Chapter 21Nixon<br />Ooohhhh<br />Yeah Baby!!<br />
Diplomat?<br />Conservative?<br />Racist?<br />Environmentalist?<br />Criminal?<br />Liberal?<br />
Silent Majority<br />Credited for bringing Nixon to office in 1968<br />Those that were tired of the 60’s protesters<br />...
Southern Strategy<br />Nixon sought the support of Southern conservatives<br />Promised to seek NO new Civil Rights legisl...
The Economy<br />High levels of deficit spending <br />War in Vietnam <br />Great Society programs<br />High levels of une...
Unemployment<br />Federal Bank<br />The Economy<br />Prices?<br />Inflation!<br />
Stag-flation<br />Stagflation is a problem because Keynesian tools for directing the economy don’t seem to apply<br />Stag...
Stag-flation<br />Check out the dilemma the federal government has:<br />The Federal Bank can choose to stimulate the econ...
U.S. Inflation Rates<br />Nixon<br />
What was the cause <br />of this economic crisis?<br />Rising Energy Costs<br />De-industrialization<br />
Drastic Measures<br />To control inflation Nixon instituted Wage and Price Controls<br />Nixon froze wages, prices and ren...
Energy Crisis<br />Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – O.P.E.C.<br />Yom Kippur War (Arab-Israeli War of 1973)...
The Nixon Administration<br />Nixon’s goals were to:<br />re-establish “law and order”, morality<br />limit federal welfar...
Family Assistance Plan<br />Guaranteed minimum income for Americans families<br />Employed and under-employed would receiv...
Domestic Legislation<br />E.P.A. -Environmental Protection Agency<br />Enforced environmental laws and regulations<br />Cl...
Diplomatic Success<br />China Visit – February 1972<br />Ping-pong diplomacy<br />Mao Zedong<br />What was gained by this ...
Nixon and China<br />Why did Richard Nixon, the outspoken anti-Communist, reverse the United States Chinese policy? <br />...
Nixon and the Soviets<br />Seeking détente (reduction of tension)<br />China Pressure<br />Leonid Brezhnev<br />SALT I<br ...
Diplomatic Issues<br />Realpolitik<br />Balance of Power<br />US/Europe/Japan & China/USSR<br />Henry Kissinger<br />Limit...
WatergateScandal<br />
The Plan<br />Break into the Democratic National Committee’s offices at the Watergate Hotel and plant listening devices<br...
BUSTED!!!<br />On June 17, 1972, a security guard working at the Watergate noticed a piece of tape holding a door open and...
The Burglars<br />
The Investigation<br />TheWashington Post fueled focus on the event. <br />The connection between the Watergate burglary a...
The Pressure Mounts<br />By May 1973, Nixon was forced to ask for the resignation of many top White House advisors, many o...
John Dean Testifies<br />Dean, former White House counsel, helped plan the Watergate break-n and cover-up<br />He was the ...
The country become transfixed by the investigation of Watergate via the televised hearings of the Senate Select Committee ...
Focusing on Nixon<br />Sen. Ervin conducts three months of televised hearings which report enemies lists, money drops, ill...
The Tapes<br />The tapes were soon subpoenaed by first special prosecutor Archibald Cox and then the Senate, as they might...
"I have earned every cent. And in all of my years in public life I have never obstructed justice. People have got to know ...
Running Out of Time<br />July 23, 1973: Nixon refuses to turn over the presidential tape recordings to the Senate committe...
Even more damning than President Richard Nixon's profiting from public office were the disclosures of his corruption and a...
U.S. vs. Nixon (1974)<br />July 24, 1974: The Supreme Court rules unanimously that Nixon must turn over the tape recording...
By July 14, 1974, President Richard Nixon stood almost alone. His vice-president Spiro Agnew, pleaded nolo contendere to a...
Nixon Resigns<br />August 8, 1974: Richard Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to resign.<br />Vice President Gerald R....
Ch 21 Nixon
Ch 21 Nixon
Ch 21 Nixon
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Ch 21 Nixon

  1. 1. Chapter 21Nixon<br />Ooohhhh<br />Yeah Baby!!<br />
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  3. 3.
  4. 4. Diplomat?<br />Conservative?<br />Racist?<br />Environmentalist?<br />Criminal?<br />Liberal?<br />
  5. 5. Silent Majority<br />Credited for bringing Nixon to office in 1968<br />Those that were tired of the 60’s protesters<br />Angry over welfare that increased 3-fold from the 60’s (9.7 million in 1970, 5% of population)<br />Complex [wasteful?] bureaucracy created by the Great Society<br />“Peace with honor” in Vietnam<br />
  6. 6. Southern Strategy<br />Nixon sought the support of Southern conservatives<br />Promised to seek NO new Civil Rights legislation<br />Nixon concentrated on the principle that the law must be color-blind. <br />Spoke out against 1971 court ruling on busing<br />"I am convinced that while legal segregation is totally wrong, forced integration of housing or education is just as wrong.<br />
  7. 7. The Economy<br />High levels of deficit spending <br />War in Vietnam <br />Great Society programs<br />High levels of unemployment<br />High levels of inflation<br />STAGNANT ECONOMY <br />+ HIGH INFLATION<br />STAGFLATION!!!<br />
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  10. 10. Unemployment<br />Federal Bank<br />The Economy<br />Prices?<br />Inflation!<br />
  11. 11. Stag-flation<br />Stagflation is a problem because Keynesian tools for directing the economy don’t seem to apply<br />Stagflation creates a policy situation in which efforts to correct one problem (inflation or unemployment) can worsen the other. <br />
  12. 12. Stag-flation<br />Check out the dilemma the federal government has:<br />The Federal Bank can choose to stimulate the economy and create jobs by:<br />Increasing government spending<br />Decreasing taxes<br />Lowering interest% rates<br />But, this risks boosting the pace of inflation. <br />What would happen if the government reduced spending to decrease inflation?<br />ALL would likely lead to<br />> employment<br />
  13. 13. U.S. Inflation Rates<br />Nixon<br />
  14. 14. What was the cause <br />of this economic crisis?<br />Rising Energy Costs<br />De-industrialization<br />
  15. 15. Drastic Measures<br />To control inflation Nixon instituted Wage and Price Controls<br />Nixon froze wages, prices and rents<br />Is this effective? <br />Black Market<br />Should the government have the right?<br />
  16. 16. Energy Crisis<br />Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries – O.P.E.C.<br />Yom Kippur War (Arab-Israeli War of 1973)<br />Oil Embargo 1973-1974<br />Solutions?<br />Nuclear Energy<br />Alaskan Oil<br />> efficiencies<br />
  17. 17. The Nixon Administration<br />Nixon’s goals were to:<br />re-establish “law and order”, morality<br />limit federal welfare programs<br />reduce the growth of federal government <br />end the U.S. involvement in Vietnam<br />
  18. 18. Family Assistance Plan<br />Guaranteed minimum income for Americans families<br />Employed and under-employed would receive minimum of $2,400 per year for a family of four<br />All would have to work or receive job training while receiving aid <br />Pro-Con?<br />Voted down! Why?<br />
  19. 19. Domestic Legislation<br />E.P.A. -Environmental Protection Agency<br />Enforced environmental laws and regulations<br />Clean Air Act<br />Water Quality Improvement Act<br />O.S.H.A. – Occupational Safety and Health Administration<br />
  20. 20. Diplomatic Success<br />China Visit – February 1972<br />Ping-pong diplomacy<br />Mao Zedong<br />What was gained by this visit?<br />USSR Visit – May 1972<br />Leonid Brezhnev<br />SALT I<br />Halt ICBM production<br />
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  25. 25. Nixon and China<br />Why did Richard Nixon, the outspoken anti-Communist, reverse the United States Chinese policy? <br />Realism- The most populous country in the world wasn't going away anytime soon. <br />World Pressure – Many were calling for mainland China's admission to the United Nations. <br />Bargaining chip with the Soviet Union - Soviet Premier Brezhnev would not want to see the Soviet Union's two main geopolitical rivals--China and the United States--close ranks against him.<br />Nixon could get away with it - Nixon's history as a crusader against Communism protected him.<br />
  26. 26. Nixon and the Soviets<br />Seeking détente (reduction of tension)<br />China Pressure<br />Leonid Brezhnev<br />SALT I<br />ICBM’s<br />
  27. 27. Diplomatic Issues<br />Realpolitik<br />Balance of Power<br />US/Europe/Japan & China/USSR<br />Henry Kissinger<br />Limitations<br />3rd World<br />
  28. 28. WatergateScandal<br />
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  30. 30. The Plan<br />Break into the Democratic National Committee’s offices at the Watergate Hotel and plant listening devices<br />The goal was to obtain political information that would be useful during the 1972 presidential campaign <br />[Dem] George McGovern <br />[Rep] Richard Nixon<br />
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  34. 34. BUSTED!!!<br />On June 17, 1972, a security guard working at the Watergate noticed a piece of tape holding a door open and called police<br />After the police came, five men were discovered and arrested for breaking into the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee (DNC)<br />The men supposedly had broken into the same office on May 27 and 28 as well, and had returned intending to fix wiretaps that were not working<br />
  35. 35. The Burglars<br />
  36. 36. The Investigation<br />TheWashington Post fueled focus on the event. <br />The connection between the Watergate burglary and the President's re-election campaign fundraising committee (CREeP) ($25.000)<br />Fed tips by an anonymous source identified only by the code name "Deep Throat”, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein uncovered information that the break-in and its cover-up it up led to the White House itself. <br />After the trial and conviction of the burglars, the investigations grew broader; a Senate committee chaired by Senator Sam Ervin was established<br />What level of involvement did the White House have?<br />What did the President know?<br />
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  38. 38. The Pressure Mounts<br />By May 1973, Nixon was forced to ask for the resignation of many top White House advisors, many of whom would soon be indicted and ultimately go to prison.<br />Public was made aware of the “enemies list” and the plumbers<br />Nixon fired White House Counsel John Dean, who had just testified before the Senate and would go on to become the key witness against Nixon himself.<br />Archibald Cox was named special counsel for the growing Watergate inquiry. Televised hearings begin.<br />
  39. 39. John Dean Testifies<br />Dean, former White House counsel, helped plan the Watergate break-n and cover-up<br />He was the first to testify that Nixon knew of the plan to wire tap the DNC<br />In June 1973, he claimed that he and Nixon had discussed the cover-up, “at least 35 times”<br />
  40. 40. The country become transfixed by the investigation of Watergate via the televised hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities.<br />
  41. 41. Focusing on Nixon<br />Sen. Ervin conducts three months of televised hearings which report enemies lists, money drops, illegally obtained campaign funds, and harassment by IRS of political enemies. <br />Most importantly, a secret tape-recording system in the White House is discovered. <br />
  42. 42. The Tapes<br />The tapes were soon subpoenaed by first special prosecutor Archibald Cox and then the Senate, as they might prove whether Nixon or Dean was telling the truth about key meetings. <br />Nixon refused, citing the principle of executive privilege, and ordered Cox, via Attorney General Richardson, to drop his subpoena.<br />The focus of suspicion began to center on Nixon himself<br />
  43. 43. "I have earned every cent. And in all of my years in public life I have never obstructed justice. People have got to know whether or not their president is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook". <br />On April 3, 1974, the White House announced that Nixon would pay $432,787.13 in back taxes after an investigation by the IRS and a congressional committee. Among Nixon's benefits to himself were improvements in his properties, supposedly necessary for his protection. These included a security ice maker, a security swimming pool heater, security club chairs and table lamps, security sofa and security pillows. <br />
  44. 44. Running Out of Time<br />July 23, 1973: Nixon refuses to turn over the presidential tape recordings to the Senate committee or the special prosecutor. <br />October 20, 1973: Saturday Night Massacre: Nixon fires special prosecutor Archibald Cox - Impeachment pressure mounts.<br />November 17, 1973: Nixon declares, "I'm not a crook," maintaining his innocence from Watergate.<br />December 7, 1973: The White House can't explain an 18 1/2 -minute gap in one of the subpoenaed tapes. <br />April 30, 1974: The White House releases more than 1,200 pages of edited transcripts of the Nixon tapes, but House committee insists the tapes themselves must be turned over. <br />
  45. 45. Even more damning than President Richard Nixon's profiting from public office were the disclosures of his corruption and attempts at corruption of the government itself including the CIA, the FBI, the Pentagon and even the Secret Service. A taping system that had recorded most of President Nixon's conversations in the Oval Office provided the "smoking gun" that spoke of crime and corruption. Nixon refused to release the tapes until the Supreme Court ordered him to do so. <br />
  46. 46. U.S. vs. Nixon (1974)<br />July 24, 1974: The Supreme Court rules unanimously that Nixon must turn over the tape recordings of 64 White House conversations, rejecting the president's claims of executive privilege.<br />July 27, 1974: House Judiciary Committee passes the first of three articles of impeachment, charging obstruction of justice. <br />
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  48. 48. By July 14, 1974, President Richard Nixon stood almost alone. His vice-president Spiro Agnew, pleaded nolo contendere to a charge of tax evasion, and was forced to resign. <br />The House Judiciary Committee recommended impeachment, and the Supreme Court required him to turn over all subpoenaed tapes. Nixon bowed to the inevitable, resigning on August 9. <br />
  49. 49. Nixon Resigns<br />August 8, 1974: Richard Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to resign.<br />Vice President Gerald R. Ford assumes the country's highest office. He will later pardon Nixon of all charges related to the Watergate case.<br />

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