Latin America CW


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Latin America CW

  1. 1. The Cold War Latin America and Canada
  2. 2. Latin America <ul><li>The Cold War affected relations between the US and Latin America in a number of ways due in part to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fact that the methods and instruments used were extremely costly and disproportionate to the goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The methods and instruments used were inappropriate to reach the goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The use of force and financial assistance was used to further US interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Done when the US felt threatened by the development of communism in Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But…even when governments acted against the US, we did not act if communism was not possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is what made the Americas unique… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The involvement of the USSR or the “stealing” of US property did not by itself trigger involvement </li></ul></ul>Latin American Tunes
  3. 3. American Involvement in Latin America ½ 20 th C <ul><li>Entered into LA for three primary reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain territory and influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To exclude rival powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and advance interest of US firms in LA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panama (canal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain in 1898 (territory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dollar Diplomacy” and the Monroe Doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico in 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted in the removal of General Victoriano Huerta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>So…how did policy change? </li></ul>Latin American Tunes
  4. 4. American involvement in LA 2 nd ½ <ul><li>The United Fruit Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed in 1899, had a HUGE influence on politics in LA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expropriation in certain countries meant fear of communism (Cuba, G…) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guatemala and the Arbenz regime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We had direct influence in G politics for quite some time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fear of the Guatemala/Soviet relationship greatly worried the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1954, Jacobo Arbenz was overthrown in coup led by the CIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We did supply weapons to G over the next 40 years….depending on who was in charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bolivia in 1952 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expropriation of Tin mines </li></ul></ul>Latin American Tunes
  5. 5. <ul><li>April 28, 1965 invasion of Dominican Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First invasion of LA country by US in 40 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LBJ believed DR was a second Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was greatly mistaken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September 4, 1970 Salvador Allende and his Popular Unity Party won </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nixon ordered CIA to block his confirmation and to “leave no stone unturned” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to direct a coup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over the next 3 years the US directed covert and overt operations against regime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nicaragua </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 1980’s Reagan spent a great deal of time with N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We supplied weapons to the N Resistance (Contras) against the Sandinista government </li></ul></ul>American involvement in LA 2nd ½ Latin American Tunes
  6. 6. US involvement <ul><li>Cuba and Fidel Castro (1959) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US supported the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation Mongoose-the use of covert tactics to undermine the Castro regime…including an embargo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cuban Missile Crisis…October of 1962 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US intelligence (ha ha) saw missile bases being built in Cuba, led to a tense 13 day stand-off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1983 invasion of Grenada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New Jewel Movement (1979-1983) a communist party with close ties to C and USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The US saw the government as a significant threat to Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1989 Bush invaded Panama to overthrow the government who was suspected of drug-trafficking </li></ul>Latin American Tunes
  7. 7. Focus Task: The Implications of Latin America <ul><li>Imagine you are an advisor to the President and a firm believer in containment. Write a briefing on the comparative policies of Latin America and Asia in which you do the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify specific examples of US involvement in each area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the relative success of both areas, paying special attention to areas we “lost” to communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the intent of each area, why did we get involved in Asia and LA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are the two areas different and should future policy be changed accordingly? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. PSD’s on Latin American Policy <ul><li>“ If Central America were to fall, what would be the consequences for our position in Asia, Europe and for alliances such as NATO? If the United States cannot respond to a threat near our own borders, why should Europeans or Asians believe that we are seriously concerned about threats to them? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagan addressing a special session of Congress in 1983 defending his foreign policy </li></ul></ul>