Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and identity

3,728 views

Published on

Counseling Psychology and Pedagogy Master Program
PSD 437

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Technology
0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,728
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
138
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lecture 3 culture and diversity culture and identity

  1. 1. CULTURE AND IDENTITY
  2. 2. CULTURE (FRISBY, 1992)  A pattern of living, customs, traditions, values, attitudes.  A significant artistic/humanitarian/scientific achievement of the group.  A “race consciousness” -guide individual identification.
  3. 3.  Refers to superficial differences between macro and micro groups (clothing, music, speech, ect).  Refers to outer appearance (“culturally different”).
  4. 4. WHAT IS CULTURE?  Some people regard the term “culture” as having “refinement”, “social etiquette” or “appropriate manners”.  Social scientists use “culture” to mean the patterns of learned behaviour that are shared and transmitted among members of society in an ongoing social heritage.
  5. 5.  Some perceived attributes of culture:  Mateship,  Loyalty,  Easy going nature,  Honesty,  Sports loving.  Culture may also be thought of as the way of life for a social group with values, norms and institutions
  6. 6. THE IMPORTANCE OF IDENTITY WHO AM I? I am… I am… I am… I am…I am… Multiple Identities I am…
  7. 7. DEFINITION OF IDENTITY: “THE REFLECTIVE SELF-CONCEPTION OR SELF- IMAGE THAT WE EACH DERIVE FROM OUR FAMILY, GENDER, CULTURAL, ETHNIC, AND INDIVIDUAL SOCIALIZATION PROCESS” (TING- TOOMEY).
  8. 8. TWO LEVELS OF IDENTITY (HALL): 1- PERSONAL (WHAT MAKES US UNIQUE) 2-CULTURAL, COMMUNAL OR SOCIAL (LARGE- SCALE COMMUNITIES SUCH AS NATIONALITY, ETHNICITY, GENDER, RELIGIOUS OR POLITICAL AFFILIATION)
  9. 9. CULTURE AND IDENTITY GLOBALIZATION & CULTURE  Influences of globalization on traditional, languages and cultures;  Cultural imperialism;  Resistance to globalization among cultures;  Migration and population movements;  Diasporic communities;  Global virtual communities;  Negotiation among cultures;
  10. 10.  Globalization and religion;  Comparative religion study;  The growing role of Global Islam;  Transformation of the international workforce;  The local in a globalized world – “glocalization”;  The globalization of sport (Olympics, Super Bowl, and World Cup ect)  Transformation of the university and education
  11. 11. CULTURE AND IDENTITY HOW ARE INDIVIDUAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF IDENTITY INFLUENCED BY GLOBALIZATION?  Changing nature of race and ethnicity in a globalized world;  Technology, global interactions and identity;  Identity and citizenship in the context of globalization;
  12. 12.  Influences of immigration and migration on identity and culture;  Youth culture and advances in technology  Technology, games and identity  Changing identity pathways
  13. 13. TYPES OF SOCIAL IDENTITIES 1- RACIAL IDENTITY – A SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED IDEA BASED ON THE RACE 2- ETHNIC IDENTITY – DERIVED FROM A SENSE OF SHARED HERITAGE, HISTORY, TRADITIONS, VALUES, AREA OF ORIGIN, AND SOMETIMES LANGUAGE 3- GENDER IDENTITY – HOW A PARTICULAR CULTURE DIFFERENTIATES MASCULINE AND FEMININE SOCIAL ROLES 4- NATIONAL IDENTITY – THE NATION/COUNTRY ONE WAS BORN INTO ( OR A SENSE OF PLACE)
  14. 14. Identity models:  RACIAL IDENTITY: reactions to societal dynamics of “racial” oppression based on physical characteristics assumed to be racial or genetic in nature.  ETHNIC IDENTITY: if acquisition or maintenance of cultural characteristics (eg language, religion) are defining principles.
  15. 15. CULTURAL IDENTITY: captures change, uncertainty and ambiguity;  incorporates diversity and pluralism  there are a number of different „selves‟ at different levels and their true psychological integration will lead to better psychological functioning  Incorporates any factor that may account for “differential” patterns of learned or shared behaviour
  16. 16. ACCULTURATION Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals with different cultures come into continuous first hand contact; subsequent changes in both groups (Redfield et al, 1936)
  17. 17. ACCULTURATION ShantiRaman Phinney 1990, based on Berry et al 1986
  18. 18. RACIAL/CULTURAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT MODEL ATKINSON, MORTEN, & SUE (1989)  Conformity: dominant cultural values  Dissonance: question identity  Resistance & Immersion: appreciate group and reject dominant culture  Introspection: differentiate individual views  Integrative Awareness: self & other appreciation
  19. 19. CROSS-CULTURAL AWARENESS DEVELOPMENT MODEL CHRISTENSEN (1989)  Unawareness: avoid personal responsibility  Transition: begin to acknowledge Whiteness  Conscious Awareness: over-identification  Consolidated Awareness: acceptance of Whiteness  Transcendent Awareness: appreciation of diversity & commitment to societal change
  20. 20. BIRACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT MODEL POSTON (1990)  Personal Identity: within family group  Choice of Group Categorization: compelled to choose a specific group  Enmeshment/Denial: struggle w/ rejection of part of self  Appreciation: exploration of heritage(s)  Integration: value multicultural identity
  21. 21. “GENERIC” STAGES OF CULTURAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT MODELS  Stage one: Lack of awareness of the importance of culture  Intermediate Stages: Psychological discomfort, self-examination, over-identification with own culture  Final Stage: Self-acceptance and appreciation of culture
  22. 22. OTHER DIMENSIONS OF MINORITY IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT  Feminist identity development model (Downing and Roush, 1985)  Minority ethnicity and sexual orientation identity development (Morales, 1992)
  23. 23. CULTURE.....COMPLEX!  Change is constant  Difference is the norm  Context is central
  24. 24. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE, MODERATOR VARIABLES Dominant Culture Influences Nondominant Cultural Influences Acculturation Enculturation Ethnic/Racial Identity Psychological functioning Moderator Variables Moderator Variables
  25. 25. MODERATOR VARIABLES  Type of acculturating group (voluntary or forced);  Social characteristics;  Oppression and legal constraints;  Racism, prejudice and discrimination;  Cultural characteristics;  Language used and fluency;  Individual characteristics;
  26. 26.  How Might Social and Personal Identities Influence Behavior and Achievement?  Through Their Influence of Individuals‟  Expectancies/ Ability Self-Concepts  Values and Goals
  27. 27. Personal Experiences Subcultural Beliefs, Images, Stereotypes Societal Beliefs, Images, Ideology, Stereotypes • Personal Identities Self-concepts Self-schema Future possible selves Values Goals, Aspirations • Social Identities Salience Content Perception of barriers and opportunities linked to category membership Expectations Personal Efficacy Perceived Value of Specific Activities Behavior Patterns & Choices
  28. 28. SOCIAL GROUP MEMBERSHIP CAN AFFECT THE WAYS IN WHICH PEOPLE RESPOND TO YOU Experiences related to daily experiences of discrimination and racism (Boykin; Cross; Essed; Feagin; Jackson; Spencer; Thorne)
  29. 29. SOCIAL GROUP MEMBERSHIP CAN AFFECT THE OPPORTUNITIES AND BARRIERS YOU ARE LIKELY TO CONFRONT  More pervasive structural forms of racism and inequality (Boykin; Cross; Jackson; McLoyd; Ogbu; Omi & Winant)
  30. 30. GROUP MEMBERSHIP CAN AFFECT SELF PROCESSES LINKED TO STEREOTYPES AND STEREOTYPING  Incorporating stereotypes into one‟s personal identity can lead to stereotypic perceptions of one’s skills and opportunities and stereotypic goals and aspirations (Ashmore; Crocker; Deaux; Eccles; Ruble)  Stereotypes about future discrimination can lead to oppositional identity formation (Fordham & Ogbu)
  31. 31. GROUP MEMBERSHIP AND IDENTITY FORMATION  Social group salience can influence social identity formation (Aboud; Cooper; Cross; Garcia-Cole; McGuire; Phinney; Omi & Winant; Sellers; Thorne)  Social identities can influence goals and aspirations, as well as behavioral style and friendship networks, which, in turn can influence behavior (Chavous; Cross; Eccles; Gurin; Fordham & Ogbu; Fuligni; Kao; Mickelson; Moje; O‟Connor; Oyserman; Rotherman & Phinney; Spencer; Sellers; Taylor; Thorne; Ruble)  Social identities can help adolescents make meaning of experiences of racism and discrimination (Boykin; Cross; Deaux; Phelan; Phinney; Sellers; Spencer)

×