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Cognitive apprenticeship2


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Case Submission for Cognitive AP

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Cognitive apprenticeship2

  2. 2. MARQUETTE UNIVERSITYEducating Marquette students is"remarkable, sacred work,"according to President Scott R. Pilarz, S.J.(
  3. 3. Enrollment: Approximately 8,400 undergraduate and 3,600 graduate andprofessional students; nearly all states and 68 countries represented.Undergraduate programs:116 majors and 65 minors and pre-professional programs in dentistry,law and medicinePostgraduate programs:50 doctoral and masters degree programs, more than 30 graduatecertificate programs, and a School of Dentistry and Law SchoolFaculty:More than 1,100 (almost 700 full time)(See About Marguette
  4. 4. BLENDED LEARNING Blended Learning may become the educational delivery method of choice in higher education. (Bonk, Kim, & Zeng, 2006)
  5. 5. ( cont’ d) Ina survey of 300 colleges and universities, EDUCAUSE found hybrid instruction used more widely, 80% of surveyed. (Hayslett, O’Sullivan, Schweizer & Wrench, 2009, p. 93)
  6. 6. MARQUETTE UNIVERSITY COURSE DEFINITIONS F2F Classes with web facilitated to deliver 1-29% of course content. Hybrid (Blended) Classes to deliver 30-79% of course content. Online Classes to deliver 80% or more of course content.(Hayslett, et al, 2009, p. 94)
  7. 7. REASONS FOR BLENDED LEARNING Students report high levels of learning and satisfaction. (Campos, & Harasim, 1999) Instructors may employ additional instruction tools. (Dzuiban, Hartman, & Moskal, 2004) Students better able to direct own learning. (Bhatti, Tubaisahat, & El-Qawasmeh, 2005)
  8. 8. CHALLENGES OF IMPLEMENTATION Students not familiar with online instruction tools . (Hayslett, O’Sullivan, Schweizer & Wrench, 2009, p. 94) Students may lack self-regulation. (Schunk, & Zimmerman, (Eds.). 1998). Instructor of hybrid classes are more likely to require multimedia classrooms. (Dzuiban, Hartman, & Moskal, 2004)
  9. 9. ROLE OF FACULTY DEVELOPMENT Some form of organized support to help faculty members develop. (Sorcinelli, Austin, Eddy, & Beach, 2006)
  10. 10.  “Without faculty development, faculty may be even less likely to incorporate technology into their instruction…” (Hayslett et al, 2009, p. 96) Faculty development providers must shift the pedagogical foundations. (Hayslett et al, 2009, p. 96)
  11. 11. COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIP Develop cognitive skills, rather than manual skills. (Hayslett et al, 2009, p. 96) Teach learners to process information. (Collins, Brown, & Newman 1989)
  12. 12. COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIP PROCESSES  Modeling  Coaching  Scaffolding  Articulation  Reflection  Exploration (Hayslett et al, 2009, p. 98)
  13. 13. DESIGNING AND TEACHING A HYBRID COURSE Six 1 ½ hour F2F course time Six online modules Discussion forum Assignments Activities Resources (Hayslett et al, 2009, p. 98)
  14. 14.  Course was open to all faculty. Eleven disciplines represented in class. Taught by panel of instructors. (Hayslett et al, 2009, p. 101)
  15. 15. MARQUETTE HYBRID COURSE SATISFIEDCOGNITVE APPRENTICESHIP PROCESSESModeling –Hybrid course teachinghow to teach hybridcourses.Coaching –Course set-up as peer-to-peer course.Scaffolding–Availability of instructorsthroughout class eitherF2F, online, office hoursor discussion groups.
  16. 16. Articulation- ReciprocalTeaching that elicits anarticulation of ideas.Reflection-Multiple opportunities toreflect on their ownpractice.(Hayslett, et al, 2009, p. 102)
  17. 17. COURSE FEEDBACKFeedback was conducted with semi-structuredinterviews with selected participants conductedby a non-team member.(Hayslett et al, 2009, p. 105)
  18. 18. PARTICIPANT FEEDBACK Course and instruction superior. Would recommend course to others. 60% agreed with hybrid to teach hybrid format. 90% found components to model in their own courses. Largest feedback agreeing with level of support given in the learning process.(Hayslett et al, 2009, pp. 105-107)
  20. 20. COGNITIVEAPPRENTICESHIPPEDOGOGYA Student-CenteredPedagogy(Hayslett et al, 2009, p. 109)
  21. 21. SUGGESTED COURSE IMPROVEMENTS Student award or credit. More student accountability. Include more technology. Provide more support.(Hayslett et al, 2009, pp. 110-112)
  22. 22. CONCLUSIONDesigning andTeaching aHybrid Courseaffected changein faculty’sinstructionalpractice.(Hayslett et al, 2009, p.114)
  23. 23. ReferencesBhatti, A., Tubaisahat, A., & El-Qawasmeh, E. (2005). Using technology-mediated learning environmentto overcome social and cultural limitations in higher education. Issues in Informing Science andInformationTechnology, 2, 67-76.Bonk, C., Kim, K., & Zeng, T. (2006). Future directions of blended learning in higher education andworkplace learning settings. In C. J Bonk & C. R. Graham, (Eds.), Handbook of Blended Learning: GlobalPerspectives, Local Designs (pp. 550-567). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Publishing.Campos, M., & Harasim, L. (1999). Virtual-U: Results and challenges of unique field trials. TheTechnology Source. Retrieved February 4, 2009, from, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts orreading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays inhonor of Robert Glaser. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Dzuiban, C. D., Hartman, J. L., & Moskal, P. D. (2004). Blended learning. Educause Research Bulletin,2004(7), 1-12.Hayslett, C., O’Sullivan, E., Schweizer & Wrench, J., (2009) Using Cognitive Apprenticeship to ProvideFaculty Development in the Use of Blended Learning. Journal of the Research Center for EducationalTechnology (RCET) Vol. 5, No. 2, Summer 2009, 92-117)Schunk, D. H, & Zimmerman, B. J. (Eds.). (1998). Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice. New York: The Guilford Press.Sorcinelli, M. D., Austin, A. E., Eddy, P. L., & Beach, A. L. (2006). Creating the future of facultydevelopment. Boston, MA: Anker Publishing Co.