The USA 1941
The Big Picture <ul><li>The USA dominated the history of the 20 th  century.  Its economic and military power made it the ...
A Divided Union? The USA at War <ul><li>The early part of the 20 th  century was dominated by war after war…why? </li></ul...
Wartime Production <ul><li>Achievements were staggering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ To American production, without which this...
Willing Industrialists <ul><li>Jan ’42: War Production Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t worked w/ industrialists, not dic...
Extra Workers <ul><li>16 million men & women served </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 million worked in factories </li></ul></ul><u...
Calling All Available Women <ul><li>War opens opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< war 12 million working </li>...
War & Prosperity <ul><li>USA only country to emerge from war economically stronger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 million new b...
Japanese-Americans <ul><li>How were they treated? </li></ul>
Executive Order 9066 <ul><li>Order by FDR, allowed for certain groups to be placed in internment camps for “protection” </...
Black Americans in Armed Forces <ul><li>Fought Nazi racism while experiencing racism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 mil black Ame...
Black Americans in the Work Place <ul><li>African-Americans answer the call </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400,000 immigrated from ...
Source Investigation:  Black Americans in the Second World War <ul><li>Study the five PSDs in front of you </li></ul><ul><...
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Pre/post WWII

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Pre/post WWII

  1. 1. The USA 1941
  2. 2. The Big Picture <ul><li>The USA dominated the history of the 20 th century. Its economic and military power made it the most important country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>During this year we will tackle the economic, social and political issues of the Americas. We will begin by dealing with post war US. The over-arching question must be, ‘How well did the US government tackle the problems it faced at home from the 1940s to present day?’ </li></ul><ul><li>To lead us in to the main components of the course we will first: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the impact of the Second World War on the US economy and society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the role of women before, during and after the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate the premise behind the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s and see how far the campaign to win equal rights for black Americans succeeded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out why the 1960s saw so many other protest movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some people would say that in this period the USA’s troubled domestic history shows it to be more the ‘divided’ states than the ‘united’ states. </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Divided Union? The USA at War <ul><li>The early part of the 20 th century was dominated by war after war…why? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this say about the goals of society? </li></ul><ul><li>Have we focused on external issues too much? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Wartime Production <ul><li>Achievements were staggering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ To American production, without which this war would have been lost.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Stalin proposing a toast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>’ 41-45: Rapid switch to war-time production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90,000 tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>350 naval destroyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 submarines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5600 merchant ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 ‘Essex’ class aircraft carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USA industrial might swamped the Axis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1944: USA made 1/2 the world’s weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 2x Axis production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also supplying allies w/ food, clothing, vehicles (50,000 to USSR) tires, engines & parts, tools, etc. </li></ul></ul>Nelson Eddy singing Stout-Hearted Men
  5. 5. Willing Industrialists <ul><li>Jan ’42: War Production Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t worked w/ industrialists, not dictating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialists decided who produced what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Motors made machine guns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chrysler made anti-aircraft guns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Electric increased turbine production 300% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of contracts to 100 firms (w/ subcontracts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of $$$ made w/ ‘Cost plus 10%’ system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry J. Kaiser key industrialist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major force in TVA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed & built ‘Liberty’ ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large cargo ship avg. build time in ’43: 42 days! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could do it in 4 days…wow </li></ul></ul>We Did It Before And We’ll Do It Again
  6. 6. Extra Workers <ul><li>16 million men & women served </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 million worked in factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GM alone hired extra 750,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most manufacturing jobs in North or Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million workers migrated from South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>750,000 A-As worked in manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California saw influx of 1.5 million people </li></ul></ul>Keep ‘Em Flying
  7. 7. Calling All Available Women <ul><li>War opens opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< war 12 million working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> Dec ’41 300,000 join military, 7 mil more work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 3 aircraft workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 2 munitions workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% plant managers surveyed said women were their best workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Rosie the Riveter’ became icon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The down side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always welcomed by men or unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid up to 60% less than men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no child-care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most women left work > war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some kept working as secretaries, clerks, shop assistants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women changed work patterns of next 20 years </li></ul></ul>Rosie the Riveter , the caricature of the wartime working woman
  8. 8. War & Prosperity <ul><li>USA only country to emerge from war economically stronger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 million new businesses started up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola & Wrigley become world brands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War effort ended unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even American farmers, after 20 years of misery, benefited from overseas demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans plowed savings & earnings into bonds, which promised repayment w/ interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$129 billion worth of war bonds purchased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationing, but nothing like other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad men boosted companies’ images by explaining that shortages were due to needed supplies going to GIs overseas … patriotic! </li></ul></ul>This Is Your War Scrap Your Fat
  9. 9. Japanese-Americans <ul><li>How were they treated? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Executive Order 9066 <ul><li>Order by FDR, allowed for certain groups to be placed in internment camps for “protection” </li></ul><ul><li>@ 120,000 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Black Americans in Armed Forces <ul><li>Fought Nazi racism while experiencing racism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 mil black Americans served </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black-only units w/ white officers (segregation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black nurses only tended black soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In south black soldiers guarding German prisoners were not served @ restaurant but German prisoners were! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1944: African-Americans fight! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1944: Marines allow blacks to fight; before limited to transport, cooks & labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguished service in Battle of the Bulge, Iwo Jima </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>332 nd Fighter Squadron legendary; ‘Tuskegee Airmen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Navy had worst discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 58 black officers by end of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks given worst jobs, like loading ammo ships </li></ul></ul>Ray Charles performs America The Beautiful
  12. 12. Black Americans in the Work Place <ul><li>African-Americans answer the call </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400,000 immigrated from South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On average, doubled wages to $ 1000/year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discrimination follows immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black workers made 1/2 white workers’ $$$ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDR’s E xec O rder 8802 supposed to end pay discrimination in defense work; ignored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1942, Packard Electronics, Detroit: 3,000 white workers & managers walk out when 3 black Americans given raises due to EO 8802 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ I’d rather see Hitler and Hirohito win than work beside a n***** on the assembly line!’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shout heard from striking workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor workers (black & white) created racial tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race riots in 47 cities; worst in Detroit June-July 1943 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite troubles, WWII sowed seeds of Civil Rights Movement in 1950s-60s </li></ul></ul>Cherry Poppin’ Daddies, A Zoot Suit Riot
  13. 13. Source Investigation: Black Americans in the Second World War <ul><li>Study the five PSDs in front of you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does Source 1 suggest about black American attitudes to the war? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What evidence is there that this attitude is either typical or exceptional? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you think that the article in Yank (Source 2) was so effective in stirring up public opinion? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at sources 3, 4 and 5. Which of these three sources do you think most accurately sums up the experience of black people in wartime USA? Explain your answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources 1 through 5 show positive and negative aspects of the experience of black Americans during the war. Write a paragraph explaining whether you think the balance of positive and negative aspects is too far one way or the other, or is about right. You will need to mention some of these points: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How far the positive sources are reliable (backed up by other sources or information) and typical (representative of people’s experiences) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How far the negative sources are reliable and typical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether there should be more or fewer sources of one type or the other (with an explanation or your reasons) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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