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CH 1 First Humans


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CH 1 First Humans

  1. 2. Prehistory The time before the written word.
  2. 3. How do we find our past?
  3. 4. How do we find our past?
  4. 6. Methods of Dating
  5. 7. Dating Stratigraphy, Tree Rings, Road Cuts
  6. 8. Radio-Carbon Dating determines an object’s age by measuring the amount of C-14
  7. 9. AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) <ul><li>Another name for Radio-Carbon Dating </li></ul><ul><li>Used for samples that are far tinier than that needed for standard radiocarbon dating </li></ul><ul><li>In AMS dating, researchers use an accelerator-based mass spectrometer to count all the C14 atoms, rather than just those atoms which are decaying. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Blood Molecules May survive Millions of years and yield DNA information
  9. 12. Thermo luminescence dating <ul><li>determines an object’s age by measuring the light given off by electrons trapped in the surrounding soil </li></ul>
  10. 15. Early Hominids
  11. 16. Hominids: Having Human Characteristics
  12. 18. <ul><li>The study of past societies through an analysis of the items people left behind them </li></ul>Archaeology
  13. 19. Artifacts <ul><li>tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, buildings & household items left behind by early people </li></ul>
  14. 20. Oldest Hominid Remains Found in… Olduvai Gorge East Africa
  15. 21. Australopithecus <ul><li>Discovered by </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Johanson </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 million years old </li></ul>
  16. 22. Australopithecus
  17. 23. What Lucy Looked Like…
  18. 24. Australopithecus First upright hominid “ southern apes”
  19. 25. PAGE 18 Mary Leakey Louis Leakey
  20. 26. Their son Richard Leakey discovers an Australopithicus skull
  21. 27. Australopithicus footprints
  22. 29. Leakey Legacy <ul><li>“ Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Richard Leakey </li></ul>
  23. 30. Newsweek July 22, 2002
  24. 31. <ul><li>A remnant or impression of an organism from a past geologic age that has been preserved in the earth’s crust </li></ul>Fossils
  25. 32. <ul><li>Homo erectus </li></ul><ul><li>“ upright human being”, a species that emerged around 1.5 million years ago; 2 nd stage of early human development </li></ul>
  26. 33. Homo erectus, cont. <ul><li>Learned to use fire to keep warm in colder areas </li></ul>
  27. 34. <ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>“ wise human being” </li></ul><ul><li>a species that emerged around 250,000 years ago; 3 rd stage in human development </li></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>Homo sapiens sapiens “wise, wise human being” </li></ul><ul><li>a species that appeared in Africa between 150,000 & 200,000 years ago </li></ul>
  29. 36. Homo sapiens sapiens <ul><li>they were the first anatomically modern humans </li></ul>WE BELONG TO THIS GROUP TODAY.
  30. 37. Who was Neaderthal?
  31. 40. <ul><li>from the Greek for “Old Stone” </li></ul><ul><li>the early period of human history, from approximately 2.5 million to 10,000 B.C., humans used simple stone tools </li></ul>Paleolithic Age
  32. 41. Lifestyle Hunter-gathering
  33. 42. Drawbacks to Hunting & Gathering <ul><li>1. Food sources dry up </li></ul><ul><li>2. No storage </li></ul><ul><li>3. Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Short lifespan </li></ul>
  34. 43. Major advances <ul><li>Mastery of fire </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul>
  35. 44. Technology
  36. 45. Lascaux Cave Art
  37. 49. ROCK ART PROJECT <ul><li>Rough Draft Project due in class Monday </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz on Vocab Wed/Thu </li></ul><ul><li>Test on Chapter 1 Next Fri </li></ul><ul><li>Pass out Project Info </li></ul>
  38. 50. ROCK ART PROJECT <ul><li>Assignment: Test Grade. You will produce a cave drawing with symbols and icons. It will also include a basic sentence telling a person that might find this in the future who you are. You will also make your own alphabet. Write out the letters of our current English alphabet and then create a new symbol for each letter. </li></ul>
  39. 51. End of 1 st Section of Notes
  40. 52. The Ice Age <ul><li>Most recent: </li></ul><ul><li>100,000-8,000 BC </li></ul>
  41. 53. Section 2: Neolithic Revolution & Rise of Civilizations
  42. 54. New technology
  43. 55. Pottery Improved tools (metal working) New Technology
  44. 56. Marked a new level of human control over their environment Use of Metals
  45. 57. Rise of Villages
  46. 58. High Point of Neolithic Age <ul><li>Catal Huyuk , located in modern-day Turkey, high point from 6700 to 5700 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Mud brick houses </li></ul>
  47. 59. Earliest Writing <ul><li>Cuneiforms </li></ul>
  48. 60. <ul><li>Food surpluses made it possible for people to do things other than farming </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans – a skilled craftsperson who makes products such as weapons & jewelry </li></ul>
  49. 61. <ul><li>scribes </li></ul>
  50. 62. End of the Neolithic Age <ul><li>Copper, then Bronze tools led to the Bronze Age </li></ul>
  51. 63. <ul><li>Between 4000 & 3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of metals marked a new level of human control over the environment & its resources </li></ul>End of the Neolithic Age
  52. 64. Bronze Sword
  53. 65. Neolithic Age <ul><li>Development of Cities </li></ul><ul><li>Mastered the art of farming </li></ul><ul><li>More complex societies </li></ul><ul><li>Created armies & built walled cities </li></ul>
  54. 66. 6 characteristics of Civilizations <ul><li>1 . Cities </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Government </li></ul><ul><li>3 . Religion </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Social structure </li></ul><ul><li>5 . Art </li></ul><ul><li>6. Writing </li></ul>
  55. 67. THE END
  56. 68. Essay Questions <ul><li>1. Describe some of the dramatic changes that took place during the Neolithic Revolution and the consequences. </li></ul>
  57. 69. Essay Questions <ul><li>2. Explain how the roles of men and women changed from the Paleolithic Age to the Neolithic Age. </li></ul>