiences.
 Developed during childhood or adolescence and
elaborated throughout one's lifetime
Library: I need to be quiet
Fire: that’s hot
Cont.…
Schemas can be thought of as central and enduring
themes in a person’s life. Schemas reflect deep, difficult
to change views of ourselves, others, and the world.
Schemas also refer to a broad organizing structure that
significantly influences our moment-to-moment
experiences.
Schemas typically consist of thematically connected
feeling states, thinking patterns, expectations,
predispositions to believe and emotionally significant
memories.
Cont.
Typical statements that you’ll hear from someone that
have harmful and negative thinking patterns include
“I’m worthless”, “I’m not good enough” or “No one
loves me”. In order to effectively address and improve a
client’s thinking patterns..
Schemas are Useful.
Schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps
organize and interpret information.
Schema is useful because they allow us to take shortcuts in
interpreting the vast amount of information that’s available
in our environment.
Schema is the structure behind data organization.
How to identify
The therapist identifies the client’s schemas or life traps
through conversation or even questionnaires.
The therapist helps the client become more aware of their
schemas and learn how to recognize them in their
everyday lives.
The client becomes more involved in improving their
thinking patterns outside of treatment and replaces them
with more positive thoughts for more positive outcomes.
Schema-Focused Therapy
However, schema therapy has been described by its
developer as “a truly integrative psychotherapy”.
Schema focused therapy is a form of
psychotherapy that combines aspects of cognitive
behavioral therapy, experiential therapy (such as
role-playing or acting, props, arts and crafts, music, animal
care, guided imagery, or various forms of recreation)
and interpersonal therapy ( time-limited, focused,
evidence-based approach to treat mood disorders).
Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT)
 Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT), also known simply as schema
therapy,
 Commonly referred to as a modified cognitive-behavioural
treatment
 Initially conceived of as a cognitive therapy for patients with
chronic depression and personality disorders, the theoretical
underpinning of schema therapy has evolved to incorporate
substantial developments in psychodynamic theory.
 As in psychodynamic object relations and attachment theories,
schema therapy emphasizes the internalization of early
relationships into cognitive-affective representations.
Conti..
 Schema therapy creator Dr. Jeff Young defined the term schema as
a “life trap” or a pattern of negative behaviors that an individual
repeats over and over again throughout their adult life. As Young
saw it, individuals that benefited the most from schema focused
therapy were those that displayed self-defeating thought patterns.
Cont..
Dr. Jeff Young had spent time working alongside Dr.
Aaron Beck, the creator of cognitive behavioral therapy,
when he created schema focused therapy. Through years
of clinical observation, Young identified 18 schemas or
attitudes that the average client tends to display. These
schemas include
List of Maladaptive Schemas
 Punitiveness – The idea that individuals need to be punished for
making mistakes.
 Mistrust – The preconceived notion that other individuals will hurt
or manipulate you.
 Failure – The belief that one will fail in virtually all endeavors.
 Entitlement – The belief that one is entitled to special privileges.
 Poor Self-Discipline or Self-Control – When a person has
difficulty achieving personal goals on their own.
 Approval Seeking – Always attempts to gain validation or attention
from others.
 Subjugation – Excessively surrenders control to others in an effort
to avoid conflict.
 Self-Sacrifice – Delays personal gratification in order to meet the
needs of others.
Cont..
 Vulnerability to Harm – Unjustifiable fear that you could be harmed at any given time.
 Defectiveness and Shame – The idea that one is unwanted or insignificant to others.
 Enmeshment – Excessive and unhealthy emotional involvement with other individuals.
 Dependence and Incompetence – The idea that one cannot satisfy their daily
responsibilities and needs others to help them complete simple tasks.
 Social Isolation and Alienation – A lack of a sense of belonging with other groups of
people.
 Abandonment – Feelings of a lack of emotional support and connection with those around
you.
 Emotional Deprivation – An individual’s desired level of emotional support cannot be met
by others.
 Negativity and Pessimism – Excessive focus on the negative aspects of one’s life.
 Emotional Inhibition – The inability to show feelings and communicate in a relaxed and
natural manner.
 Unrelenting Standards – The idea that one must meet unreachable goals in order to avoid
criticism from others.
Characteristics
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by
a predominance of certain maladaptive representations,
known as early maladaptive schemas. SFT seeks to
modify these schemas through the explicit use of
interventions from various therapy models, including
CBT, Gestalt, and Emotion-Focused Therapies.
Cont..
The schema approach draws equally from cognitive–
behavioral therapy, attachment theory, psychodynamic
concepts, and emotion-focused therapies. In comparison to
cognitive–behavioral therapy, schema therapy emphasizes
lifelong patterns, affective change techniques, and the
therapeutic relationship, with special emphasis on limited
reparenting.
Cont..
The initial results of a major comparative outcome study
have shown schema therapy to be effective with a high
percentage of outpatients with borderline personality
disorder, with a low dropout rate. Clients who have spent
years gaining valuable insight with psychodynamic
treatments, but who are frustrated by their lack of
progress, often respond well to the active, systematic,
flexible, and depth-oriented schema approach.
Cont..
Schema therapy is particularly well-suited for difficult,
resistant clients with entrenched, chronic psychological
disorders, including personality disorders (including
borderline personality disorder and narcissism) and eating
disorders, intractable couples problems, and criminal
offenders. It has also been found to be effective for relapse
prevention in depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.
What Can Schema-Focused Therapy Add to
Cognitive Therapy?
 The assessment process in SFT is more comprehensive. The therapist wants to
develop a good understanding of the origin of the maladaptive schema (early
interactions with significant others) and how the schema has expressed itself
throughout the patient’s life (the pattern of painful feelings, self-defeating choices
and unmet needs).
 There is a greater emphasis on understanding the origins of the maladaptive
schemas. This enables the client to see his life, especially his struggles and self-
defeating behavior, and how they are influenced him to avoid certain situations or
tasks that fulfill his basic desires. This kind of understanding can promote not only
self-compassion, but also increase motivation to change by appreciating the “price
one has paid”.
 Schema-Focused-Therapy spells out powerful change techniques to “heal
”maladaptive schemas. These techniques include working with painful memories
and images that are an intregral part of the schema. Evoking such memories can
be emotional for the client. However, it appears to be crucial to restructuring the
memory and help “heal” the schema.
For What Types of Clients or Problems Would
Schema-Focused-Therapy be Indicated?
 For clients who do not respond well to traditional cognitive therapy
or who seem to suffer frequent relapses of their problems.
 Clients who feel they have been entrenched in self-defeating
patterns and whose thinking is rigid and harsh (e.g. “this is the way I
am – I just am defective – no matter what I do, I’ll always be
unlovable”).
 Clients who seem to fall into the same relationship traps throughout
their life. Here there is almost always a maladaptive schema that
needs to be identified and changed.

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Schema focus therapy

  • 1. Schema focus therapy National UNIVERSITY For MODERN LANGUAGES ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN.  Advance Diploma in Clinical Psychology (Morning).  Subject; Internship  Presented by,  Umar Zada.  Abdur Rahim  Zartashia
  • 2. Schema The word schema comes from the Greek word (skhema) which mean shape or more generally plan. Definition: A drawing of thought that represent an idea or theory and make it easier to understand.
  • 3. Schemas  A pattern of thoughts or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationship among them.  Is a concept that informs us what to expect from a variety of experiences. They are base on information we have acquired by previous life experiences.  Developed during childhood or adolescence and elaborated throughout one's lifetime Library: I need to be quiet Fire: that’s hot
  • 4. Cont.… Schemas can be thought of as central and enduring themes in a person’s life. Schemas reflect deep, difficult to change views of ourselves, others, and the world. Schemas also refer to a broad organizing structure that significantly influences our moment-to-moment experiences. Schemas typically consist of thematically connected feeling states, thinking patterns, expectations, predispositions to believe and emotionally significant memories.
  • 5. Cont. Typical statements that you’ll hear from someone that have harmful and negative thinking patterns include “I’m worthless”, “I’m not good enough” or “No one loves me”. In order to effectively address and improve a client’s thinking patterns..
  • 6. Schemas are Useful. Schema is a cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information. Schema is useful because they allow us to take shortcuts in interpreting the vast amount of information that’s available in our environment. Schema is the structure behind data organization.
  • 7. How to identify The therapist identifies the client’s schemas or life traps through conversation or even questionnaires. The therapist helps the client become more aware of their schemas and learn how to recognize them in their everyday lives. The client becomes more involved in improving their thinking patterns outside of treatment and replaces them with more positive thoughts for more positive outcomes.
  • 8. Schema-Focused Therapy However, schema therapy has been described by its developer as “a truly integrative psychotherapy”. Schema focused therapy is a form of psychotherapy that combines aspects of cognitive behavioral therapy, experiential therapy (such as role-playing or acting, props, arts and crafts, music, animal care, guided imagery, or various forms of recreation) and interpersonal therapy ( time-limited, focused, evidence-based approach to treat mood disorders).
  • 9. Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT)  Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT), also known simply as schema therapy,  Commonly referred to as a modified cognitive-behavioural treatment  Initially conceived of as a cognitive therapy for patients with chronic depression and personality disorders, the theoretical underpinning of schema therapy has evolved to incorporate substantial developments in psychodynamic theory.  As in psychodynamic object relations and attachment theories, schema therapy emphasizes the internalization of early relationships into cognitive-affective representations.
  • 10. Conti..  Schema therapy creator Dr. Jeff Young defined the term schema as a “life trap” or a pattern of negative behaviors that an individual repeats over and over again throughout their adult life. As Young saw it, individuals that benefited the most from schema focused therapy were those that displayed self-defeating thought patterns.
  • 11. Cont.. Dr. Jeff Young had spent time working alongside Dr. Aaron Beck, the creator of cognitive behavioral therapy, when he created schema focused therapy. Through years of clinical observation, Young identified 18 schemas or attitudes that the average client tends to display. These schemas include
  • 12. List of Maladaptive Schemas  Punitiveness – The idea that individuals need to be punished for making mistakes.  Mistrust – The preconceived notion that other individuals will hurt or manipulate you.  Failure – The belief that one will fail in virtually all endeavors.  Entitlement – The belief that one is entitled to special privileges.  Poor Self-Discipline or Self-Control – When a person has difficulty achieving personal goals on their own.  Approval Seeking – Always attempts to gain validation or attention from others.  Subjugation – Excessively surrenders control to others in an effort to avoid conflict.  Self-Sacrifice – Delays personal gratification in order to meet the needs of others.
  • 13. Cont..  Vulnerability to Harm – Unjustifiable fear that you could be harmed at any given time.  Defectiveness and Shame – The idea that one is unwanted or insignificant to others.  Enmeshment – Excessive and unhealthy emotional involvement with other individuals.  Dependence and Incompetence – The idea that one cannot satisfy their daily responsibilities and needs others to help them complete simple tasks.  Social Isolation and Alienation – A lack of a sense of belonging with other groups of people.  Abandonment – Feelings of a lack of emotional support and connection with those around you.  Emotional Deprivation – An individual’s desired level of emotional support cannot be met by others.  Negativity and Pessimism – Excessive focus on the negative aspects of one’s life.  Emotional Inhibition – The inability to show feelings and communicate in a relaxed and natural manner.  Unrelenting Standards – The idea that one must meet unreachable goals in order to avoid criticism from others.
  • 14. Characteristics Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by a predominance of certain maladaptive representations, known as early maladaptive schemas. SFT seeks to modify these schemas through the explicit use of interventions from various therapy models, including CBT, Gestalt, and Emotion-Focused Therapies.
  • 15. Cont.. The schema approach draws equally from cognitive– behavioral therapy, attachment theory, psychodynamic concepts, and emotion-focused therapies. In comparison to cognitive–behavioral therapy, schema therapy emphasizes lifelong patterns, affective change techniques, and the therapeutic relationship, with special emphasis on limited reparenting.
  • 16. Cont.. The initial results of a major comparative outcome study have shown schema therapy to be effective with a high percentage of outpatients with borderline personality disorder, with a low dropout rate. Clients who have spent years gaining valuable insight with psychodynamic treatments, but who are frustrated by their lack of progress, often respond well to the active, systematic, flexible, and depth-oriented schema approach.
  • 17. Cont.. Schema therapy is particularly well-suited for difficult, resistant clients with entrenched, chronic psychological disorders, including personality disorders (including borderline personality disorder and narcissism) and eating disorders, intractable couples problems, and criminal offenders. It has also been found to be effective for relapse prevention in depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.
  • 18. What Can Schema-Focused Therapy Add to Cognitive Therapy?  The assessment process in SFT is more comprehensive. The therapist wants to develop a good understanding of the origin of the maladaptive schema (early interactions with significant others) and how the schema has expressed itself throughout the patient’s life (the pattern of painful feelings, self-defeating choices and unmet needs).  There is a greater emphasis on understanding the origins of the maladaptive schemas. This enables the client to see his life, especially his struggles and self- defeating behavior, and how they are influenced him to avoid certain situations or tasks that fulfill his basic desires. This kind of understanding can promote not only self-compassion, but also increase motivation to change by appreciating the “price one has paid”.  Schema-Focused-Therapy spells out powerful change techniques to “heal ”maladaptive schemas. These techniques include working with painful memories and images that are an intregral part of the schema. Evoking such memories can be emotional for the client. However, it appears to be crucial to restructuring the memory and help “heal” the schema.
  • 19. For What Types of Clients or Problems Would Schema-Focused-Therapy be Indicated?  For clients who do not respond well to traditional cognitive therapy or who seem to suffer frequent relapses of their problems.  Clients who feel they have been entrenched in self-defeating patterns and whose thinking is rigid and harsh (e.g. “this is the way I am – I just am defective – no matter what I do, I’ll always be unlovable”).  Clients who seem to fall into the same relationship traps throughout their life. Here there is almost always a maladaptive schema that needs to be identified and changed.