Eachtra JournalIssue 11                                        [ISSN 2009-2237]            Archaeological Excavation Repor...
EACHTRAArchaeological Projects                          Archaeological Excavation Report                          Moatquar...
Archaeological Excavation Report                                           Moatquarter                                    ...
© Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011  The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork        Set in 12pt Garamond          Printed in Ir...
Table of Contents       Summary�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������...
List of Figures     Figure	1:	   Portion	 of	 map	 of	 Ireland	 showing	 the	 route	 of	 the	 N7	 Castletown	 to	 Nenagh	 ...
Moatquarter-e3910                                  http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Summ...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                           archaeological excavation report              Acknowl...
Moatquarter-e3910                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/1  ...
182550                                                   198900                                                     215250...
Moatquarter-e3910                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Dru...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                               archaeological excavation report              4  ...
190400                                                               196200                                               ...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                               archaeological excavation report                 ...
Moatquarter-e3910                                   http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Hig...
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Moatquarter-e3910                           http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Plate	1:	 A...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                                    archaeological excavation report            ...
205719                                                        206089                                                   206...
±12                    503                                                                                              ± ...
Moatquarter-e3910                                          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipper...
206021                                                                                                        20602614    ...
Moatquarter-e3910                                            http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipp...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                                archaeological excavation report               C...
206021                        206026                                                                                      ...
N7CN                                                                  N7CN                                                ...
Moatquarter-e3910                                            http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipp...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                   archaeological excavation report              Plate	5:	 Quart...
Moatquarter-e3910                                     http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/ ...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                                     archaeological excavation report           ...
Moatquarter-e3910                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/  ...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                              archaeological excavation report              9   ...
Moatquarter-e3910                                http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Taylor...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237     archaeological excavation report              Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Inde...
Moatquarter-e3910          http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Stratigraphic Mat...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237   archaeological excavation report28
Moatquarter-e3910                                           http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tippe...
iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237                              archaeological excavation report              prof...
Moatquarter-e3910                                    http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/  ...
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)
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Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

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The excavation of the site at Moatquarter comprised a Bronze Age house dating to the Middle Bronze Age. It was defined by a double ring of post-holes. The inner ring was concentric with the outer ring but the outer ring was not complete. It enclosed the rear and more than half the sides of the structure. The internal diameter of the structure was 5.8 m and it enclosed an area of 26.1 m2 . The entrance to the house faced south-southeast.

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Archaeological Report - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

  1. 1. Eachtra JournalIssue 11 [ISSN 2009-2237] Archaeological Excavation Report E3910 - Moatquarter, Co. Tipperary Bronze Age House
  2. 2. EACHTRAArchaeological Projects Archaeological Excavation Report Moatquarter Co. Tipperary Bronze Age House Date: July 2011 Client: Laois County Council and National Roads Authority Project: N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1) E No: E3910Excavation Director: John Tierney Written by: Jacinta Kiely and John Tierney
  3. 3. Archaeological Excavation Report Moatquarter Co. Tipperary Excavation Director John Tierney Written By Jacinta Kiely and John Tierney EACHTRA Archaeological Projects CORK GALWAY The Forge, Innishannon, Co. Cork Unit 10, Kilkerrin Park, Liosbain Industrial Estate, Galwaytel: 021 4701616 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: info@eachtra.ie tel: 091 763673 | web: www.eachtra.ie | email: galway@eachtra.ie
  4. 4. © Eachtra Archaeological Projects 2011 The Forge, Innishannon, Co Cork Set in 12pt Garamond Printed in Ireland
  5. 5. Table of Contents Summary���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������iii Acknowledgements�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� iv1 Scope of the project �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Route location��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Receiving environment ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34 Archaeological and historical background ��������������������������������������������������������������������� 45 Site location and Topography ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 76 Excavation methodology ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 77 Excavation results ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 108 Discussion ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������229 References �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26Appendix 2 Stratigraphic Matrix ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27Appendix 3 Groups and Subgroups ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������29Appendix 4 Plant remains ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41Appendix 5 Lithic Artefacts Report ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 � i
  6. 6. List of Figures Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� ����������������������������������������������������������� 2 Figure 2: Discovery series Ordnance survey map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of all excavation sites� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 5 Figure 3: Portion of the 1st edition Ordnance Survey Map OF47 showing the location of Moatquarter� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 8 Figure 4: Location and extent of Moatquarter E3910 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh� ���������������� 11 Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Moatquarter E3910� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age house at Moatquarter� �������������������������������������������� 14 Figure 7: Interpretative plan of the Bronze Age house� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 Figure 8: Section of slot trench C�43, post-holes C�24, C�29 and C�17 and pit C�20� ���������������������������� 18 List of Plates Plate 1: Aerial view of Moatquarter� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Plate 2: View of moat (RMP TI016-003) from Moatquarter site� ��������������������������������������������������������������10 Plate 3: View of Bronze Age structure from north-west� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Plate 4: View of Bronze Age structure with locational detail of wall line, entrance and hearth from east� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Plate 5: Quartzite rubbing stone E3910:1:2� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Plate 6: Quartzite rubbing stone E3910:1:3�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Plate 7: View of chert flake E3910:1:4� ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������21 List of Tables Table 1 Dimensions of outer wall of Bronze Age structure ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 Table 2 Dimensions of inner wall of Bronze Age structure ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Table 3 Dimensions of pits in interior �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16 Table 4 Possible internal divisions or screens within the structure ������������������������������������������������������� 19 Table 5 Dimensions of pits ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Table 6 Radiocarbon dates ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 Table 7 Radiocarbon dates for Bronze Age structures on the route of the N7� ���������������������������������23ii
  7. 7. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/SummaryThe excavation of the site at Moatquarter comprised a Bronze Age house dating to theMiddle Bronze Age. It was defined by a double ring of post-holes. The inner ring wasconcentric with the outer ring but the outer ring was not complete. It enclosed the rearand more than half the sides of the structure. The internal diameter of the structure was5.8 m and it enclosed an area of 26.1 m2. The entrance to the house faced south-southeast.Road project name N7 Castletown to NenaghSite name MoatquarterE no. E3910Site director John TierneyTownland MoatquarterParish RathnaveogeCounty TipperaryBarony IkerrinOS Map Sheet No. TN16National Grid Reference 206009 / 182426Elevation 172 m O.D. iii
  8. 8. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Acknowledgements The project was commissioned by Laois County Council and was funded by the Na- tional Roads Authority under the National Development Plan (2000-2006). The project archaeologist was Niall Roycroft. Kildare County Council supervised the archaeological contract with RE staff of Pat Dowling and Colum Fagan. Kildare County Council Sen- ior Executive Engineer was Joseph Kelly and Kildare County Council Senior Engineer was John Coppinger. The senior archaeologist was John Tierney and the post-excavation manager was Jacinta Kiely. Illustrations and GIS are by Maurizio Toscano, photographs by John Sunderland and Eagle Photography and aerial photography by StudioLab. Spe- cialist analysis was carried out by Mary Dillon, Penny Johnston, Farina Sternke and the 14 Chrono Centre at Queen’s University Belfast.iv
  9. 9. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/1 Scope of the projectEachtra Archaeological Projects were commissioned by Laois County Council and theNational Roads Authority to undertake archaeological works along 17.1 km (Contact1) of the 35km N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) national roadscheme (EIS approved in November 2005). The scheme runs from the eastern junctionof the present N7 Nenagh Bypass, North Tipperary a tie in to the M7/M8 Portlaoise-Castletown scheme to the south of Borris-in-Ossory in County Laois. The scheme is ap-proximately 191 hectares. Contract 1 comprises the western half of the scheme and runsfrom Clashnevin to Castleroan passing along the Tipperary North and Offaly countyborder regions. The Ministers Direction Number is A38. It was funded by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2000-2006. The total archaeological cost was administered by the National Roads Authoritythrough Laois County Council as part of the Authority’s commitment to protecting ourcultural heritage. The purpose of the archaeological services project was to conduct ar-chaeological site investigations within the lands made available for the scheme and toassess the nature and extent of any new potential archaeological sites uncovered. Phase 1 of the project (archaeological testing of the route) was carried out in 2007under licence E3371, E3372 and E3375-8 issued by Department of the Environment Heri-tage and Local Government (DoEHLG) in consultation with the National Museum ofIreland. The principal aim of this phase of the project was to test for any previously un-known sites by a programme of centreline and offset testing and to test sites of archaeo-logical potential identified in the EIS. Phase 2 of the project (resolution) involved the resolution of all archaeological sitesidentified within the proposed road corridor prior to commencement of the constructionof the road. This phase of the project was carried out from June 2007 to February 2008and excavations were conducted under the management of a Senior Archaeologist. A totalof 27 sites were excavated during this phase of works under separate licences issued byDoEHLG. A post-excavation assessment and strategy document was prepared in Phase 3 of theproject to present a management strategy for dealing with post-excavation work aris-ing from archaeological works along the route of the new N7 Castletown to Nenagh. Itincluded a proposal for post-excavation and archiving work and a budget for the works.2 Route locationThe route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh road is located in Counties North Tipperaryand Offaly (OF) (Figure 1). The project (Contract 1) involves the construction of c. 17.5km of the N7 from Clashnevin east of Nenagh to Castleroan south-east of Dunkerrin. Itpasses through the townlands of Clashnevin, Derrybane, Newtown, Lissanisky, Killeisk,Garavally, Derrycarney, Garrynafanna, Gortnadrumman, Kilgorteen, Falleen, Knock-ane, Clash, Park, Rosdremid (OF), Clynoe (OF), Cullenwaine, Moneygall, Greenhills, 1
  10. 10. 182550 198900 2152502 193300 193300 ! ( Nenagh iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 Derg (Lough) 182950 182950 172600 172600 0 5 10 182550 198900 Kilometres 215250 ± Figure 1: Portion of map of Ireland showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1)� archaeological excavation report
  11. 11. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Drumbaun, Busherstown (OF), Drumroe (OF), Moatquarter, Loughan (OF) and Cas-tleroan (OF). The townlands are located in the parishes of Ballymackey, Cullenwaine,Castletownely, Rathnaveoge, Finglas and Dunkerrin and the baronies of Upper Ormond,Ikerrin and Clonisk, The route begins at the eastern end of the Nenagh bypass at Clashnevin c. 5 km eastof Nenagh and continues eastward on the northern side of the existing N7 in Co. Tip-perary. It crosses a number of third class roads to the north of Toomyvara and 0.7 kmeast of Clash crossroads crosses the Ollatrim River. It extends into County Offaly directlyeast of Park. From here it crosses the R490 0.6 km north of Moneygall. It extends backin County Tipperary and through the demesne of Greenhills before crossing the existingN7 at the junction of Greenhills and Drumbaun townlands. It crosses back into CountyOffaly and climbs east into Busherstown and Drumroe. It crosses the Keeloge Streaminto Moatquarter in County Tipperary and extends northeast back into County Offalythrough the townlands of Loughan and Castleroan 1.4 km southwest of Dunkerrin.3 Receiving environmentNorth Tipperary is bounded on the west by the River Shannon and Lough Derg withthe Silvermines, to the south, and small hills extending towards Devilsbit and BorrisnoeMountains to the east. The mountains are composed largely of Silurian strata and OldRed Sandstone. Copper, silver and lead deposits have been mined in the Silvermines. Thegeology of the lowlands consists of Carboniferous limestone covered by glacial drift inaddition to tracts of raised bog. The western portion of the study area is drained by the Ollatrim River which flowswestwards into the River Ballintotty which in turns drains into the River Nenagh. Theeastern portion is drained by the Keeloge Stream and other small water sources. These risein the foothills of the Silvermine Mountains and flow north. The Keeloge drains into theLittle Brosna River c. 1 km south of Shinrone, Co Offaly. The Brosna turns north anddrains into the Shannon south of Banagher. The largest population centre in the area is Nenagh. The smaller population centres,are Toomyvara, Moneygall and Dunkerrin. The soils on the route are characterised by 80% grey brown podzolics, 10% gleys, 5%brown earths and 5% basin peat. They are derived from glacial till of predominantly Car-boniferous limestone composition. These soils occur in Tipperary and Offaly and have awide use range being suitable for both tillage and pasture (Gardiner and Radford 1980,97-99). Land use along the route was a mix of grassland devoted to intensive dairying andcattle-rearing and tillage. 3
  12. 12. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 4 Archaeological and historical background Archaeological sites of numerous periods were discovered along the route of the new road (Figure 2). The periods are referred to as follows: Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC), Neo- lithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC), Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600 BC), and Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500), early medieval period (c. AD 500 to 1100), medieval period (c. AD 1100 to 1650), post-medieval period (c. AD 1650 to the present). Mesolithic (c. 8000 to 4000 BC) The earliest known human settlement in Ireland dates from the Mesolithic period (c. 8000 BC - 4000 BC). The majority of the evidence (flint scatters) for Mesolithic occupa- tion has come from the river valleys. No evidence for the Mesolithic was recorded on the route. Neolithic (c. 4000 to 2000 BC) The Neolithic Period is characterised by the introduction of agriculture and the begin- nings of the clearance of the woodlands. The population increased and became more sedentary in nature. The most important Neolithic site in the vicinity was at Tullahedy recorded on the route of the Nenagh by-pass. It was a specialist chert arrow manufactur- ing site. No evidence for a Neolithic site was recorded on the route but stone tools dating to the Neolithic were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Clash E3660, Cullenwaine E3741 and Greenhills 2 and 3 E3637 and E3658. Stone tools dating to the late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age were recorded at Busherstown E3661, Castleroan E3909, Cullenwaine E3741, Derrybane 1 E3585, Drumroe E3773, Greenhills 1 E3638 and Moatquarter E3910. Neo- lithic pottery was recorded at Cullenwaine E3741 and Drumbaun E3912. Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 600BC) The Bronze Age is characterised by the introduction of metallurgy and an increase in settlement and burial sites. Copper ores were mined and copper, bronze and gold items manufactured. The range of burial site types includes cist graves, pit and urn burials, cremation cemeteries, barrows, ring-ditches and wedge tombs. Stone circles and stand- ing stones also date to the Bronze Age. Both enclosed and unenclosed settlement sites are known. The most prolific Bronze Age site type is the fulacht fiadh. These monuments survive as low mounds of charcoal rich black silt, packed with heat-shattered stones, and generally situated close to a water source. Fulachta fiadh are generally classified as ‘cook- ing places’, whereby stones were heated in a hearth and subsequently placed in a trough of water, the water continued to boil with the addition of hot stones and wrapped food was cooked within the hot water. The trough eventually filled with small stones, ash and charcoal that were removed, forming the basis of the familiar mound.4
  13. 13. 190400 196200 202000 207800 186400 186400 Moatquarter-e3910 Castleroan 1 E 3909 Moatquarter 1 Busherstown 1 E 3661 Loughan 1 E 4000 Greenhills 3 E 3658 Moneygall 2 Culleenwaine 1 E 3635 E 3741 Moatquarter 1 Clynoe 2 E 3910 E 3774 181800 181800 Park 1 Drumroe 1 Garravally Kilgorteen 1 E 3659 E 3773 E 3589 E 3739 Drumbaun 2 Derrybane 2 E 3912 E 3591 Greenhills 1 Greenhills 2 E 3638 E 3637 Clashnevin 2 E 3590 Clash 1 Park 2 E 3660 E 3772 Derrycarney 1 E 3740 Clashnevin 1 Derrybane 1 Killeisk 1 E 3586 E 3585 E 3587 177200 177200 0 3 6 Kilometres ± 190400 196200 202000 207800 Figure 2: Discovery series Ordnance survey map showing the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Derrinsallagh to Ballintotty) Road Scheme (Contract 1) and the location of 5 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/ all excavation sites�
  14. 14. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Two new fulachta fiadh or burnt mounds were recorded at Clashnevin 1 E3586, Cull- enwaine E3741 and six at three separate locations in Greenhills, E3638, E3637 and E3658. Evidence of nine roundhouses or partial round structures were recorded; two at Cas- tleroan E3909, Derrybane 2 E3591 and Drumbaun 2 E3912 and one at Clash E3660, Drumroe E3773 and Moatquarter E3910. Iron Age (c. 500 BC to AD 500) Upto recently there was little evidence of a significant Iron Age presence in Munster. Settlement sites are few and far between as well as being difficult to identify (Woodman, 2000) while the material culture of this period is limited. Linear earthworks, believed to have marked tribal boundaries, and hillforts are two of the most visible monuments of the period. Ten percent of sites excavated on NRA road schemes in recent years have produced Iron Age dates. The dates have led to the identification of 30 new Iron Age sites in Munster from road schemes in counties Cork, Limerick and Tipperary (McLaughlin 2008, 51). These include a ditched enclosure in Ballywilliam and a wooden trackway in Annaholty Bog excavated on the route of the N7 Nenagh-Limerick (Taylor 2008, 54). Three Iron Age dates were returned from pits in Castleroan E3909 and Drumroe E3773 on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). Early medieval period (c. AD 400 to 1100) The early medieval period is characterised by the arrival of Christianity to Ireland. The characteristic monument type of the period is the ringfort. Ringforts are the most nu- merous archaeological monument found in Ireland, with estimates of between 30,000 and 50,000 illustrated on the first edition of the Ordnance Survey 6” maps of the 1840’s (Barry 1987). As a result of continued research, the construction of these monuments has a narrow date range during the early medieval period between the 7th and 9th centuries AD. Although there are some very elaborate examples of ringforts, they often take the form of a simple earth or stone enclosure functioning as settlements for all classes of secu- lar society (Stout 1997). North Tipperary is rich in early ecclesiastical sites and the remains of these religious centres are at the core of some of the towns and villages. Roscrea, for example, was chosen by St Cronan as a location for his monastery in the seventh century as it was located at the crossroads on the Slighe Dála, an important roadway in early medieval times (NIAH 2006, 4-8). Early medieval activity was recorded at five sites on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh (Contract 1). A series of corn-drying kilns were recorded at Busherstown E3661. A denuded ringfort (OF046-013) was excavated at Clynoe 2 E3774. An area of iron- working and associated pits was recorded at Drumbaun E3912. Iron working activity, corn-drying kilns and settlement activity was recorded at Park 1 E3659. A group of pits and associated ditch were recorded at Drumroe E3773.6
  15. 15. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/High and later medieval periods (c. AD 1100 to 1650)This period is characterized by the arrival of the Anglo-Normans and the building of tow-er houses. The Anglo-Normans obtained charters in the thirteenth century for the townsof Nenagh, Roscrea, Thurles and Templemore and established markets. Nenagh grewrapidly in the aftermath of the granting of the lands of Munster to Theobald fitzWalter in1185 (ibid. 8). Moated sites represent the remains of isolated, semi-defended homesteadsin rural areas. They were build mainly in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth cen-turies in counties, such as Wexford, Kilkenny, Tipperary, mid-Cork and Limerick, thatwere colonised by English settlers (O’Conor 1998, 58). The Archaeological Inventory forNorth Tipperary lists 39 moated sites (2002, 298). A medieval enclosure and associated field systems were recorded at Killeisk E3587. Anewly recorded moated site was excavated at Busherstown E3661. A series of ditches andsettlement activity was recorded at Park 1 E3659.Post-medieval period (c. 1650 to the present).The post-medieval period is characterised by mills, limekilns, workhouses, country hous-es and associated demesnes, vernacular buildings and field systems (Figure 3). A smalldemesne associated with a county house was recorded at Greenhills.5 Site location and TopographyThe site at Moatquarter was located c. 400 m to the north and upslope of the KeelogeStream and 200 m to the northeast of the motte. The townland name most likely refers tothe location of a conspicuous medieval motte (RMP TI016-003) located to the south-westof the site (Plate 1). The Keeloge Stream forms part of the townland boundary betweenMoatquarter and Drumroe and the county bounds of Tipperary and Offaly.6 Excavation methodologyThe site was mechanically stripped of topsoil under strict archaeological supervision.Stripping was done with a tracked machine with a flat toothless bucket. Topsoil strippingcommenced in the areas of identified archaeology and continued radially outward untilthe limit of the road take was reached or until the limit of the archaeological remains wasfully defined. A grid was set up in the excavation area(s) and all archaeological featureswere sufficiently cleaned, recorded and excavated so as to enable an accurate and mean-ingful record of the site to be preserved. The excavation, environmental sampling, sitephotographs, site drawings, find care and retrieval, on-site recording and site archive wasas per the Procedures for Archaeological works as attached to the licence method state-ments for excavation licences. 7
  16. 16. 204713 2057138 Castleroan LOUGHAN ea m Loughan S tr 182716 182716 e lo g K ee CASTLEROAN iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 Moatquarter BUSHERSTOWN 182066 182066 MOATQUARTER Busherstown Drumbaun 2 DRUMROE 0 300 600 DRUMBAUN Drumroe ¥ Meters 204713 205713 Figure 3: Portion of the 1st edition Ordnance Survey Map OF47 showing the location of Moatquarter� archaeological excavation report
  17. 17. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Plate 1: Aerial view of Moatquarter� Moatquarter 1 (E3910) 0 30 60 Meters ± 9
  18. 18. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Plate 2: View of moat (RMP TI016-003) from Moatquarter site� The site was excavated from 28 January 2008 to the 8 February 2008. Only areas within the LMA (lands made available) were resolved. Two separate cuttings, Area 1 and Area 2, were excavated. Area 1 was located 62 m south of Area 2. The full extent of Area 1 measured 4600 m sq and Area 2 measured 3700 m sq (Figure 4, Plate 2). The full record of excavated contexts is recorded in the context register and the strati- graphic matrix (Appendix 1). Detailed stratigraphic descriptions are found in the groups and sub-groups text (Appendix 2). The context register maybe viewed in the EAPOD (Eachtra Archaeological Projects office database) in the accompanying CD. 7 Excavation results A Bronze Age structure and two groups of pits were excavated within the area of excava- tion. (Figure 5, plate 3). The structure was located near the southern extent of the area of excavation. Four pits (C.3, C.5, C.8 and C.185) were located c. 45 m north of the structure and four pits (C.502, C.503, C.506 and C.508) were located c. 150 m north of the struc- ture. A field boundary C.11 was located to the south-east of the Bronze Age structure. Bronze Age House A house was identified in the southern section of the site. It was defined by a double ring of post-holes (Figure 6). The inner ring was concentric with the outer ring but the outer ring was not complete. It enclosed the rear and over half the sides of the structure. The internal diameter of the structure was 5.8 m and it enclosed an area of 26.1 m2. The en- trance to the house faced south-southeast. Four post-holes C.44, C.54, C.81and C.180 constituted the outer northern line of the structure. The interval between the post-holes was irregular, they were spaced over 3 m apart. Three of the post-holes C.44, C.53 and C.180 were similar in size and composition.10
  19. 19. 205719 206089 206459 15 70 0 LOUGHAN 15 60 0 Moatquarter-e3910 CASTLEROAN 182753 182753 M O AT Q U A R T E R 15 50 0 154 00 182523 182523 153 00 152 00 LISDUFF 151 00 Ke 182293 182293 elo g eS t re am Moatquarter 1 (E3910) 150 00 0 100 200 Metres ± 205719 206089 206459 Figure 4: Location and extent of Moatquarter E3910 on the N7 Castletown to Nenagh�11 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/
  20. 20. ±12 503 ± 508 506 Pits Area 2 Area 2 iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 502 0 25 m O ) 172 m O.D. 5 3 185 ± Pits Area 1 North 8 Area 1 Field boundary 11 0 25 m 0 100 m Figure 5: Post-excavation plan of Moatquarter E3910� archaeological excavation report 59
  21. 21. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Plate 3: View of Bronze Age structure from north-west�The fourth posthole C.81 was the remains of a driven post, it was smaller that the otherthree. Context Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 44 0.82 x 0.64 x 0.28 54 0.87 x 0.62 x 0.08 81 0.16 x 0.4 x 0.12 180 0.77 x 0.57 x 0.16Table 1 Dimensions of outer wall of Bronze Age structure Ten postholes (C.17, C.19, C.24, C.26, C.29, C.36, C.41, C.56, C. 65, C.187) and twoslot trenches (C.43 and C.46) constituted the inner circuit of the house. The entrance wasprobably to the south-east between post-holes C.187 and C.29. It measured 1.8 in width.Both of the entrance post-holes were flanked by a second post (C.24 and C.36). MiddleBronze Age dates of cal BC 1429-1315 (UB-15096) and cal BC 1432-1316 (UB-15095)were returned from the post-hole C.24 and C.17 respectively. A single post-hole C.15 was located within the interior between posts C.19 and C.59.It may have formed part of a wall alignment with four stake-holes (C.86, C.93, C.100 andC.139). 13
  22. 22. 206021 20602614 180 ± Area 1 South 56 95 26 59 20 43 139 Structure 132 105 126 182427 182427 100 54 39 128 19 iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 156 15 48 44 182 113 142 Hearth 154 165 146 161 152 175 87 41 117 134 159 46 115 93 144 107 140 64 136 103 102 65 77 176 170 119 172 90 111 60 148 86 162 17 92 69 150 124 182424 182424 71 122 110 97 36 81 83 62 57 166 187 130 178 168 29 0 2.5 m 24 206021 206026 Figure 6: Post-excavation plan of the Bronze Age house at Moatquarter� archaeological excavation report
  23. 23. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Plate 4: View of Bronze Age structure with locational detail of wall line, entrance and hearth from east� Context Number Dimensions (m) (I x w x d) 17 0.58 x 0.36 x 0.33 19 0.57 x 0.53 x 0.34 24 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.25 26 0.5 x 0.47 x 0.35 29 0.46 x 0.32 x 0.31 59 0.57 x 0.5 x 0.2 36 0.73 x 0.34 x 0.23 41 0.8 x 0.75 x 0.25 43 1.2 x 0.7 x 0.31 46 2.7 x 0.57 x 0.07 48 (within slot C.46) 0.37 x 0.24 x 0.25 50 (within slot C.46) 0.17 x 0.16 x 0.28 52 (within slot C.46) 0.6 x 0.4 x 0.12 56 0.65 x 0.6 x 0.21 65 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.05 187 0.48 x 0.39 x 0.25Table 2 Dimensions of inner wall of Bronze Age structureInternal featuresThree pits C.20, C.39 and C.176 were located in the interior of the structure. Two largepits (C.20 and C.39) were located adjacent to one another at the rear. The third C.176 waslocated between the hearth and the entrance. The hearth was located almost centrally be-tween the three pits. Pits 20 and 39 may be bed settings, located in the northwest cornerof the structure, opposite the south facing entrance. 15
  24. 24. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Context Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 20 1.51 x 0.8 x 0.41 39 1.3 x 0.8 x 0.39 176 1.1 x 0.5 x 0.18 Table 3 Dimensions of pits in interior A Middle Bronze Age date of cal BC 1495-1321 (UB-15094) was returned from pit C.20. A total of 54 stake-holes were recorded within the interior of the structure (Figure 7, plate 4). In general all of them had a similar fill, a soft gray brown sandy silt with oc- casional flecks of charcoal. They varied in sizes from 0.03-0.13 m in length to 0.03-0.12 m in width and 0.03-0.26 m in depth. The largest stake-holes measured over 0.09 m in diameter. They formed two distinctive patterns: 13 (C.57, C.64, C.69, C.71, C.86, C.93, C.97, C.100, C.105, C.107, C.126, C.132, C.139, C.142, C.154 and C.178) were located inside and parallel and on the line of the inner wall of the structure and three (C.107, C.142 and C.154) formed the possible base of tripod around the hearth C.186. The base of a hearth C.186 was recorded towards the rear of the structure. The scorched area of subsoil measured 0.44m by 0.35m. The base of the hearth was truncated by three small stake-holes (C.161, C. 165 and C. 175). Two stake-holes (C.117 and C.159) were located on the edge of the hearth and three other stake-holes (C.107, C.142 and C.154) may have formed a tripod around the hearth. The side of the tripod measured c. 0.9 m. Three more stake-holes (C.146, C.156 and C.182) could have been associated with hearth-side furniture. A total of 24 of the stake-holes could have been associated with the inner wall of the structure. Two (C.178 and C.57) were located on the south-eastern side of the entrance on either side of post C.187. Eleven (C.168, C.166, C.130, C.62, C.97, C.83, C.71, C.69, C.111, C.119, C.64) were located on the south-western circuit between post-holes C.24 and C.41. Three (C.105, C.126 and C.132) were located on the southern side of pit C.20. Four (C.139, C.100, C.93 and C.86) were located on the north-eastern circuit on either side of post-hole C.15. One stake-hole C.95 was located to the north of post-holes C.26 and C.59. Three stake-holes (C.92, C.90 and C.102) were located to the west of post-hole C.17. A total of 20 other stake-holes were recorded in the interior in the vicinity, and for the most part to the east, of the hearth C.86 and the pit C.176. They may have formed an internal division or screens associated with the hearth and/or the pit C.176. They could have formed at least four different screens. Three of the screens were parallel to one an- other on the eastern side of the hearth and pit and the fourth could have been located on the western side. An alternative to the screen hypothesis is that screens 1 and 2 are functionally related to one another and the hearth. The stakeholes in these groups are clearly paired and may represent the remains of a domestic food processing activity, originating in the hearth and perhaps processing different grades of material in stake-supported troughs or pots eg. fat,16
  25. 25. 206021 206026 ± Area 1 South Moatquarter-e3910 Structure 182427 182427 Hearth 182424 182424 0 2.5 m 206021 206026 Figure 7: Interpretative plan of the Bronze Age house�17 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/
  26. 26. N7CN N7CN N7CN18 Moatquater 1 Area 1 Moatquater 1 Area 1 Moatquater 1 Area 1 Southeast facing section of C.43 Southwest facing section of C.24 East facing section of C.29 # C.30 # # # C.42 # # C.1 # # # # C.23 # # C.34 # # # # # C.125 C.29 C.24 C.43 iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 N7CN N7CN Moatquater 1 Area 1 Moatquater 1 Area 1 Southeast facing section of C.20 ????? facing section of C.17 # # # # # C.16 C.21 C.17 C.27 C.20 0 500 mm Figure 8: Section of slot trench C�43, post-holes C�24, C�29 and C�17 and pit C�20� archaeological excavation report
  27. 27. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/blood and offal products. The curving stakehole arrangement mirrors the roundhousewalls. Screen Associated stake-holes Length 1 C.128, C.113, C.87 and C.103 2.7 2 C.152, C.115, C.136, C.162, C.124, C.122 and C.110 2.9 3 C.140, C.170, C.172, C.148 and C.150 1.2 4 C.134, C.144, C.77 and C.60 1.6Table 4 Possible internal divisions or screens within the structurePitsEight pits were located to the north of the structure. Four pits (C.3, C.5, C.8 and C.185)were located c. 45 m north of the structure. They were located between 8-13 m apart. Fourother pits (C.502, C.503, C.506 and C.508) were located c. 150 m north of the structure.The pits were c. 30 m apart. Context Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) 3 1.05 x 0.93 x 0.3 5 1.57 x 1.57 x 0.22 8 1.84 x 1.7 x 0.28 185 1.1 x 0.75 x 0.15 502 1.19 x 0.76 x 0.13 503 2.1 x 0.7 x 0.05 506 0.45 x 0.35 x 0.11 508 0.38 x 0.25 x 0.2Table 5 Dimensions of pits No radiocarbon dates were obtained from any of the pits. No artefacts were retrievedfrom the pits. It is difficult to know if the pits were contemporary with the Bronze Agestructure.Plant remainsThe plant remains were examined by Penny Johnston (Appendix 4). A total of 30 sampleswere scanned and plant remains were present in just seven of the samples. Hazelnut shellfragments were found in four of the samples C.17, C.26, C.43, C.52, barley was recoveredfrom C.20 and C.29 and wheat from C.26/C.59 associated with the house. These included the samples from the post-hole C.17 (C.16, S.7), from the slot trenchC.20 (C.21 S.9), from the pits C.26/59 (C.25 S.11) and C.29 (C.30 S.14), from the post-hole C.52 (C.53 S.20) and the slot trench C.43 (C.125 S.58). These are probably representa-tive of the occupation layer which probably covered the floor during its use. 19
  28. 28. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Plate 5: Quartzite rubbing stone E3910:1:2� Plate 6: Quartzite rubbing stone E3910:1:3�20
  29. 29. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/ Plate 7: View of chert flake E3910:1:4�Lithic artefactsThe lithic artefacts were examined by Farina Sternke (Appendix 5). A chert flake(E3910:1:4) and two quartzite rubbing stones (E3910:1:2-3) were recovered from the top-soil. The assemblage has to be regarded as technologically and typologically diagnosticand dates to the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age period. The rubbing stone E3910:1:3was most likely used as a mano in connection with a saddle quern.CharcoalThe charcoal was examined by Mary Dillon in advance of radiocarbon dating.Radiocarbon datesRadiocarbon analysis was carried out by the 14 Chrono Centre in Queen’s UniversityBelfast. Dates were calibrated using Calib Rev5.0.2 (©1986-2005 M.Stuiver P.J. Re-imer) and in conjunction with Stuiver Reimer 1993 and Reimer et al. 2004.Lab code Context Material Un-calibrated δ 13 C 2 sigma calibration Period dateUB- C.21 Willow charcoal 3142 +/- 30 -27.8 cal BC 1495-1378 Middle15094 from pit C.20 1337-1321 Bronze AgeUB- C.16 Pomoideae charcoal 3109 +/- 18 -30.2 cal BC 1432-1371 Middle15095 from pit C.17 1345-1316 Bronze AgeUB- C.23 Hazel charcoal 3103 +/- 19 -28.4 cal BC 1429-1369 Middle15096 from posthole C.24 1357-1315 Bronze AgeTable 6 Radiocarbon dates 21
  30. 30. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 8 Discussion Evidence of at least two phases of activity was recorded at Moatquarter. The main phase of activity at the site dated to the Middle Bronze Age. The remains of a complete structure was located in the southern section of the site. It was defined by a double ring of post-holes but the outer ring was incomplete. The internal diameter of the structure was 5.8 m and it enclosed an area of 26.1 m2. The entrance to the house faced south-southeast. Two probably bed settings were identified opposite the entrance and a curving, food processing work area has been hypothesized based on the relationship between a hearth and tripod and a series of paired stakeholes which run away from the hearth, curving on the same alignment as the structural support timbers. Curving work spaces not being surprising in a circular house. There are three main hypotheses for the construction of the house. Firstly, an internal ring of posts supported the roof and immediately outside this a wattle wall was built (the remains of the wattle wall is evident on both sides of the doorway but cannot be traced for the northern half of the structure). Directly outside the wattle wall further roof support was offered by external support posts. The relationship between the external and internal posts may give clues as to the location of the wall top cross beams. The second hypothesis is that a clay wall was built outside and against the wattle screen and that this wall ran along the line of the larger, outer postholes. The third hypothesis is that a narrow 0.50 m wide clay wall was built along the line defined by the wattle screens (the screens being a spinal element to the wall) ie. between the inner and outer post-holes, A recent survey of Bronze Age houses in southern Ireland lists a total of 41 Bronze Age sites where 81 individual structures have been recorded (Doody 2007, 86–7). Howev- er, surveys are quickly out of date at the moment, since development-led archaeology has resulted in an explosion of Bronze Age archaeology (Bruck 2009a, xvi). The excavation of ten Bronze Age houses on the route of the N7 Castletown to Nenagh will further in- crease this number. Radiocarbon dates have been obtained for eight of the ten structures on the N7 from the townlands of Clash, Castleroan, Derrybane, Drumbaun, Drumroe and Moatquarter, Site Name Structure Calibrated BC 2-sigma dates Period Clash Structure 1 1111-920 and 895-800 MBA-LBA Castleroan Structure A 1249-1016 MBA Castleroan Structure B 1011-914 LBA Derrybane Structure 1 741-406 and 833-797 LBA Derrybane Structure 2 794-550 LBA Derrybane Structure 3 1929-1773 EBA Drumbaun Structure A 1436-1316 MBA Drumbaun Structure B 1520-1442 MBA Drumroe Structure 1 895-815 LBA Moatquarter Structure 1 1495-1321, 1432-1316 and 1429-1315 MBA Table 7 Radiocarbon dates for Bronze Age structures on the route of the N7�22
  31. 31. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/ There is a diversity in house size, internal pattern and construction materials. In Brit-ain there appears to be a number of regionally distinct house styles (Doody 2007, 97)but there is no established evidence for regional variation amongst Irish examples as yet.However, the discovery of axial symmetry in several houses excavated in Tipperary andNorth Cork has been noted (Tierney and Johnston 2009, 105). A similar phenomenonhas also been identified in Britain (Guilbert 1982, 68– 9; Brück 1999). Three of the round post-built structures, one in Derrybane and two in Drumbaun,excavated on the N7 were constructed along the principle of axial symmetry. This meansthat the house was arranged on an axis between the entrance and a post-hole directlyopposite it, two post-holes flank the entrance and the remaining post-holes have a corre-sponding partner at either side of the axis. The distance between the post-holes on eitherside of the axis is roughly the same (Tierney and Johnston ibid). Three other incompletestructures, may have originally been constructed along the same principles. The plant remains recovered at Moatquarter are comparable to other domestic sites,for example Chancellorsland, Curraghatoor and Ballyvellish, in Co. Tipperary. At all ofthese sites barley was the most common Bronze Age crop type and at many retrieval wassporadic and poor. 23
  32. 32. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report 9 References Bruck, J. (2009a) Overview of findings, pp. xvi – xviii in McQuade, M., Molloy, B. and Moriarty, C. In the Shadow of the Galtees. Archaeological excavations along the route of the N8 Cashel to Mitchelstown Road Scheme. Dublin, National Roads Authority. Doody, M. (2007) Excavations at Curraghatoor, Co. Tipperary, University College Cork. Farrelly, J., and O’Brien, C. (2002) Archaeological Inventory of County Tipperary Vol. 1 - North Tipperary, The Stationery Office Dublin. Gardiner, M.J. and Radford,T. (1980) Soil Assocaitions of Ireland and Their Land Use Potential. Dublin, An Foras Talúntais. Guilbery, G. (1982) ‘Post-ring symmetry in roundhouses at Moel y Gaer and some other sites in prehistoric Britain’, in P J Drury (ed), Structural Recognition: approaches to the interpretation of excavated remains of buildings, 67 – 86. British Archaeological Reports 110. McLaughlin, M. and Conran, S. (2008) ‘The emerging Iron Age of South Munster’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 51-53. Dublin. National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (2006) An Introduction to the Architectural Heritage of North Tipperary. Government of Ireland. O’Conor, K.D. (1998) The Archaeology of Medieval Rural Settlement in Ireland, Discovery Programme Monographs No 3, Discovery Programme/Royal Irish Academy Dublin. Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P.G., Buck, C.E., Burr, G., Cutler, K.B., Damon, P.E., Edwards, R.L., Fairbanks, R.G., Friedrich, M., Guilderson, T.P., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, F.G., Manning, S., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Southon, J.R., Stuiver, M., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., van der Plicht, J. and Weyhenmeyer, C.E. (2004) ‘IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0–26 Cal Kyr BP’, Radiocarbon 46, 1029-1058. Stuiver, M., and Reimer, P.J. (1993) ‘Extended (super 14) C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 (super 14) C age calibration program’, Radiocarbon 35, 215-230. Stout, M. (1997) The Irish Ringfort. Dublin, Four Courts Press.24
  33. 33. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Taylor, K. (2008) ‘At home and on the road: two Iron Age sites in County Tipperary’ in Seanda, Issue 3, 54-55. Dublin.Woodman, P.C. (2000) ‘Hammers and Shoeboxes: New Agendas for Prehistory’., pp. 1 -10 in Desmond, A., Johnson, G., McCarthy, M., Sheehan, J. and Shee Twohig, E. New Agendas in Irish Prehistory. Papers in commemoration of Liz Anderson. Bray, Wordwell. 25
  34. 34. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report Appendix 1 Stratigraphic Index Please see attached CD.26
  35. 35. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Appendix 2 Stratigraphic Matrix 27
  36. 36. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report28
  37. 37. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/Appendix 3 Groups and SubgroupsGroup Description Subgroup No. Description Context No.No.1 Natural Topsoil C.1 Deposits Subsoil C.22 Ditch 2 Ditch C.11, C.103 Pits and 3a 4 pits C.3, C.5, C.8, C.185 spread 3b 1 charcoal C.12 spread4 Roundhouse 4a Outer line of 4 postholes C.44, C.54, C. 81 and C.180 postholes 4b Inner circuit of 15 postholes, 2 C.15, C.17, C.19, C.24, C.26, C.29, C.36, structure slot trenches C.41, C.44, C.48, C.50, C.52, C.56, C. 65, C.187, C.43 and C.46 4c Internal features 3 pits C.20, C.39, C.176 4d Hearth 1 Hearth C.1865 Stakeholes 5a Stakeholes associ- 24 stakeholes C.57, C.64, C.69, C.71, C.86, C.93, ated with the inner C.97, C.100, C.105, C.126, C.132, line of house C.139, C.178, C.90, C.92, C.95, C.102, C.166, C.168, C.130, C.62, C.83, C.111 and C.119 5b Stakeholes associ- 11 stakeholes C.107, C.142, C.154, C.117, C.146, ated with the hearth C.156, C.159, C.161, C.165, C.175 and C.182 5c Stakeholes associ- 20 stakeholes C.60, C.77, C.87, C.103, C.110, C.113, ated with the interior C.115, C.122, C.124, C.128, C.134, of the house C.136, C.140, C.144, C.148, C.150, C.152, C.162, C.170 and C.1726 Pits 4 Pits in the Area 2 4 pits C.502, C.503, C.506 and C.508Group 1 Natural DepositsThis group describes the natural geological deposits identified across the area of excavation.Topsoil C.1The topsoil was covering the archaeological features on the site. It was dark grey brownsilt.Subsoil C.2The subsoil was yellow silty clay with frequent stone inclusions. This is the natural subsoilwhich occurs under the features and is found across the site.Group 2 DitchDitch C.11 filled with C. 10A modern ditch located north-east of the house was aligned north-east to south-west.The ditch measured c.22.6m in length (within the area of excavation), 1.6 -2.0m in widthand maximum 1.1m in depth. The break of slope at the top was gradual. The sides wereconcave and moderate. The break of slope at the base was gradual. The base was flat in 29
  38. 38. iSSue 11: eachtra Journal - iSSn 2009-2237 archaeological excavation report profile. The fill was mid red brown soft clayey silt with moderate inclusion of fine pebbles and small stones. An iron peg was recovered from the fill. Group 3 Pits and spread Four isolated pits and a charcoal spread in the northern part of Area 1 Context Dimensions (m) (I x w x d) Type 3 1.05x0.93x0.3 Pit 5 1.57x1.57x0.22 Pit 8 1.87x1.7x0.28 Pit 185 1.1x0.75x0.15 Pit 12 0.5x0.45x0.04 Spread Table of dimensions Subgroup 3a Pits Pits C. 3, C.5, C.8, C.185 Pit C.3 filled with C.4, C.7 The pit was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope at the top was sharp. The sides were steep and smooth. The base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The break of slop at the base was sharp. The pit contained two fills. The upper fill C.4 was brown grey firm silt clay, with occasional pebbles, small stones and charcoal flacks. The basal fill C.7 was grey black soft silt clay with occasional pebbles and moderate amount of charcoal flecks. Pit C.5 filled with C.6 The pit was sub-circular in plan with rounded corners. It had gradual break of slope top and base. The sides were gentle and irregular at east, gentle and smooth elsewhere. The base was sub-circular in plan and flat in profile. The fill was dark brown black firm silty clay, with frequent medium stones and charcoal flecks. Pit C.8 filled with C.9 The pit was circular in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top and base was sharp at east, gradual elsewhere. The sides were steep and concave at east, moderate and convex elsewhere. The base was circular in plan and concave in profile. The fill was mid brown loose silty sand with moderate fine pebbles and occasional small pieces of charcoal. Pit C.185 filled with C.184 The pit was oval in plan. The break of slope at the top was gradual. The sides were gentle and concave. The break of slope at the base was imperceptible. The base was oval in plan and concave in profile. The fill was mid yellow soft sandy silt with fine pebbles, medium stones and occasional large stones. The fill contained frequent flecks and small pieces of charcoal.30
  39. 39. Moatquarter-e3910 http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e3910-moatquarter-co-tipperary/ Interpretation Four isolated pits at the northern end of the site, c. 30 m to the north of the house. Noartefacts were recovered from the pits, their date or function is unknown. It is not certainif these pits are contemporary with the house.Subgroup 3b SpreadSpread C.12A small charcoal reach spread situated c. 10 m to the east from pit C.3. It was black softclayey silt with frequent flecks and small pieces of charcoal.Group 4 HouseThis group describes the features related to the construction of a house and the associatedfeatures within the structure.Subgroup 4a Outer line of postholesFour postholes C.44, C.54, C.81and C.180 constituted the outer line of structure. Context Dimensions (m) (l x w x d) Type 44 0.82x0.64x0.28 Posthole 54 0.87x0.62x0.08 Posthole 81 0.16x0.4x0.12 Posthole 180 0.77x0.57x0.16 PostholeTable of dimensions Posthole C.44 filled with C.45.The posthole was oval in plan. The break of slope at the top and at the base was gradual.The sides were moderate and concave. The base was oval in plan and concave in profile.The fill was mid brown loose silty sand with pebbles and occasional small pieces of char-coal. The posthole was located within the eastern end of slot trench C.46.Posthole C.180 filled with C.181The posthole was oval in plan. It had gradual break of slope at the top and at the base.The sides were steep and concave at east, moderate and concave elsewhere. The base wasoval in plan and concave in profile. The fill was mid yellow brown soft sandy silt withoccasional pebbles and flecks of charcoal.Posthole C.54 filled with C.55The posthole was oval in plan with rounded corners. The break of slope top was sharp.The sides were gentle and concave. The break of slope base was imperceptible. The basewas oval in plan and concave in profile. The fill was light brown grey very soft sandy siltwith occasional pebbles and flecks of charcoal. 31

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