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Multicultural counseling


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Multicultural counseling

  1. 1. Theories of Counseling: Multicultural Counseling
  2. 2. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Multicultural Counseling and Theory (MCT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All helping methods exist within a cultural context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MCT recognizes the differences among and within clients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks at how family and cultural factors affect one’s worldview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MCT came from the recognition that many theories were empirically validated on white middle-class males and therefore may not work as well with people who are from other diverse groups. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Multicultural Counseling and Theory (MCT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therapists strive to liberate clients from personal, social and economic oppression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients are liberated from self-blame and shown how their problems often exist in a social context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence is basic to philosophy and action in MCT. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Approaches to Multicultural Counseling and Theory (MCT) </li></ul><ul><li>The Universal Approach : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture is define in a broad, inclusive and universal way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaches about the danger of stereotyping. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the importance of language and loyalty to one’s own cultural group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides information about acculturation and oppression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discusses the importance of gender roles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates identity development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds self-esteem and awareness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates understanding of worldview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Approaches to Multicultural Counseling and Theory (MCT) </li></ul><ul><li>The Focused Culture-Specific Approach : </li></ul><ul><li>The counselor examines his or her own racial beliefs and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Discusses racially relevant topics and is willing to work on issues of oppression. </li></ul><ul><li>The counselor views clients on two levels: Individual and as members of a group. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Multicultural Counseling and Theory (MCT) as Metatheory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MCT recognizes culture as an internalized, subjective perspective formed against a backdrop of contrasting cultural backgrounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points out the importance in seeing the individual in context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is concerned with cultural intentionality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional theories are modified in ways that show respect for human diversity. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Nwachuku,s Theory for Generating Theory and Practice for other Cultures Besides Your Own. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the culture in question: What are the important personal and interpersonal aspects of this culture? Utilize field research, interviews and anthropological readings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify concrete skills and strategies that can be used in helping. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test the new helping theory and its skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This framework can be applied to a variety of cultural contexts. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>The Microskill of Focusing and MCT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individually balanced focus among individual, family and cultural expectations is needed when counseling clients from various cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A significant part of any session needs to address the issues of significant others, and cultural, environmental and contextual issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-in relation to, connectedness, relationship and interdependence all need to be considered. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Introspective Developmental Counseling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naikan Therapy: Is aimed at assisting clients in finding meaning in their lives and in repairing damaged relationships. It moves the client from self-centeredness to awareness of interpersonal relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introspective Developmental Counseling and Life Review: Tamase’s work combines Eastern and Western frameworks. Erikson’s has received criticism because it is grounded on a Northern European, U.S. white male model. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>The Integrative Life Pattern Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a decisional counseling model that raises a person’s awareness of multicultural issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lifelong pattern of identifying our primary needs, roles and goals and integrating these within ourselves, our work and our family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients make decisions about their total development: Physical, intellectual, social/emotional, vocational, sexual etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four major life roles: Loving, learning, labor and leisure. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Cultural Identity Development Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a cognitive, emotional and behavioral progression through stages of awareness and involves different attitudes towards oneself at the different stages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally the stages are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of self as a cultural being. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encounter with cultural issues. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naming of these cultural issues. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection on the meaning of self as a cultural being. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internalization about self-in-system. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Constructing Culturally Appropriate Techniques and Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implies a nonhierarchical relationship between counselor and client. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors modify their techniques and strategies to fit the client rather than making the client fit the therapy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes into consideration that what may be appropriate for one client in one cultural context may be inappropriate for another client in another cultural context. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Feminist Therapy as an Example </li></ul><ul><li>Feminist therapy utilizes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egalitarian relationships Active, participatory counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralism style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An external emphasis Information giving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of community resources Personal validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds the concept of “power” missing in other theories. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works within a community context. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>MCT Practice and Multiple Helping Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Network Therapy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates community relationships and community into family therapy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can include the nuclear family, extended family, important neighbors, and key figures from the community (priest, teacher, the police etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One focus is to help the client build meaningful community and interpersonal relationships to foster positive mental well-being. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Points to Remember with Network Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t expect to do it all yourself. Network therapy utilizes a treatment team. </li></ul><ul><li>Use multiple theoretical approaches. Different theories may be beneficial at different times with the same client. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the value of network treatment for all clients. People do not live in vacuums and their issues or problems affect others around them. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Family Therapy and Multicultural Issues </li></ul><ul><li>The multicultural treatment of choice is often family therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Family is defined culturally and the roles, relationships and rules can be different among and between cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural expectations play a role in every family and group experience. </li></ul><ul><li>A significant component of our self-concept is derived from our ethnic heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic heritage also can shape our attitudes and beliefs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Traditional Healing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually based on the epistemology and belief system of the culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors may sometimes need to work with traditional healers (e.g. a medicine man) in order to best serve the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional healers have always included family and the larger community in treatment. As Western theories begin to do so also, these two approaches are becoming closer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important not to adopt traditional practices without first consulting with the host culture to show the proper respect for their traditions. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Liberation of Consciousness: Self-in-Relation </li></ul><ul><li>Freire’s Five Levels of Consciousness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naïve consciousness: Blame for oneself for one’s condition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification with the oppressor: The oppressed find within the oppressor their model of “personhood.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger: As one discovers one’s level of oppression, one becomes angry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection on the self as a cultural being: This leads to action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees self-in-system: Personal identity is made by the self in relation to… </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Multicultural Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Religion/Spirituality Economic Class </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality Identity Psychological Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic/Racial Identity Chronological Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma Family History </li></ul><ul><li>Language Unique Psychical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Location of Residence </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your own level of cultural identity in relationship to each of the above concepts. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>The Foundational Concepts of Empathy and Multicultural Competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance is the foundation of empathy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The feelings you experience within yourself are the key to your own degree of acceptance toward others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roger’s core conditions form the backbone for empathic relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors need to be aware of their own cultural values and beliefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors need to be aware of their client’s worldview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselors need to use culturally appropriate intervention strategies. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Relating Educational Method to Counseling Theory and Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inviting a narrative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reexperiencing the sensory dimensions of cultural identity issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making the narrative concrete and specific. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving to a reflective consciousness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing self-in-relation or self-in-system. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Limitations of Multicultural Counseling and Theory (MCT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The counselor needs to be highly competent in traditional theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The counselor needs to have a in-depth understanding of MCT metatheory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The counselor needs to develop a knowledge of many different cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a small research base on MCT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It challenges traditional therapies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can be difficult for practicing counselors to incorporate it. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Multicultural Counseling <ul><li>Strengths of Multicultural Counseling and Theory (MCT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a theoretical orientation in and of itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides a framework to address the needs of the culturally different and provides an alternative to theories empirically validated on white, middle-class males. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous interventions can be applied through this approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is flexible and considers the needs of the individual in relationship to the community. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Resources <ul><li>Ivey, A. E., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M. B. and Morgan, L. S. (2002). Theories of counseling </li></ul><ul><li>and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective, 5 th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn & </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>James, R. K. & Gilliland, B. E. (2003). Theories and strategies in counseling and </li></ul><ul><li>psychotherapy, 5 th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Kottler, J. A. (2002). Theories in counseling and therapy: An experiential approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul>