Nixon
Profile: Richard Millhouse Nixon <ul><ul><li>1913: Born in California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation as brilliant s...
Nixon as a person <ul><li>Very crafty…used the media to propel his political future but…. </li></ul><ul><li>The media ende...
What did Nixon Do? <ul><li>Focused on foreign affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opened China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce...
Domestic Agenda Continued.. <ul><li>Titled “New Federalism” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on restructuring the bureaucracy...
The Epic of Watergate <ul><li>Rocked the USA in early 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Single greatest threat to Constitution ever ...
Phase 1: CREEP suspected <ul><li>17 June 1972: Five ‘burglars’ arrested in Democratic Party HQ in Watergate Hotel </li></u...
Phase 2: Did Nixon Know? <ul><li>January 1973: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watergate burglars on trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Phase 3: Battle for the Tapes <ul><li>Nixon’s tapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate Investigation revealed Nixon recorded all...
Phase 4: The End <ul><li>SC ordered tapes turned over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revealed Nixon involved in initial campaign </...
 
The Aftermath <ul><li>Congress passed laws due to scandal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy Act (1974): Americans can inspect ...
 
Activity:   What Watergate’s impact on Americans? <ul><li>Study these three cartoons.,  Which do you think makes the follo...
Focus Task: Verdicts on Nixon <ul><li>Two flew over the cuckoo’s nest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work in pairs </li></ul></ul><...
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Nixon

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Nixon

  1. 1. Nixon
  2. 2. Profile: Richard Millhouse Nixon <ul><ul><li>1913: Born in California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation as brilliant scholar & lawyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII: Navy Lieutenant in Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> war: elected to HoR; HUAC Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: elected to Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped McCarthy w/ anti-Communist investigations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1952: VP candidate w/ Ike; 1953-1961 VP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960: Republican candidate, lost to JFK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1968: Elected President promising to exit Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1972: Re-elected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1973-74: Watergate controversy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1974: Resigned office to avoid being impeached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1994: Died </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nixon as a person <ul><li>Very crafty…used the media to propel his political future but…. </li></ul><ul><li>The media ended up crucifying him over Watergate </li></ul><ul><li>He always resented the elite and he personality reflected that (Hiss) </li></ul><ul><li>The “checkers” speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He appealed to the heart strings of America by justifying potential corruption with campaign finances by accepting the donation of a dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around $18,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used smear tactics to get into Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked opponents based on communist ties….led to HUAC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His role in the Alger Hiss case made him famous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped to propel his career </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lived in poverty…led to his desire to curtail poverty in America </li></ul>
  4. 4. What did Nixon Do? <ul><li>Focused on foreign affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opened China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced nukes w/ USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced tensions in Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promised exit from Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Peace with dignity’; exited Vietnam (1973) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended draft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important advances on social issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More blacks in college, voting, in politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annoyed Congress by saying, ‘I’ve always thought this country could run itself domestically without a president.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic policies confused </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation reduced but unemployment high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nixon cut taxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican presidents almost always do this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, this fueled inflation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Domestic Agenda Continued.. <ul><li>Titled “New Federalism” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on restructuring the bureaucracy by funneling money to the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that the states could spend the money better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>26 th amendment </li></ul><ul><li>70% of black children were segregated in the south </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered state committees to desegregate-17% by 1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA 1970 and the National Air Quality Standards Act </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue sharing and Family Assistance Program </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Legislation for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal Rights Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Task Force on Women’s Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Kent State, 1970 </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Epic of Watergate <ul><li>Rocked the USA in early 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Single greatest threat to Constitution ever </li></ul><ul><li>Started small and snowballed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1: CREEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Did Nixon know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Battle for the tapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 4: The end </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Phase 1: CREEP suspected <ul><li>17 June 1972: Five ‘burglars’ arrested in Democratic Party HQ in Watergate Hotel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not stealing, but planting bugging devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One was former CIA agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All linked to C ommittee for the Re - e lection of the P resident (CREEP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FBI investigates CREEP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive campaign to spy on Nixon’s opponents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CREEP raised $60 million for re-election by pressuring companies w/ gov’t contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Mitchell, CREEP director, used ‘dirty tricks’ to discredit Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein & Bob Woodward, pursued own investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon denied he or close advisors were involved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov. 1972: Nixon won landslide election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon thought Watergate was behind him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was wrong </li></ul></ul>The beginning of President Nixon’s 2nd inaugural address, just as the Vietnam War was ending
  8. 8. Phase 2: Did Nixon Know? <ul><li>January 1973: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watergate burglars on trial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All found guilty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One claimed White House involved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nixon reacts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denied allegation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed Archibald Cox as special Watergate prosecutor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senate investigates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May-Nov. 1973: Senator Sam Cox led televised independent Senate investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear that senior White House officials involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three of Nixon’s advisors resigned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One, John Dean, claimed he discusses burglary at least 35 times w/ Nixon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon denied any involvement, fired Dean </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Phase 3: Battle for the Tapes <ul><li>Nixon’s tapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate Investigation revealed Nixon recorded all conversations in oval office since 1971 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate & Cox wanted tapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon refused, citing “presidential privilege” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20 October 1973: “Saturday Night Massacre” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon ordered Attorney General to fire Cox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AG refused, then resigned under pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New AG fired Cox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New special investigator, Leon Jaworski, also demanded tapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon released some tapes, but 18 ½ crucial minutes had been “accidentally” erased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 1974: Battle over tapes continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon released 1200 heavily edited pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jaworski appealed to SC </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Phase 4: The End <ul><li>SC ordered tapes turned over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revealed Nixon involved in initial campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revealed Nixon repeatedly tried to cover up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>27 July 1974: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach Nixon for obstruction of justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>66% of Americans in favor of impeachment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8 August: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon resigned to avoid impeachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As civilian, Nixon could have been tried as criminal, but Jaworski didn’t prosecute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Ford pardoned him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31 of Nixon’s officials went to prison </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. The Aftermath <ul><li>Congress passed laws due to scandal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy Act (1974): Americans can inspect gov’t files on them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget Act (1974): President has to account for all $$$ spent (Nixon believed to have spent millions of gov’t money on personal properties & evaded $400,000 of taxes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Election Campaign Act: Limited campaign contributions; eliminated foreign donations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scandal utterly destroyed Nixon’s rep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “Tricky Dick”, achievements forgotten </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watergate’s deeper damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermined America’s confidence in gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was Nixon exception or rule of political system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press turned from hiding info (JFK) to seeking scandal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence & idealism of 60s replaced w/ cynicism and doubt </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Activity: What Watergate’s impact on Americans? <ul><li>Study these three cartoons., Which do you think makes the following points? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon is a liar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America is in crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don ‘t trust politicians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You are planning a newspaper feature on the impact of Watergate. You can include just one of the cartoons. Which will you choose and why? 50 words </li></ul>
  13. 15. Focus Task: Verdicts on Nixon <ul><li>Two flew over the cuckoo’s nest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work in pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You and your partner are both inmates in an insane asylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of you can only remember good things about people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other can only remember bad things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One day the two of you see a newspaper headline of Nixon’s resignation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The skeptic turns and says, “Well, it’s about time! Tricky Dick sure was a crook!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The optimist replies, “How can you say that, after all of the good he has done! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write 12 additional lines of dialogue using facts from your notes </li></ul></ul>

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