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Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow

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The site was excavated under licence no. 04E0712. It was divided into ten areas of excavation: Areas 1-6, Area 6W, Area 7, Area 10 and Area 12.The earliest evidence for human activity was an Early Neolithic radiocarbon date obtained from the fill of a ditch in Area 6. However, there is no evidence for associated Early Neolithic activity. Most of the archaeological features excavated at Ballynattin were Bronze Age. Bronze Age pits were found in Area 6W, there was a spread of Bronze Age material in Area 3 and three partial Bronze Age structures were found in Areas 6 and 7. These were truncated and approximately only one third of each structure survived for excavation. A furnace excavated in Area 2 may also be Bronze Age in date; it has no associated radiocarbon dates but a saddle quern and flints were found within the furnace fill. The remaining features excavated at the site were primarily post-medieval, including a hearth excavated in Area 4, drains and ditches (Areas 1, 4 and 5) and a 19th century cobbled surface (Area 5).

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Archaeological Report - IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 14 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report 04E0712 & 03E1692IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park, Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow Bronze Age pits, structures and a furnace
  2. 2. Archaeological Excavation Report,IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park,Ballynattin,Co. Wicklow March 2007Client: IDA Ireland, Property Division, Wilton Park House, Wilton Place, Dublin 2Planning Register No.: 03/8546Licence No.: 04E0712 & 03E1692Licensee: John Tierney Contact details:Written by: Bernice Kelly The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Bernadette Doherty Tel: 021 470 16 16 Penny Johnston Fax: 021 470 16 28 Antonia Doolan E-mail: info@eachtra.ie Web Site: www.eachtra.ie
  3. 3. Table of Contents1 Summary...........................................................................................................................12 Acknowledgements............................................................................................................13 Introduction......................................................................................................................14 Background to the Development Area...............................................................................25 Site Location, Topography and Soils .................................................................................26 Archaeological and Historical Background........................................................................37 Results of Excavation 04E0712..........................................................................................4 7.1 Area 1.........................................................................................................................4 7.2 Area 2.........................................................................................................................4 7.3 Area 3.........................................................................................................................5 7.4 Area 4.........................................................................................................................5 7.5 Area 5.........................................................................................................................6 7.6 Area 6.........................................................................................................................7 7.7 Area 6W....................................................................................................................10 . 7.8 Area 7........................................................................................................................12 7.9 Area 10. .....................................................................................................................16 . 7.10 Area 12.....................................................................................................................16 .8 Specialist Results..............................................................................................................18 8.1 Radiocarbon Dates.....................................................................................................18 8.2 Plant remains ............................................................................................................18 8.3 Pottery ......................................................................................................................18 8.4 Lithics........................................................................................................................189 Summary and Discussion of Excavation Results...............................................................1910 Conclusions......................................................................................................................2011 Bibliography.....................................................................................................................21 11.1 Websites.....................................................................................................................2112 Figures..............................................................................................................................2213 Plates................................................................................................................................4214 Appendices.......................................................................................................................51 14.1 Appendix 1: Context Register.....................................................................................52 14.2 Appendix 2: Stratigraphic Matrix...............................................................................88 14.3 Appendix 3: Finds Register.......................................................................................89 . iii
  4. 4. Table of contents cont. 14.4 Appendix 4: Plant remains from Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow 04E0712.........................92 14.5 Appendix 5: Pottery Report........................................................................................97 14.6 Lithics Finds Report for 03E1692 and 04E0712 Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow............... 101List of Figures Figure 1: Site location map....................................................................................................................22 . Figure 2: RMP version of 6-inch Ordnance Survey map with development location indicated (OS Map Sheet WI045)........................................................................................................................................23 . Figure 3: Development site with area locations..................................................................................... 24 Figure 4: Area 1 post-excavation plan ..................................................................................................25 Figure 5: Section through boundary ditch C.6 in Area 1.......................................................................26 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of Area 2 ...............................................................................................27 Figure 7: Post-excavation plan of Area 3 . ..............................................................................................28 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of Area 4................................................................................................29 Figure 9: Section through C.34, C.76, C.88 and C.89 in Area 5...........................................................30 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan of Area 6..............................................................................................31 . Figure 11: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 6 excavated under licence no. 03E1692...................32 Figure 12: Post-excavation plan of Area 6W..........................................................................................33 . Figure 13: Western part of Area 6W (post-excavation)...........................................................................34 Figure 14: Eastern part of Area 6W (post-excavation)............................................................................35 Figure 15: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 6W excavated under licence no. 03E1692...............36 Figure 16: Post-excavation plan of Area 7..............................................................................................37 . Figure 17: Post-excavation plan of Structure B in Area 7........................................................................38 Figure 18: Post-excavation plan of Structure C in Area 7.......................................................................39 Figure 19: Post-excavation plan of contexts found to the north of Structure C in Area 7...................... 40 Figure 20: Post-excavation plan of contexts in Area 12 excavated under licence no. 03E1692................41List of Plates Plate 1: Post-excavation shot of Area 2.................................................................................................. 42 Plate 2: Pre-excavation shot of Area 2................................................................................................... 42 . Plate 3: Section through the spread excavated in Area 3.........................................................................43 Plate 4: Post-excavation shot of Area 4...................................................................................................43 Plate 5: Section through the ditch in Area 5......................................................................................... 44 Plate 6: Pre-excavation shot of Area 5................................................................................................... 44 . Plate 7: General post-excavation shot of Area 6......................................................................................45 iv
  5. 5. List of plates contents cont. Plate 8: Post-excavation shot of Structure A Area 6................................................................................45 Plate 9: Post-excavation of pit C.74 in Area 6W.................................................................................... 46 Plate 10: Post-excavation of pit C.72 in Area 6W.................................................................................. 46 Plate 11: Pre-excavation of pit C.64 in Area 6W....................................................................................47 Plate 12: Footing trenches in Structure B Area 7...................................................................................47 . Plate 13: Post-excavation shot of Structure B Area 7..............................................................................48 Plate 14: Pre-excavation shot of Structure C Area 7...............................................................................48 Plate 15: Footing trenches in Structure C Area 7...................................................................................49 Plate 16: Post-excavation shot of Structure C Area 7..............................................................................49 Plate 17: Pottery from the footing trench of Structure C Area 7.............................................................50 Plate 18: Post-excavation shot of pits C.363 and C.335 Area 7...............................................................50Copyright Notice: Please note that all original information contained within this report, includingall original drawings, photographs, text and all other printed matter deemed to be the writer’s,remains the property of the writer and Eachtra Archaeological Projects and so may not be reproducedor used in any form without the written consent of the writer or Eachtra Archaeological Projects. v
  6. 6. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 1 Summary Townland Ballynattin Civil Parish Arklow Barony Arklow County Wicklow Licence no. 04E0712 and 03E1692 OS Map Sheet WI045 Nation Grid Ref. 323320 171140 Elevation 32 m to 59 m OD Site type(s) Three prehistoric round houses, a furnace, isolated hearth with stake-holes, post-medieval ditches 2 Acknowledgements The licence holder was John Tierney and the fieldwork crew included Áine Richardson, Antonia Doo- lan, Dawn Gooney, Tina Murphy, Bernadette Doherty, Bernice Kelly, Fiacc Murphy, Frank Fitzger- ald, Áine Mawe, Kevin Stronach, Mairt Hanley, Carles Plana, Seamas, Ruadhan and Carol Power. Specialists included Mary Dillon, Farina Sternke, Helen Roche, Eoin Grogan and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast. Report writing by Bernadette Doherty, Bernice Kelly, Antonia Doolan and Penny Johnston. 3 Introduction This report details the results of archaeological excavation at Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow. The site, within a 21.83 hectare Industrial Development Agency (IDA) Business and Technology Park, was located at National Grid Reference 323320 171140 at an elevation of between 32 m OD and 59 m OD in an area covered by OS 6” map Sheet WI045 (Figures 1-3). Excavation was carried out in advance of development which included the construction of roadways, services infrastructure and landscaping covering at the Business & Technology Park. Archaeological testing, followed by small scale excava- tion, was carried out at the site in November 2003 under licence number 03E1692 (licence holder was John Tierney). Subsequent excavations were conducted over a seven week period which commenced on the 4 May 2004. These excavations were also directed by John Tierney under licence number 04E0712. This report pertains to the results from both licences.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 1
  7. 7. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 4 Background to the Development Area Four earlier phases of archaeological investigation occurred at the site;  Geophysical (magnetometer) Survey: this was carried out by ArchaeoPhysica, under licence number 03R0140.  Archaeological Test Excavation: pre-development archaeological test excavations were executed by John Tierney of Eachtra Archaeological Projects, in November 2003 under licence number 03E1692. The results of this testing yielded a total of five areas which subsequently required excavation (Tierney and Doolan 2004a).  Archaeological Excavation: phase 3 of archaeological works involved the excavation of a fulacht fiadh and associated features licence 03E1692 A report on these findings was submitted to the Planning and Licensing section of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in January 2004. The excavation report advised, as a mitigating meas- ure, that ‘all future groundworks for this development should be monitored by a qualified ar- chaeologist’ (Tierney and Doolan 2004b).  Archaeological Monitoring: archaeological monitoring took place over the course of seven days in April 2004. Potential prehistoric archaeological activity was identified at eight locations within Areas 1-7 and Area 10 (Kelly and Tierney 2004). Archaeological excavation began as a consequence of discoveries made during archaeological monitor- ing. This was carried out under licence 04E0712 and works commenced on the 4th of May 2004. In the course of these works, Eachtra Archaeological Projects were required to monitor topsoil removal at two further locations within the site. At one location, Area 11, potential archaeological sediments were acknowledged and the area was cordoned off until further investigations could be carried out. Archaeological features were encountered to the west of Area 6, and this location was identified as Area 6 West. A total of ten archaeological zones were investigated within the bounds of the development over a 7-week period. Interim results were presented in Kelly and Doherty (2004). This final report integrates the results from archaeological works carried out under excavation licences 03E1692 and 04E0712. 5 Site Location, Topography and Soils The site is situated in the townland of Ballynattin, west of the N11 and to the south-east of Arklow town, a coastal town situated at the mouth of the River Avoca in south Co. Wicklow. Ballynattin is located in the Barony of Arklow and within Arklow Civil Parish. Ballynattin House, an eighteenth/ nineteenth century farmhouse that is now used as offices, is located along the south-western boundary of the site. The Arklow Bypass curves around the eastern and north-eastern extremities of the site. The Arklow Business Park lies to the west of this new Business and Technology Park development. The surrounding landscape consists of low-lying, gently undulating ground. The site elevation slopes from south-west to north-east, from 59 m OD to 32 m OD. The area is drained by an extensive network of small streams. A culvert occurs within the area of the development; it serves to transporthttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 2
  8. 8. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 storm-water under the adjacent N11 Arklow bypass, eventually emptying into the Ballyduff stream to the north-west. In turn, Ballyduff stream joins the Avoca River at Glenart. The soils in the development area consist of a mixture of greys (90%) and grey brown podzolics (10%) which are derived from dense, calcareous, marine muds which were removed from the Irish sea and deposited inland by ice. These soils have a limited range and are best used in grass production. Prior to development, the site comprised agricultural (pasture) fields. The field boundaries were composed of hedgerows and/or timber post-and-wire fencing. 6 Archaeological and Historical Background Several archaeological sites have been found in the townland of Ballynattin and in the surrounding area. Topsoil removal along the route of the Arklow bypass, located to the east of the IDA Business Park, was monitored under excavation licence 97E0083 by Breandán Ó Riordáin for Valerie J. Keeley Ltd. (www.excavations.ie). Three sites were found. Site 1 consisted of a small area of dark, charcoal-like material. Site 2 was a deposit of charcoal associated with a scatter of cremated bone. Site 3, a flat cemetery, consisted of three pits and a linear spread. In excess of fifty sherds of Beaker and food vessel pottery and over thirty flakes of flint, half of which were worked, were found within these pits. Other sites excavated along the route of the road included a possible Bronze Age enclosure in Johnstown South (96E0196) by Martin Fitzpatrick (www.excavations.ie). Pottery from the enclosure was similar to sherds retrieved at Ballynattin (Appendix 5) and the site was located 5.4 km to the north-west of the IDA Business Park. Within the townland of Ballynattin a burnt mound was discovered approximately 100 m to the east of the IDA Business Park (National Grid co-ordinate 3231151 1716131). The site was excavated by Anne Connolly under licence number 97E0128 (www.excavations.ie) and it comprised a number of small burnt spreads of heat-affected stone and charcoal and an associated wooden surface. Dendrochronological analysis of some of the wood from the surface indicated a felling date in late 856 or early 855 BC. Sarah McCutcheon monitored ground-works for construction of a short roadway (130 m in length) which provided access to Euroconex Technologies. Monitoring was carried out under licence 98E0257 issued by the DoEHLG (formerly Dúchas) and the archaeological contexts found were subsequently excavated by Eamonn Cotter under the same licence (Cotter 2000, 220). The largest site was a rectan- gular enclosure measuring 14 m X 8 m with a 1.35 m wide entrance on its southern side. The enclosure was interpreted as a livestock corral, or some similar non-domestic compound. A report on these find- ings was submitted to the DoEHLG (formerly Dúchas) and Wicklow County Council in July 1998. Radiocarbon dates for this feature confirmed it to have been a medieval structure dating to between 1430 AD and 1530 AD (Eamonn Cotter pers. comm.). Excavation undertaken by Eachtra in December 2003 at the proposed development produced evidence for ephemeral occupation sites along the route of the Haul Road. These features comprised rubbishhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 3
  9. 9. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 pits, some of which contained fire waste, and posts and stakes, which may have comprised fences or a wind-break structure. Based on morphology, artefact typology and radiocarbon dating the majority of the sites are prehistoric. Spreads of heat-shattered stones were discovered within the environs of the proposed new Vitra Tiles factory, which was located to the west of the development site and a fulacht fiadh trough was recorded along the western boundary of the development. The report on these find- ings was submitted to the Planning and Licensing section of the Department of Environment, Herit- age and Local Government (DoEHLG) in January 2004 (Tierney et al. 2004). 7 Results of Excavation 04E0712 The site was excavated under licence no. 04E0712. It was divided into ten areas of excavation: Areas 1-6, Area 6W, Area 7, Area 10 and Area 12.The earliest evidence for human activity was an Early Neo- lithic radiocarbon date obtained from the fill of a ditch in Area 6. However, there is no evidence for associated Early Neolithic activity. Most of the archaeological features excavated at Ballynattin were Bronze Age. Bronze Age pits were found in Area 6W, there was a spread of Bronze Age material in Area 3 and three partial Bronze Age structures were found in Areas 6 and 7. These were truncated and approximately only one third of each structure survived for excavation. A furnace excavated in Area 2 may also be Bronze Age in date; it has no associated radiocarbon dates but a saddle quern and flints were found within the furnace fill. The remaining features excavated at the site were primarily post- medieval, including a hearth excavated in Area 4, drains and ditches (Areas 1, 4 and 5) and a 19th cen- tury cobbled surface (Area 5). Details of the excavated contexts are found in the stratigraphic matrix (Appendix 1) and the context register (Appendix 2) while all the artefacts retrieved during excavation are catalogued in the finds register (Appendix 3). 7.1 Area 1 Area 1 was located at the southern extents of the Spur Road, at National Grid Co-ordinate (NGC) 3229911 1713265 (see Figure 3). A number of potential archaeological features were identified within an area of excavation which measured 5 m X 5 m. Excavation indicated that the majority of the poten- tial features were not archaeological in nature, but were the result of root action and rabbit burrowing. The only archaeological remains consisted of a post-medieval ditch, C.6, (Figure 4) which was filled by two deposits of light grey brown silts, C.4 and C.5. The ditch was aligned north to south (Figures 4 and 5) and it may originally have been constructed to assist drainage in the area, or as part of a field boundary. 7.2 Area 2 This area was situated along the eastern boundary of the Spur Road, to the north-east of Area 1 at NGC 3230160 1713550 (Figure 3). Two features were excavated within a 5 m X 4 m grid; a furnace, (C.110) and a furrow (C.97) (Figure 6, Plates 1 and 2). 7.2.1 The furnace The furnace bowl was sub-circular in plan and approximately 0.9 m in diameter. It was truncated byhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 4
  10. 10. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 a plough furrow (C.97) and its exact shape-in-plan and dimensions were difficult to determine. How- ever, there appeared to be a flue that extended from the bowl towards the north-east. This possible flue was c. 1.8 m long and it was c. 0.3 m wide at the bowl, splaying to a width of c. 0.8 m at the north-east (Figure 6). The furnace bowl contained three fills; C.107, C.99 and C.98. The primary fill (C.107) was brown sand with frequent charcoal inclusions. It was sealed by a deposit of reddish brown silty sand (C.99). This deposit was scorched, indicating in situ burning. It was overlain by a deposit of mid-brown sand (C.98) with some charcoal inclusions. This was the uppermost fill of the furnace. Plant remains from the furnace produced very small amounts of cereal grain that could not be identified to type. 7.2.2 The furrow A plough furrow (C.97) truncated the furnace, clipping the bowl of the furnace at the north-east and removing some of the flue. The furrow was aligned roughly north to south and its width ranged from 0.2 m to 0.4 m. Only c.4.6 m of its length was excavated and it extended beyond both the northern and southern limits of the excavation. 7.3 Area 3 Area 3 was located on the Spur Road to the north-east of Area 2 at NGC 3230610 1714650 (see Figure 3). A series of four deposits (C.20, C.21, C.31 and C.42) was found underlying a sub-circular spread (C.25) within an area measuring 5 m X 4 m (Figure 7, Plate 3). The spread, C.25, was 1.4 m in diam- eter and 0.37 m deep. It resembled re-deposited subsoil but it contained over forty individual pieces of flint. The remaining deposits (C.20, C.21, C.31 and C.42) measured on average 1.6 m long, 1.1 m wide and 0.26 m deep. There was no evidence for in situ burning. As no definitive cut was found it was concluded that this was a dump of burnt deposits within a natural hollow. Charcoal from C.42 was radiocarbon dated to the Early Bronze Age; cal BC 1970-1820 (UB7199). The flint artefacts from the site included an end scraper (04E0712:25:19) and two flakes (04E0712:21:1 & 2) produced using bipolar technology, all indicative of Bronze Age activity (Appendix 6). 7.4 Area 4 Area 4 was located to the south-west of Area 1, along the north-eastern boundary of the newly con- structed Haul Road at NGC 3229528 1713035 (Figure 3). The archaeology in this area comprised a hearth (C.91), two associated stakeholes (C.87 and C.92), two drains (C.90 and C.108), a plough furrow (C.101) and a pit (C.102) were found within an area of 5 m X 5 m (Figure 8, Plate 4). The two drains cut the furrow and the pit. All of these features, including the hearth, were the result of post- medieval activity in the area. 7.4.1 The hearth The hearth (C.91) was roughly circular in plan, it measured c. 0.6 m in diameter and it was 0.1 m deep. It contained one fill (C.82) a compact, mid orange-red sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks and frequent inclusions of manganese. A sample from the deposit within the hearth contained many grainshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 5
  11. 11. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 of oats and a small quantity of rye (Appendix 4). The oats were radiocarbon dated to cal AD 1730- 1800 (UB7200), indicating post-medieval activity. 7.4.2 The stake-holes There were two stake-holes (C.87 and C.92) situated 0.25 m south and south-west of the hearth (C.91). Both of these were circular in plan with vertical sides and on average they measured c. 0.17 m in di- ameter and were 0.15 m deep. Both stake-holes were filled by mid-brown clay-like deposits that had charcoal inclusions. Grains of emmer wheat were recovered from the fill of C.87 (Appendix 4). These features may be the remains of a screen sheltering the hearth, but are more likely to be remains of a spit owing to their close proximity to the fire. 7.4.3 The drains Two drains (C.90 and C.108) traversed the area of excavation in Area 4. The drain C.90 was aligned roughly north to south and it was exposed for approximately 6 m. It extended beyond the limit of the excavation. A trial section through the drain revealed that it had two fills (C.86 and C.106) and that one of these (C.106) had frequent inclusions of charcoal and burnt clay which may have been discarded from the hearth, located just 1.7 m to the east. The other drain (C.108) was aligned roughly east to west. It was exposed within the area of excavation for 4.1 m but it extended beyond the edge of the cutting at both its eastern and western extents. It contained one fill of grey silt (C.109). 7.4.4 The plough furrow A plough furrow (C.101) ran roughly north to south, and it was c. 3.8 m long and 0.34 m wide and only 0.12 m deep. It contained a single fill (C.100), a light grey sandy silt and it was truncated by two drains (C.90 and C.108). 7.4.5 The pit A pit (C102) was located near the south-western limit of the excavation. It was sub-rectangular in plan, measuring 1.2 m long by 0.75 m wide and 0.2 m deep. It contained three fills of grey clays (C.103, C.104 and C.105). All of these features were interpreted as the result of post-medieval or modern activity. The date from the hearth (C.91) confirms this. There were no artefacts retrieved from this area of excavation. 7.5 Area 5 Area 5 was located to the north-west of Area 4, along the eastern boundary of the Haul Road at NGC 3229010 1713520 (Figure 3). The excavation revealed two drainage ditches (C.37 and C.76) and a portion of a cobbled surface (C.34) which overlay another ditch (C.89) (Figure 9, Plates 5 and 6). All the features were post-medieval or modern in date and they were found within a 10 m east to west by a 5 m north to south grid.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 6
  12. 12. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 7.5.1 The cobbled surface A portion of a cobbled surface (C.34), measuring 7.9 m east to west by 3.35 m north to south, was revealed along the south-western extents of the excavation cutting, terminating abruptly at the eastern edge of excavation. The cobbling directly overlay a ditch (C.89) and extended marginally beyond the ditch edge to the north. Red earthenware pottery was found directly underneath the cobbled surface and therefore indicated that the cobbling was laid in the 19th century. 7.5.2 The ditches A ditch (C.89) underlay the area of cobbling near the southern edge of the excavation. It was exposed for a length of 5.2 m but it extended beyond the limit of excavation. The ditch was c. 1.5 m wide and 0.5 m deep. It contained one fill (C.88), a brown clay which contained no artefacts. The remaining features within this area included a series of post-medieval or modern ditches associated with the drainage of the terrain. These included parallel ditches (C.37 and C.76) which were aligned north to south. The ditch C.37 was exposed for a length of 6 m and it was 2.8 m wide and 0.37 m deep. It contained one fill (C.36) which resembled topsoil but contained a Bronze Age retouched flint scraper (04E0712:36:1). As this flint came from topsoil that was used to fill the ditch it was probably re-deposited after disturbance of Bronze Age activity (excavations at Areas 2, 3, 6, 6W and 7 all pro- duced evidence of Bronze Age archaeology). 7.6 Area 6 This area was situated 20 m to the south of Area 5, at NGC 322899 171335 on the south-western ex- tents of the Haul Road (Figure 3). An area of excavation measuring 16 m by 7 m was opened in order to resolve features discovered during archaeological monitoring. The principal features found included the remains of a building (Structure A) which included a footing trench (C.39), a post-hole (C.50) and a stake-hole (C.48). Pits (C.30 and C.56) and two irregularly-shaped linear features (C.41 and C.46) were also found within the area of excavation (Figure 10, Plate 7). 7.6.1 The early pit Potentially the earliest feature on site, this pit (C.56) was truncated by later archaeological features including the slot trench of Structure A. The pit was oval in shape and contained two fills (C.54 and C.55). The basal fill, C.54, was a soft, dark brown, sandy clay and it overlay C.55, which was a firm, yellow grey, sandy clay. 7.6.2 Structure A The remains of Structure A comprised a curvilinear footing trench and a post-hole and stake-hole that were found within the area surrounded by the arc. It is likely that this footing trench was originally part of a circular structure with a possible external diameter of 9.5 m. This suggests that approximately only a third of the original footing trench survived. The terminus of the footing trench at the east mayhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 7
  13. 13. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 represent the entrance to the structure. No post-holes or stake-holes were recorded within the footing trench cut, suggesting the building was of split-timber construction. The internal post-hole and stake- hole may represent internal sub-division of the building. 7.6.2.1 The footing trench The footing trench (C.39) was curvilinear in plan and probably represented the truncated remains of a round structure. It was not possible to trace the entire arc of the original building but the surviving trench measured 10 m in length along its inner or northern circumference and 10.6 m along its outer, southern circumference. It varied in width from 0.2 m, where the cut petered out at the west, to 0.42 m where the terminus of the trench occurred to the east. The base of the trench varied in width from 0.06 m to 0.14 m. The depth of the footing trench was 0.25 m on average (Plate 8). The break of slope at the top of the cut was generally sharp and the base was flat, sloping gently to the east and north in accordance with the natural undulation of the ground. An early pit (C.56) was truncated by the trench to the east, while the trench itself was truncated by a plough furrow (C.26). The footing trench contained three fills; C.32, C.33 and C.38. The basal fill (C.38) was compact, grey- ish yellow, sandy silt, found only in the eastern portion of the trench. It extended for a length of 8.2 m and it was 0.23 m wide and 0.06 m deep. The middle fill of the footing trench (C.33) overlay C.38 and underlay another fill (C.32). The deposit C.33 was 2.4 m long, 0.32 m wide and 0.09 m deep. It comprised firm, light yellow grey, sandy silt with occasional charcoal flecks and quartz stones. A flint blade (04E0712:33:1) and flint flake (04E0712:33:2) were also recovered from C.33. The flake was comparatively large and was possibly brought in from a region to the north were flint is more abun- dant and the general nodule size is larger (Appendix 6). The uppermost fill (C.32) extended across the length of the trench. It comprised a mid yellow brown, sandy silt with occasional flecks of charcoal. The charcoal was radiocarbon dated and produced a Middle Bronze Age date of cal BC 1445-1304 (UB7196). This was the only fill within the western 1.5 m of the trench. Sherds of Late Bronze Age coarse vessels were found in the deposits C.32 and C.38 (04E0712:32:1-9 and 04E0712:38:1-10). Two vessels were identified and sherds from both vessels were found in both deposits. There was carbonised matter on areas of the interior surface of the pottery vessels, suggesting residue from domestic use such as cooking (Appendix 5). 7.6.2.2 Associated features A post-hole (C.50) and a stake-hole (C.48) were the only associated features within the interior arc of the footing trench. The stake-hole (C.48) was located 2 m north of the footing trench (C.39). It was oval in shape and its fill (C.47), comprised a mid brown, silty sand. A post-hole (C.50) was located 0.9 m to the west of the stake-hole. This post-hole (C.50) was sub-circular in plan and its fill was compa- rable to that of the stake-hole C.47. 7.6.3 Irregular linear features Two irregularly-shaped linear features (C.41 and C.46) were excavated to the south of Structure A. These were interpreted as possible hedging or garden features.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 8
  14. 14. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 The cut C.46 was aligned east-west and was located just 0.7 m south of the footing trench of Structure A. It was 4 m long, 0.8 m wide and 0.4 m deep. It contained three fills; C.53, C.44 and C.45. The basal fill was C.45, it was overlain by C.44, which in turn was overlain by C.53. These were all silty clays with some charcoal inclusions. The cut C.41 was similar in shape and size to the other irregular linear feature (C.46), being 4 m long, 0.8 m wide and 0.63 m deep. It was oriented north-south, perpendicular to C.46, and it had a distinc- tive V-shaped base. This cut contained a basal fill (C.40) and an upper fill (C.22). Charcoal from the upper fill was radiocarbon dated (UB7195) to cal BC 3693-3524, an Early Neolithic date. However there is no evidence for associated Early Neolithic activity and the charcoal dated from the fill of this large feature may have been residual. 7.6.4 Large pit A large pit (C.30) was located within the western portion of Area 6. This feature was oval in shape with a gradual break of slope both at the top and base of the pit and with gently sloping sides. It contained four fills (C.27, C.28, C.29 and C.43). The basal fill, C.43, comprised a light grey, sandy clay. It was overlain by C.29, a mottled yellow, brown and grey, sandy clay with occasional inclusions of charcoal, which in turn was overlain by the most substantial fill in the pit (C.28) a mottled brown, sandy clay, containing moderate flecks of charcoal. The uppermost fill (C.27) was a small spread of dark orange brown, sandy clay with frequent charcoal inclusions. 7.6.5 Group of pits and stake-holes A group of pits and stake-holes, were excavated to the north-west of the main archaeological features at Area 6, on the route of the Haul Road (Figure 3). These were initially found during archaeological testing and were excavated under an extension to the testing licence (03E1692). Eight pits (C.48, C.54, C.56, C.57, C.58, C.62, C.67, C.69), three stakeholes (C.64, C.72, and C.74), one ditch (C.51) and a spread (C.52) were excavated within an area of excavation that measured 7 m by 5 m (Figure 11). The three stake-holes form a possible wind-break near the southern part of the excavated area. They measured, on average, 0.26 m in length, 0.21 m in width and 0.22 m in depth. It is possible that it provided shelter for the activity at the pits, further to the north. The function of the pits is unknown. Most of the fills appear to have been heated or burnt but there is no evidence for in situ burning and this appears to have been re-deposited waste from a hearth (un- excavated and not located during this work). Their average dimensions were 0.64 m long, 0.44 m wide and 0.17 m deep. The ditch (C.51) may be related to a ditch un-covered during archaeological testing (Feature 12: Tierney and Doolan 2004a). The ditch contained pieces of flint (03E1692:12-16) that may have been worked. These may have been disturbed when the ditch was dug and re-deposited within its fill as it gradually silted up. The ditch was probably originally dug as a drain and the ditch filled with waterhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 9
  15. 15. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 soon after excavation. It is possible that this ditch is similar to the enclosing ditch excavated by Ea- monn Cotter under excavation licence number 98E0257, which measured c. 14 m east-northeast to west-southwest by 8 m and also contained pieces of worked flint. The archaeological features discovered in this part of the site and excavated under licence 03E1692 were probably associated with the Bronze Age activity excavated in the rest of Area 6. 7.7 Area 6W This area was situated 20 m west of Area 6, at NGC 3228559 1713830 to the south-east of the con- verging point of the Main Access Road and Haul Road. Four circular or oval pits (C.72, C.59, C.64 and C.75), three large, irregularly-shaped pits (C.61, C.74 & C.81) and one small pit/ post-hole (C.79) were found within the area of excavation. Four of the pits (C.72, C.59, C.64 and C.75) were regular in shape and contained some charcoal-rich deposits and they were initially interpreted as cremation burials. However, no cremated bone was recovered from these pits during post-excavation analysis and sieving of soil samples. 7.7.1 The pits The eastern-most pit was C.74 (Figures 12 and 14), a large pit irregular pit, oval in shape and 2.45 m long, 1.45 m wide and 0.55 m deep (Plate 9). Two fills were recorded, with a basal fill (C.67) and an upper fill (C.66). Both deposits were brown clayey silts with occasional charcoal flecks. Situated 5.5 m to the south was a smaller circular pit (C.72) which measured c. 0.5 m in diameter and 0.14 m deep with a flat base (Figure 14, Plate 10). It contained a primary fill (C.71) of blackish brown clayey silt with charcoal inclusions. This was overlain by the secondary fill, C.70, a greyish brown, silty sand. This may have been the remains of a grave marker. C.72 was situated 5.1 m east of another pit (C.59). The third pit, C.59, was located between the pit C.72, which occurred to its east, and another pit C.64, situated to the west (Figure 14). It was oval in shape with uneven sides and base. It measure 0.7 m in length, 0.4 m in width and 0.23 m in depth and it contained 3 fills (C.58, C.68 and C.69). The basal fill was C.69, a brown, silty clay with occasional charcoal flecks. Concentrated at the western side of the cut, the deposit C.68, a friable light yellowish brown, silty clay, was interpreted as a spread of re- deposited subsoil. The uppermost fill, C.58, was black silty clay with frequent flecks of charcoal. The fourth pit, C.64, was found to the west of pit C.59 (Figure 14). Circular in shape, it measured c. 0.5 m in diameter and it was 0.13 m deep (Plate 11). It had smooth sides and a rounded base. The basal fill was C.63, a dark brown, silty clay with moderate inclusions of charcoal. It was overlain by the deposit C.62, a brown sandy silt. A large and irregular fifth pit, C.61, was located immediately west of pit C.64 (Figure 14). The pithttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 10
  16. 16. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 C.61 measured 1.46 m in length by 0.9 m in width and 0.3 m in depth. It contained a fill (C.60) of soft reddish brown, sandy clay with occasional charcoal inclusions. A sixth pit, C.75, was situated 18 m to the west of C.64 (Figures 12 and 13). It was oval in shape, 0.7 m east-west, 0.44 m north to south and 0.18 m deep. The sides sloped smoothly and the base was rounded. Two fills occurred within the cut (C.73 and C.77). Three heat-shattered stones were located towards the base of the pit in basal fill C.77. The upper fill, C.73 had frequent charcoal inclusions and artefacts from this deposit included worked flint (04E0712:73:8-1), three pieces of which are typical from Bronze Age assemblages (Appendix 6), and sherds from a vessel of Late Bronze Age coarse ware (04E0712:73:1-7). The seventh pit, C.81, was situated to the west of C. 75 (Figure 13). It was semi-circular in shape with rounded corners. It was 2.2 m long, 1 m wide and 0.4 m deep and it contained one fill (C.80), a com- pact mid reddish brown, sandy clay with occasional charcoal flecks. 7.7.2 Post-hole A small pit or post-hole (C.79) occurred 0.75 m to the north of C.81 (Figure 13). It was 0.4 m long, 0.25 m wide and 0.17 m deep and it contained one fill of compact orange-brown sandy clay (C.78). 7.7.3 Group of stake-holes, pits and post-holes A group of stake-holes, pits and post-holes were excavated to the north-west of the main archaeologi- cal features at Area 6W, on the route of the Haul Road (Figure 3). These were initially found during archaeological testing and were excavated under an extension to the testing licence (03E1692). Two slot trenches (C.33 and C.35), three pits (C.13, C.18 and C.44), nine stake-holes (C.6, C.7, C.9, C.20, C.26, C.28, C.37, C.39 and C.42) and two possible post-holes (C.23 and C.32) were excavated within a 5 m by 4 m grid (Figure 15). The posts and stakes may have comprised two fences, or perhaps the corner of a structure. One line of stakes was orientated north-east to south-west, (C.23, C.20, C.26 and C.35). The other line, running north-north-west to south-south-east includes stake-holes C.42, C.29, C.37, C.39 and C.6. On aver- age the stake-holes measured 0.17 m long by 0.13 m wide and 0.08 m deep. The post-holes measured (on average) 0.25 m long, 0.22 m wide and 0.18 m deep, and were only slightly larger than the stake- holes. At the ‘corner’ where these fences meet there is a pit (C.13), although this may also have been a posthole that was dug out after use and backfilled. It is possible that it was originally part of the fence or structure line. A slot trench C.33 runs parallel to this line of stakes and may have been associated with it. The pits (C.13, C.18 and C.44) all contained similar, pinkish brown clayey silt with flecks of charcoal, possibly re-deposited fire waste. There was no evidence for in situ burning. The pits, on average, meas- ured 0.48 m in length, 0.36 m in width and 0.17 m in depth.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 11
  17. 17. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 It is likely that these remains represent domestic occupation. Flints were recovered from the area (03E1692: 1-3) and these suggest a prehistoric date for this site. In all likelihood these archaeological remains excavated under licence no. 03E1692. 7.8 Area 7 Area 7 was located to the south-west of Area 4, on the western side of a segment of the Haul Road (Road A) at NGC 322899 171242 (Figure 3). The archaeological features in this area comprised two structures (Structure B and Structure C), as well as two pits, various post-holes and stake-holes and a ditch (Figure 16). They were found within an area of excavation that measured 80 m X 15 m. 7.8.1 Structure B Structure B was located along the south-western extent of Area 7 (Figures 16 and 17). It was circular and comprised nine post-holes (three of which were internal post-holes), thirty-six stake-holes and two gullies (Plate 12). The full extent of the structure was not uncovered as some of it continued beyond the south-western periphery of the area of excavation: only c. forty percent of the structure was excavated under this licence (Plate 13). The projected overall diameter of Structure B was approximately 7.2 m. Radiocarbon dates, pottery and flint artefacts all indicate that the structures were in use in the Bronze Age, with the concentration of dating evidence, both from radiocarbon dates and pottery, indicate a span of activity from the Middle to the Later Bronze Age (1500 BC-400 AD). 7.8.1.1 Structure B post-holes Six post-holes (C.137, C.146, C.148, C.152, C.220 and C.240) made up the excavated portion of the wall that defined Structure B. These were relatively evenly spaced, on average around 1.54 m apart, and arranged in an arc. A circular post-hole C.137 measured 0.28 m in diameter and it was 0.14 m deep. It contained a single fill, C.136, of loosely compacted mid yellowish brown, silty sand with charcoal inclusions and one packing stone. The charcoal from C.136 was radiocarbon dated (UB7198) to cal BC 1130-980, a Mid- dle to Late Bronze Age date. One fragment of Late Bronze Age pottery, too small to assign to a vessel, was recovered from C.136. A circular post-hole cut (C.146) was situated 1.66 m west to south-west of post-hole C.137. It con- tained a fill, C.142, of soft, dark brown, sandy silt with occasional charcoal flecks. It was 0.35 m in diameter and 0.2 m deep with one fill (C.143) a yellowish brown, silty clay. A sub-circular post-hole (C.148) measured 0.27 m long, 0.21 m wide and 0.21 m deep. It was situated 1.71 m to the east of posthole C.137. The basal fill, was a loose, yellowish brown, silty sand. It was overlain by C.147, composed of loosely compacted, mid yellowish brown, silty sand which contained five packing stones.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 12
  18. 18. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 The circular post-hole C.152 was situated 1.7 m south-west of C.146. It measured 0.25m in diameter and 0.15 m deep and it was filled by C.151, a soft, dark brown, sandy silt with occasional pebbles. An oval post-hole, C.220 measured 0.4 m in length, 0.28 m in width and 0.18 m in depth and it was filled with a deposit (C.219) of loosely compacted, yellowish brown, silty sand. This posthole was situ- ated 1.2 m south of post-hole C.240. The sixth post-hole in Structure B was C.240. It was oval in plan, it measured 0.4 m long, 0.3 m wide and 0.3 m deep and it was filled by a deposit (C.239) of loosely compacted, yellowish brown, silty sand. The post-hole C.240 was situated 1.4 m south of C.152 and 1.2 m north of C.220. 7.8.1.2 Structure B gullies Surrounding the north and north-western parts of the structure there were two separate trenches (C.122 and C.127). When combined, it is evident that these had the same function and both cuts contained similar fills. They formed an arc with an outer perimeter of 3.9 m. They were located c. 0.6 m from the arc of post-holes that defined the wall of Structure B, to the north and the north-west and they probably originally acted as gullies and held run-off water that came from the roof of the struc- ture. This suggests that the roof extended beyond the wall of the structure for approximately 0.5 m, creating a significant overhang. The gully C.122 was located c. 0.7 m north of post-hole C.146. The cut was sub-rectangular in plan, 1.53 m long, 0.4 m wide and 0.05 m deep, and aligned east-west. The basal fill, C.124, was a de- posit of sub-angular pebbles within silty sand. It was overlain by the upper deposit C.121, a brown, clayey sand with moderate charcoal inclusions. Sherds of one vessel of Late Bronze Age coarse ware (04E0712:121:1-7), were recovered from C.121. The second trench (C.127) was located 0.7 m to the west of C.122. The trench C.127 was 1.6 m long, 0.44 m wide and 0.12 m deep and the cut contained two fills (C.125 and C.126) which were similar to the deposits in slot trench C.122. 7.8.1.3 Structure B internal post-holes Three internal post-holes (C.177, C.183 and C.242) were excavated. These have been interpreted as internal supports or parts of partition walls that sub-divided the internal space in Structure B. Post-hole C.177 was situated 0.23 m north-east of the internal post-hole C.183 and 2.35 m south of the external post-hole C.148. It was circular in plan, with a diameter of c. 0.22 m and a depth of 0.29 m. It contained one fill (C.176), a loosely compacted, mid yellowish brown, silty sand with moderate inclusions of charcoal. The post-hole C.183 was oval in shape, 0.33m long, 0.25 m wide and 0.14 m deep. It was filled by C.182, a deposit of loose, mid yellowish brown, silty sand with moderate charcoal inclusions and sixhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 13
  19. 19. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 packing stones. A fragment of Late Bronze Age coarse pottery was also recovered from this deposit. It was from the same vessel as a body-sherd that was found in a deposit within the slot trench of Struc- ture C (C.145, see below). This indicates that occupation at both structures was contemporary. The posthole (C.183) was truncated by the boundary ditch, C.118, to the west. It was situated 0.23 m to the west-south-west of internal post-hole C.177. The final post-hole associated with Structure B was C.242, a sub-circular post-hole situated 1.8 m south of external post-hole C.146 and 0.9 m east-south-east of external post-hole C.152. It was filled by C.241 which comprised loose, mixed brown and grey, sandy silt with moderately occurring inclu- sions of fine pebbles. 7.8.1.4 Structure B internal stake-holes Five stake-holes (C.294, C.296, C.298, C.300 and C.302) was excavated c. 3 m the north Structure B. The line was 2.1 m long and the average distance between stake-holes was 0.41 m. These may have originally been part of a fence. Thirty-five stake-holes were excavated within Structure B: C.156, C.159, C.161, C.163, C.165, C.167, C.169, C.171, C.173, C.175, C.180, C.185, C.186, C.187, C.191, C.193, C.195, C.197, C.213, C.215, C.222, C.224, C.226, C.228, C.230, C.232, C.234, C.236, C.244, C.246, C.248, C.250, C.252 and C.254. In general, the stake-holes were circular, 0.08 m in diameter and 0.14 m deep and they were filled with brown, silty sand. One of the stake-holes produced a flint flake (04E0712:225:1) and another produced a sherd of Late Bronze Age coarse ware (04E0712:170:1). 7.8.2 Structure C Structure C was located to the north-west of Structure B (Figures 16 and 18, Plates 14, 15 and 16). It comprised a curvilinear footing trench (C.130/C.132) that formed an arc c. 11.7 m in circumference (Plate 15). At its northern extent the trace of the Structure C petered out, possibly the result of trunca- tion by agricultural activity. There as also some evidence for truncation of the structure to the eastern limit of the excavation and approximately only a third of the original building survived for excavation. There was evidence that the footing trench was re-cut (C.203), which suggests more than one phase of construction. 7.8.2.1 Structure C footing trench: primary cut The earliest phase of construction in Structure C was represented by the footing trench (C.130/C.132). This was truncated by the construction of a boundary ditch (C.118) in the post-medieval period. The trench to the north-west of the boundary ditch was labelled as C.130 and it was filled by C.129 and C.155. To the south-east of the boundary ditch the trench was numbered C.132 and it was filled by C.131 and C.144. The basal fill of the slot trench was C.144/C.155, a soft, compacted, light grey, silty sand with charcoalhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 14
  20. 20. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 inclusions. Diffuse-porous charcoal from C.144 produced a Middle Bronze Age radiocarbon date of cal BC 1415-1267 (UB-7197). A fragment of a Late Bronze Age Vessel 7 was recovered from C.155. C.131/C.129 was the secondary fill within the earlier slot trench (Plate 17). It comprised loosely com- pacted, dark brown, silty sand with occasional charcoal flecks. The fill extended for approximately 4 m along the south-eastern extents of the slot. A flint blade was recovered from C.129 (04E0712:129:1). A post-hole, C.205, was cut into the secondary fill of the footing trench (C.129/C.131). This post-hole was sub-circular in plan and it measured c. 0.5 m in diameter and it was 0.2 m deep. Another possible post-hole (C.207) cut the primary footing trench was C.207. It was filled by C.208, a mid brown, silty clay with occasional inclusions of charcoal and small stones. This was truncated by a linear feature (C.153), which meant that its original form was difficult to determine. The linear (C.153) truncated the footing trench at the south-west. In total it was 2.95 m long, 1.1 m wide and 0.35 m deep with a V-shaped base along its east-west axis and flat base along its north-south axis. It contained two fills; C.209, a compact, dark brownish black, silty clay and C.198, a deposit of re-deposited subsoil. 7.8.2.2 Structure C footing trench: secondary cut The re-cut of the footing trench (C.203) was curvilinear in plan. Its base was concave and it ran for 6.5 m. At its widest the slot measured 0.44 m and its maximum depth was 0.15 m. Seven different fills were found within the cut (C.150, C.149, C.211, C.210, C.145, C.204 and C.259). These were sandy deposits that had an average depth of c. 0.08 m. There were several artefacts retrieved from the fills of the footing trench re-cut, including sherds of Late Bronze Age coarse ware in C.211 and C.145. Some of these fragments were probably from the same vessel as other pieces of ceramic retrieved from an internal post-hole (C.183) in Structure B (Appendix 5), suggesting that the two structures were in use at the same time. The secondary cut of the footing trench was truncated by a post-hole (C.269) and a furrow (C.134). 7.8.2.3 Internal features One post-hole and one stake-hole were recorded within Structure C, a post-hole (C.181) and a stake- hole (C.258). The post-hole, C.181, was circular in plan, 0.24 m in diameter and 0.25 m deep. Its fill, C.178, comprised, mid brown, sandy silt with occasional inclusions of charcoal and grains of barley and emmer wheat (Appendix 4). The stake-hole, C.258, was circular in plan, with gently sloping sides and a concave base. Both of these features may originally have been part of sub-dividing partitions within the building, or they may have acted as structural support, in particular the post may have helped to bear the weight of the roof. 7.8.2.4 Associated features Various features were recorded to the west of Structure C and these included small pits, post-holes andhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 15
  21. 21. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 stake-holes (Figure 18). One of these stakeholes produced a flint retouched artefact (04E0712:290:1). These included irregular pits (C.262, C.285, C.287, C. 322 and C.330), post-holes C.140, C.274 and C.362 and stake-holes C.271, C.276, C.278, C.280, C.282, C.284 and C.289. These features did not occur in any particular pattern but their location indicates that they were possibly associated with activity in the area outside Structure C. To the north of Structure C several archaeological contexts were excavated (Figure 19) including two large circular pits (C.363 and C.335; Plate 18), three post-holes (C.314, C.316 and C.320), eight- een stake-holes (C.210, C.304, C.308, C.312, C.326, C.328, C.340, C.342, C.344, C.346, C.348, C.354, C.352, C.365, C.366, C.369, C.371 and C.372), two irregular linear pits (C.331 and C.338) and a sub-rectangular pit (C.359). There was no discernible pattern to the excavated remains. 7.8.3 Later activity Area 7 was truncated by later agricultural activity. A boundary ditch (C.118) extended in a north-east to south-west orientation across the area, cutting both Structures B and C. The ditch had two fills, C.116 and C.117. A rectangular pit, C.202, excavated within Structure B, contained a recent animal burial (C.123). Two irregularly-shaped pits (C.120 and C.128) were potentially post-medieval in date and these were found to the west of Structure B, flanking a drain, C.201. A cobbled surface, C.115, overlay the upper fill of the pit C.128 and it disappeared beneath the south-western part of the baulk. 7.9 Area 10 Located to the east of the north-south orientated segment of the Haul Road at NGC 322808 171154, several possible archaeological features in Area 10 were cordoned-off during the monitoring phase. The small area of excavation was cleaned manually and most of the potential archaeology was discounted as non-archaeological. Only one post-hole (C.218) was identified within the 4m 2 area of excavation. It was situated 1.4 m east of the Haul Road and it measured 0.33 m in length by 0.22 m in width and 0.18 m in depth. It contained two fills; the basal fill, C.217, was light yellowish brown, silty clay and the upper fill, C.216, was moderately compacted light reddish brown, sandy clay. There were no related post-holes or features within this area. 7.10 Area 12 Spreads of burnt material and the remains of a burnt mound were excavated at the proposed Vitra Tiles factory site, at NGC (Figures 3). These were initially found during archaeological testing and were excavated under an extension to the testing licence (03E1692). The entire site was stripped of topsoil without an archaeologist on site (some time in October or early November 2003) and therefore all the archaeological features at the site were truncated. The remaining archaeological deposits comprised spreads of burnt material and the remains of a burnt mound (Figure 20). One spread of burnt material (C.77) overlay a second spread (C.78), which in turn lay directly on the subsoil. These were found c. 80 m to the north-west of the 98E0257 enclosure. Another two spreads ofhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 16
  22. 22. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 burnt material, C.79 and C.81, were located 20 m to the north-west. C.79 filled a shallow pit (C.80) and C.81 was a shallow spread. There was no trough associated with these spreads and the deposits were probably associated with the prehistoric enclosure excavated under licence 98E257 (Cotter, 2000). The remains of a burnt mound (C.82, C.83 and C.84) were discovered in the north-west corner of the field, along the north-west baulk and extending beyond the limit of excavation. These deposits were truncated by topsoil stripping and the mound was largely destroyed. A trough (C.85) was associated with the burnt deposits. It measured 2.5 m north-west to south-east, by c. 2.5 m in width and 0.2 m in depth. There was no indication of any trough lining. Burnt mounds are Bronze Age in date and this feature may be broadly contemporary with the enclosure excavated under excavation licence number 98E0257, which is 150 m to the south-east.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 17
  23. 23. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 8 Specialist Results 8.1 Radiocarbon Dates Radiocarbon dates were returned from the 14 Chrono Centre at Queens University Belfast. The six dates returned were accelerator dates obtained from samples of charcoal and oats. One of the dates is Early Neolithic (UB7195), one is Early Bronze Age (UB7199), two are Middle Bronze Age (UB7196 & UB7197), one is Middle to Late Bronze Age (UB7198), and one is post-medieval (UB7200). Calibrated date Lab code Sample Material Location C. No. S. No. Years BP 2 sigma Diffuse-porous Area 6 4825±35 UB7195 Charcoal Structure A vicinity 22 29 cal BC 3693-3524 Diffuse-porous Area 6 3109±31 UB7196 Charcoal Structure A 32 15 cal BC 1445-1304 Diffuse-porous Area 7 3074±31 UB7197 Charcoal Structure C 144 52 cal BC 1415-1267 Diffuse-porous Area 7 3004±35 UB7198 Charcoal Structure B external 136 53 cal BC 1130-980 Diffuse-porous Area 3 3845±37 UB7199 Charcoal 42 18 cal BC 1970-1820 UB7200 43 Oat grains Area 4 82 31 153±29 cal AD 1730-1860 8.2 Plant remains The plant remains were examined by Mary Dillon (Appendix 4). Twenty-eight soil samples were proc- essed and eleven of these contained plant remains. Two samples from Area 2, two samples from Area 4 and nine samples from Area 7 produced plant remains. The majority of the plant remains consisted of emmer wheat and weeds seeds from Structure C in Area 7. Weeds from the knotgrass family pre- dominate and it is possible that, given the hundreds of weed seeds of one specific type, these seeds were purposely collected and possibly added to food stuffs. 8.3 Pottery The pottery was analysed by Helen Roche and Eoin Grogan (Appendix 5). An assemblage of forty- eight sherds was found during the excavation. Three rim sherds, six base-angle sherds, thirteen body sherds and twenty-six fragments are present, representing a minimum of eight Late Bronze Age coarse vessels (c. 1150-800 BC). The sherds are poorly preserved and fragmented but the surviving evidence demonstrates that the eight vessels were upright or tub-shaped, flat-based coarse vessels. The vessels were found in both funerary and domestic contexts. 8.4 Lithics The lithic assemblage was examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 6). Sixty-five pieces of stone were retrieved and of these sixty-two are flints, two are volcanics (possibly rhyolites), and one is a piece of quartz. The assemblage consists of a total of eight cores, thirty-three flakes, two blades, two debitage, seven retouched artefacts, nine split pebbles and four natural pebbles. A number of the artefacts are diagnostic to the Bronze Age. The majority of lithics were found in C.25, one of a number of burnt deposits deposited in a natural hollow in Area 3. Four finds 04E0712:73:8-11 were recovered from ahttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 18
  24. 24. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 pit in Area 6W, while 04E0712:107:2 was associated with the fill of a furnace in Area 2. 9 Summary and Discussion of Excavation Results The range of archaeological material excavated at Ballynattin, Co. Wicklow under licence no. 04E0712 included Middle-Late Bronze Age buildings, a furnace, a post-medieval hearth, agricultural and boundary features. Three Middle-Late Bronze Age buildings (Structures A, B and C) were excavated at Ballynattin. Structures B and C were only 10 m apart, both were found within Area 7. They were c. 100 m from Structure A, located in Area 6. Although each structure was disturbed by agricultural activity and/or recent ground-works associated with the construction of the Haul Road, c. one third of each structure survived for excavation. The structures were all round or oval timber-built houses. This is typical: in Doody’s (2000) survey of Irish Bronze Age houses, forty-nine excavated timber-built houses were listed and only eleven of these were rectangular. However, despite a common shape-in-plan, there is certainly diversity in construction methods: some houses have footing trenches while other do not, some have only one ring of posts while others have more, and some houses have evidence of internal divisions, although the majority do not (Doody 2000, 137). This diversity is evident in the results from Bal- lynattin and each of the three structures found were different. Structure A had a footing trench but there was no evidence for post or stake support and it was surmised that the structure was plank-built. Structure B was post-built, and comprised a circle of evenly spaced post-holes with evidence for stake and post-built internal partitions and a drainage gully that surrounded the circle of posts. Structure C was characterised by a curvilinear foundation trench which contained evidence for post-built sup- ports. All of the buildings at Ballynattin were quite large and their projected diameters were in the 7-9 m range. Their size and the substantial nature of the structural remains suggest significant buildings, houses that formed part of a permanent settlement. To emphasise the permanency of the settlement, there was evidence in one house (Structure C) that the wall had been repaired or replaced. Despite this, no hearths (internal or external) were excavated in association with any of the Bronze Age houses at Ballynattin. However, there was evidence that cooking and domestic occupation had been carried out; six of the eight pottery vessels retrieved from the site had carbonised matter and fire-blackening on the both surfaces. This was interpreted as evidence for domestic use (Appendix 5). This settlement evidence occurred alongside many areas of Bronze Age archaeology where the activi- ties at the site were not as easy to classify. In Area 6W seven pits were excavated and, although initially thought of as cremation pits, their function is unknown. Pits, post-holes and stake-holes were also found outside Structure C in Area 7, following no obvious pattern and of uncertain function. The furnace excavated at Area 2 was truncated and its morphology was not clearly defined. However, it appeared to have a small chamber, circular in plan and possibly a long flue that extended to the north- east. It was not radiocarbon dated and therefore it is difficult to be certain about when it was in use. The function of the furnace is also obscure, slag was absent and therefore the site was presumably nothttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 19
  25. 25. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 used for metal-working. There were very few seeds recovered from the fill of the furnace, indicating that it was not used for drying grain. Post-medieval features excavated at Ballynattin were generally associated with agriculture. These were generally furrows, drains and boundary ditches. One post-medieval hearth was also excavated (Area ). As there was a large quantity of cereal grains retrieved from the fill of the hearth it is possible that this, too, had an agricultural purpose. 10 Conclusions Ten areas of archaeological potential were investigated along the course of new road and services in- frastructure at the IDA Business and Technology Park in Ballynattin. These areas were fully excavated under State licence 04E0712, revealing the remains of three Bronze Age structures, Bronze Age pits and spreads of Bronze Age material, a furnace (possibly also Bronze Age), a post-medieval hearth and post-medieval agricultural activity. In association with earlier archaeological work in the area, such as the medieval enclosure also found in Ballynattin townland (Cotter 2000, 220), these sites indicate a long span of human activity in the area.http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 20
  26. 26. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 11 Bibliography Cotter, E. 2000. ‘Ballynattin Prehistoric Enclosure 32332 17114 98E0257, Co. Wicklow’ In I. Bennett (ed.) Excavations 1998. Bray, Wordwell. Doody, M. 2000. ‘Bronze Age houses in Ireland’ pp.135-160 in A. Desmond, G. Johnson, M. McCarthy, J. Sheehan and E. Shee Twohig (eds.) New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Bray, Wordwell. IDA 2003. Arklow Business and Technology Park IDA, Briefing Document- Archaeological Testing. IDA briefing document. Doherty, B, and Kelly, B. 2004. Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow – Archaeological Excavation Interim Report (04E0712). Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Kelly, B. & Tierney J. 2004. Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow - Archaeological Monitoring Report. Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Tierney, J. & Doolan A. 2004a. Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow. Archaeological Testing Report. Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Tierney, J. & Doolan A. 2004b. Ballynattin, Arklow, Co. Wicklow. Archaeological Excavation Interim Report (03E1692). Unpublished Eachtra Archaeological Projects report submitted to the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. 11.1 Websites www.excavations.iehttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 21
  27. 27. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 12 Figures N Site Location Figure 1: Site location maphttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 22
  28. 28. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N Area of IDA Business Park 10 m 0 20 m Figure 2: RMP version of 6-inch Ordnance Survey map with development location indicated (OS Map Sheet WI045)http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 23
  29. 29. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N D AD RO Area 12 B AD ROAD A RO Area 3 Area 6W Area 5 A AD Area 2 RO Area 1 Area 4 D ROA Area 6 C ASS AD RO BYP LOW Area 7 ARK A AD RO Area 10 0 250 m Figure 3: Development site with area locationshttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 24
  30. 30. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 E 3229911 N 1713265 N C.6 Natural Hollow C.13 C.11 C.7 Root acitivy C.9 0 1m E 3229956 E 3229980 N 1713243 N 1713287 Figure 4: Area 1 post-excavation planhttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 25
  31. 31. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 Ballynattin Arklow Co Wicklow 04E0712 Area 1 Section drawing Scale 1:10 ESE WSW C.4 C.6 C.5 0 50 cm Figure 5: Section through boundary ditch C.6 in Area 1http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 26
  32. 32. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 E 3230136 N N 1713594 C.110 C.97 C.107 Limit of excavation 50 cm 0 50 cm E 3230160 N 1713550 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of Area 2http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 27
  33. 33. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N Limits of Excavation E 3230606 N 1714645 C.42 E 3230610 N1714650 C.21 C.42 50 cm 0 50 cm Figure 7: Post-excavation plan of Area 3http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 28
  34. 34. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 1713035 E 3229537 1m N 0 50 cm excavation Limit of C.91 C.92 C.87 C.101 C.100 01 C.1 C.108 C.90 C.106 C.86 Figure 8: Post-excavation plan of Area 4 C.109 N 1713035 E 3229528 C.102 C.105http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 29
  35. 35. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 1m B C.89 C.88 Figure 9: Section through C.34, C.76, C.88 and C.89 in Area 5 0 C.34 C.76 Ballynattin Arklow Co Wicklow West-facing Section Scale 1:10 04E0712 Area 5 Ahttp://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 30
  36. 36. ISSUE 14: Eachtra Journal - ISSN 2009-2237 IDA Arklow Business & Technology Park 04E0712-03E1692 N 171335 E 322901 2m N 1m C.56 0 cm Structure A C.39 C.41 C.46 C.48 C.50 C.26 C.30 Figure 10: Post-excavation plan of Area 6 Non-Archaeological C.52 N 171335 E 322899http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/04e0712-03e1692-ida-arklow-business-technology-park-ballynattin-co-wicklow/ 31

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