Nixon the Conservative New Federalism Southern Strategy Drugs and Crime• Thought federal • Nixon wanted to • Opposed federal government was too expand his support in court rulings that large. the Democratic put limits on the south. power of the police.• Solution was called the New Federalism. • Tried to weaken the • Sought to name 1965 Voting Rights conservative judges • Key feature was Act. the concept of to federal courts. revenue sharing. • Urged a slowdown in • Filled four openings forced integration. on the Supreme • Believed that local • Opposed busing. Court (2 of his governments • Wanted local nominees were could spend governments to take rejected). taxpayers money action themselves. more effectively.
Nixon the Liberal Environmentalism Other Policies• Environmental concerns had been • Signed the Occupational Safety growing. and Health Act.• Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring. – Act created the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) to• Massive Earth Day demonstrations prevent work-related death and injuries. in 1970. • Advanced affirmative action by• Signed the Clean Air Act setting specific hiring goals and – Act sought to regulate levels of air timetables for overcoming pollution created by factories and discrimination. other sources. – Extended affirmative action programs• Worked to establish the to the hiring of women. Environmental Protection Agency.
Domestic Policies Kennedy’s and Nixon’s Policies Johnson’s Policies • wanted to reform welfare system by replacing the • Great Society programs • believed that government provision of expanded the welfare system some form of services with the Family and provided services to government Assistance Plan poor Americans assistance was necessary to • no new civil rights• proposed and supported civil combat poverty legislationrights legislation • pledged to cut back • increased government Democratic programs spending on social programs
Major Social and Cultural Events during the Nixon Years • Nixon was worried about the high rates of inflation and unemployment. • He announced a 90-day freeze of wages and prices in order to stop inflation from rising. • The wage and price controls did work temporarily.
Major Social and Cultural Events during the Nixon Years• On July 16, 1969 the Apollo 11 successfully lifted off from the Kennedy Space Center.• Three astronauts were on board—Neil Armstrong, Edwin ―Buzz‖ Aldrin, and Michael Collins.• On July 20 Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.
Henry Kissinger• Nixon had great success with his foreign policy issues.• Henry Kissinger was Nixon’s national security advisor and later secretary of state.• Kissinger shaped much of Nixon’s foreign policy.
Détente• Nixon took steps to ease tensions with Cold War enemies—a policy called détente.• The goal of détente was to build a more stable world in which the United States and its adversaries accepted one another’s place.
Realpolitik Kissinger believed in the notion of realpolitik—or basing foreign policies on realistic views of national interest rather than on broad rules or principles. Kissinger believed the United States should consider each foreign-policy conflict or question from the standpoint of what is best for America.The government should not be bound by promises to fight communismor promote freedom wherever it is threatened.Kissinger’s realpolitik marked a significant change from earlier policies suchas containment.
Communism The Soviet Union China• In 1969 Nixon began talks with the • Nixon wanted to improve relations Soviet Union in order to slow the with the Communist People’s arms race. Republic of China. • Known as the Strategic Arms • Believed that friendlier Limitations Talks (SALT) relations with China would force a more cooperative• Both nations had increased their relationship with the Soviet number of weapons and made Union (China’s rival). innovations in weapons technology (Ex. antiballistic missiles, or • His efforts were done secretly ABMs). • Nixon surprised Americans by• In 1972 Nixon and Leonid visiting China in 1972 where he met Brezhnev agreed to an ABM treaty. with Chinese leaders and Mao Zedong.• Following this round of talks (now called SALT I), negotiations began on a second round of discussions.
Trouble in the Middle East• 1967 Six-Day War – resulted in Israel occupying territory that had belonged to the nations of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan – The United Nations passed a resolution that called for Israel to withdraw from these lands and for the Arab states to recognize Israel’s right to exist• 1973 Yom Kippur War – Egypt and Syria attacked Israel, and the fighting affected the United States. • Threat of Soviet involvement could turn conflict into a superpower confrontation • Imposition of an oil embargo
Trouble in the Middle East Oil Embargo Shuttle Diplomacy• Several Arab nations imposed an oil • Henry Kissinger tried to solve the embargo in reaction to the Yom crisis in the Middle East. Kippur War. • He was unable to get all the parties to• They agreed not to ship oil to the meet together to talk about solutions. United States and certain other countries who supported Israel. • Started what came to be called shuttle diplomacy• The Arab countries were a part of OPEC (the Organization of • Kissinger traveled—shuttled—from Petroleum Exporting Countries). group to group trying to work out separate agreements.• The United States was dependent on foreign sources for 33% of its oil • Eventually the fighting ended and the needs. We now import 58% of our oil. oil embargo was lifted.• The embargo caused serious problems throughout the U.S. economy.