Smart Buildings:Älykkäät rakennukset tulossa(Smart buildings are coming)                     Aalto Pro 11.6.2012
Smart Grid:For Energy Generators
Electricity Generation Traditional Electricity Grid    Customers consume electricity and electricity companies     genera...
Electricity GenerationSmart Grid  Electricity companies shall try to influence WHEN and HOW MUCH   consumers use electric...
Electricity Generation 3 Important Elements   Electricity generators will    operate more efficiently   Energy consumers...
DefinitionsSmart grid:   • Energy supply network that shall charge consumers at a variable   energy price per hour   • Pri...
Electricity Generation: Inefficient Load American example of electricty generation for 1 day                              ...
Electricity Generation: Inefficient Load Finnish example of electricty generation for 1 year (2011)                       ...
Finland: Peak electricitydemand in winter
Electricity Generation Finnish peak day energy generation: February 2011                        40                        ...
Electricity Generation Cost of generation (approximate costs, operation only)      System                             €/ M...
Energy Generation    Prices: Electricity is important           Electricity                   District Heating           2...
Smart Grid:For Energy Consumers
Smart Grid: How to reduce consumption Energy Reduction            Load shifting               Peak ShavingEnergy          ...
©ZumawireSmart GridLoad shifting     Electric car charging at night     Smart appliances: dishwashing machine, clothes w...
“the wind is blowing in Denmark so maybe we will have a sauna”
Smart Buildings:Case Studies
Smart Buildings                                                    © VTT   © VTT VTT test apartment in Oulu   Opened 2012...
Smart Buildings Airut, Jätkäsaari, Helsinki   To open 2015   Solar power, geothermal heating   Dashboard:              ...
© Sitra
Airut, Jätkäsaari                    © Sitra
Airut, Jätkäsaari                    © Sitra
Airut, Jätkäsaari                    © Sitra
© Sitra Airut, JätkäsaariHeating system:                                              Locking system:- Radiators with remo...
Smart BuildingsSan Francisco Public Utility Commission (SFPUC)  Opened 2011  26 000 m2  450 dashboards providing all bu...
Smart Buildings NASA Ames Research Center   Opened 2012   4 750 m2   5 000 wireless sensors:       temperature        ...
Smart BuildingsBridesburg Metalworks, Pennsylvania• Operate 0700 – 1500• US electricity peak is in summer• The are paid to...
Smart BuildingsNew Ways of Working
Commercial Buildings:Peak shaving• Can we find items to turn off in the middle of the day• Office staff on holidays, sick,...
Monitoring occupancy  Access control system - measures when people are in the building  Employees log in/out of the buildi...
Advanced presence detection  Use presence knowledge to control energy consuming systems  Define location as a set of routi...
Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control:• Shut down an individual’s workspace if they leave the building•...
Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control:• Shut down an individual’s workspace if they leave the building•...
Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control:• Shut down an individual’s workspace if they leave the building•...
Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control:• Shut down an individual’s workspace if they leave the building•...
Concept development              Virtual Energy Smart Grid                  Prices                                        ...
Incentive schemes  Residential building example:     • A block of similar 2 bedroom apartments     • Incentive scheme to r...
Occupation density Energy directly related to people is not considered by area metrics Average occupation density in UK of...
Case study: Occupation density  Simulated case study: office building in Helsinki      • Area: 4650m2      • Hours of occu...
Hours of occupationNot considered by area metrics• Comparison of two similar healthcare buildings   • Hospital ”A” open 24...
Case study: Hours of occupation  • Simulated case study: office building in Helsinki      • Area: 4650m2      • Population...
Concept development              Virtual Energy Smart Grid                  Prices                                        ...
Summary• Smart grid will bring more efficiency in energy generation• Cheaper prices on average, but a different way of cha...
Ken DooleySustainability Group ManagerEnergy and Environmentken.dooley@granlund.fi
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Smart buildings lecture for Aalto Pro

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Smart buildings lecture for Aalto Pro

  1. 1. Smart Buildings:Älykkäät rakennukset tulossa(Smart buildings are coming) Aalto Pro 11.6.2012
  2. 2. Smart Grid:For Energy Generators
  3. 3. Electricity Generation Traditional Electricity Grid  Customers consume electricity and electricity companies generate electricity to match the demand © Fortum
  4. 4. Electricity GenerationSmart Grid  Electricity companies shall try to influence WHEN and HOW MUCH consumers use electricity © Fortum
  5. 5. Electricity Generation 3 Important Elements  Electricity generators will operate more efficiently  Energy consumers will have a new method of pricing  Private energy generators can sell back to the grid more easily © Fortum
  6. 6. DefinitionsSmart grid: • Energy supply network that shall charge consumers at a variable energy price per hour • Prices shall be varied with demand • First project in Finland January 2013 (Fortum) • Kalasatamankeskus first smart grid neighbourhood (Helsingin Energia)Smart meters: • Electronic energy meters that record detailed customer data • the amount of energy consumed and when this energy is consumed • Information can be viewed in real-time
  7. 7. Electricity Generation: Inefficient Load American example of electricty generation for 1 day © Data from NIST 1,2 1 Normalized electric system load 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of day
  8. 8. Electricity Generation: Inefficient Load Finnish example of electricty generation for 1 year (2011) ©Energiateollisuus
  9. 9. Finland: Peak electricitydemand in winter
  10. 10. Electricity Generation Finnish peak day energy generation: February 2011 40 35 30 % of peak load 25 20 18% 15 10 5 0 Nuclear Power Hydro Power Wind CHP Condensing Nett imports Energy generation method
  11. 11. Electricity Generation Cost of generation (approximate costs, operation only) System €/ MWh Wind 5 Nuclear Power 15 Hydro Power 20 Condensing Coal 25 CHP 38 Nett imports 49 Conventional gas turbine 125
  12. 12. Energy Generation Prices: Electricity is important Electricity District Heating 2011 84,4 €/MWh 2011 63,9 €/MWh 2020 110,7 €/MWh1 2020 65,8 €/MWh Change 31,2 % Change 2.9%1The Finnish electricity price for 2020 has assumed to be equal to the Germanelectricity price for 2011. The German 2011 price has been taken from a Eurostatreport that showed German energy prices for mid-size industrial companies (500–2000 MWh)
  13. 13. Smart Grid:For Energy Consumers
  14. 14. Smart Grid: How to reduce consumption Energy Reduction Load shifting Peak ShavingEnergy Energy Energy Time Time TimeOptions: Options: Options:• Renewable energy • Smart appliances • React to energy prices by turning systems on or off• Energy reduction • Task schedulingmeasures • Reduce internal conditions • Advanced presence detection
  15. 15. ©ZumawireSmart GridLoad shifting  Electric car charging at night  Smart appliances: dishwashing machine, clothes washing machinePeak shaving  Winter peak: turn off night-time lighting or to dim advertisement lighting when prices are particularly high  Summer peak: less cooling, target temperature rises from 21oC to 24oCHigh supply  Plenty of wind, take advantage of low energy prices:  industrial processes that require large amounts of electricity may be automatically performed  cheaper to use expensive home systems such as sauna
  16. 16. “the wind is blowing in Denmark so maybe we will have a sauna”
  17. 17. Smart Buildings:Case Studies
  18. 18. Smart Buildings © VTT © VTT VTT test apartment in Oulu  Opened 2012  Electric car  Electricity storage © VTT  5.5 kW wind power plant  20 m2 of solar cells generating 4 kW  Graphical displays to monitor the electricity consumption
  19. 19. Smart Buildings Airut, Jätkäsaari, Helsinki  To open 2015  Solar power, geothermal heating  Dashboard: © Sitra  smart appliances  showing energy consumption  comparing energy consumption with the building average  booking system for shared cars  booking system for community sauna  public transport timetables © Sitra
  20. 20. © Sitra
  21. 21. Airut, Jätkäsaari © Sitra
  22. 22. Airut, Jätkäsaari © Sitra
  23. 23. Airut, Jätkäsaari © Sitra
  24. 24. © Sitra Airut, JätkäsaariHeating system: Locking system:- Radiators with remote controlers - Turns energy systems off- Pay the heating you use not per m2 - Heating reduced - Non-essential circuit off - Lighting off - Kitchen stove off - Sauna off - Ventilation offAdditional metering: Information and control dashboard - Electrical (per circuit) - Laptop / ipad / phone - Heating (space / water) - Link to smart software - Feedback from meters - Control heating and ventilation Showers: - Link to community information - Water meter per apartment - Pay the heating you use not per m2 Low2No Smart Systems Selections
  25. 25. Smart BuildingsSan Francisco Public Utility Commission (SFPUC)  Opened 2011  26 000 m2  450 dashboards providing all building users with: • energy consumption • water consumption • carbon footprint © SFPUC ©Smart Buildings, LLC
  26. 26. Smart Buildings NASA Ames Research Center  Opened 2012  4 750 m2  5 000 wireless sensors:  temperature © io9.com  carbon dioxide levels  natural lighting  air flow  Construction costs were only 6% more than a traditional building  also includes solar panels and geothermal cooling
  27. 27. Smart BuildingsBridesburg Metalworks, Pennsylvania• Operate 0700 – 1500• US electricity peak is in summer• The are paid to turn off metal melting machines• Melting employees move to the packaging department• They are earning an extra $25 000 per year © opower
  28. 28. Smart BuildingsNew Ways of Working
  29. 29. Commercial Buildings:Peak shaving• Can we find items to turn off in the middle of the day• Office staff on holidays, sick, external meetings, sales team • UK study shows offices on average 45% occupied 2 2: Regus, “Measuring the benefits of agility at work”, May 2011 Energy• Turn off (where people are missing) • Lighting • Ventilation • Computers
  30. 30. Monitoring occupancy Access control system - measures when people are in the building Employees log in/out of the building via: • Electronic time clock • Smart phone • Personal computer • Real time location tags Building Location is defined as a set of routines: OUT IN • Routine 1: out of the building • Routine 2: in the building
  31. 31. Advanced presence detection Use presence knowledge to control energy consuming systems Define location as a set of routines: • Routine 1: out of the building • Routine 2: in the building • Subroutine A: at workspace • Subroutine B: in a meeting • Subroutine C: at lunch Building OUT IN OUT IN OUT IN
  32. 32. Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control:• Shut down an individual’s workspace if they leave the building• Set to standby an individual’s workspace if they are in a meeting / at lunch• Shut down a lighting / ventilation zone if all of the occupants are out of the officeExample zone control modes: System Type Presence Detected Desk Lighting ON Common Lighting ON Equipment ON Ventilation 100 % Heating 21oC Cooling 25oC
  33. 33. Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control:• Shut down an individual’s workspace if they leave the building• Set to standby an individual’s workspace if they are in a meeting / at lunch• Shut down a lighting / ventilation zone if all of the occupants are out of the officeExample zone control modes: System Type Presence No presence Detected 15 mins Desk Lighting ON OFF Common Lighting ON ON Equipment ON STAND BY Ventilation 100 % 100 % Heating 21oC 21oC Cooling 25oC 25oC
  34. 34. Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control:• Shut down an individual’s workspace if they leave the building• Set to standby an individual’s workspace if they are in a meeting / at lunch• Shut down a lighting / ventilation zone if all of the occupants are out of the officeExample zone control modes: System Type Presence No presence No presence Detected 15 mins 1 hour Desk Lighting ON OFF OFF Common Lighting ON ON OFF Equipment ON STAND BY STAND BY Ventilation 100 % 100 % 50 % Heating 21oC 21oC 20oC Cooling 25oC 25oC 27oC
  35. 35. Use presence to controlUse presence knowledge to control:• Shut down an individual’s workspace if they leave the building• Set to standby an individual’s workspace if they are in a meeting / at lunch• Shut down a lighting / ventilation zone if all of the occupants are out of the officeExample zone control modes: System Type Presence No presence No presence No presence 2 Detected 15 mins 1 hour hours Desk Lighting ON OFF OFF OFF Common Lighting ON ON OFF OFF Equipment ON STAND BY STAND BY OFF Ventilation 100 % 100 % 50 % Night time mode Heating 21oC 21oC 20oC Night time mode Cooling 25oC 25oC 27oC Night time mode
  36. 36. Concept development Virtual Energy Smart Grid Prices Advanced Advanced Presence Controls Detection Technology
  37. 37. Incentive schemes Residential building example: • A block of similar 2 bedroom apartments • Incentive scheme to reduce energy • Reward given to the lowest energy consumption
  38. 38. Occupation density Energy directly related to people is not considered by area metrics Average occupation density in UK offices is 11.8m2 per workspace3 • 77% of workspaces between 8m2 & 13m2 per workspace • Using kWh/m2, 13m2 per workspace will seem more energy efficient than 8m2 per workspace 3: Occupier Density Study Summary Report, British Council for Offices, June 2009 Source: Fooducate.com
  39. 39. Case study: Occupation density Simulated case study: office building in Helsinki • Area: 4650m2 • Hours of occupancy 08:00 – 17:00 (9 hours) Similar day lengths, different occupation densities Case A B C Population density (m2/person) 8 10 12 Number of occupants 500 400 332 Energy consumption (kWh/m2) 102 99 98 Energy consumption (kWh/person) 951 1150 1368 Energy consumption (Wh/m2h) 0.087 0.105 0.126 Results • kWh/m2: case C consumes the least • kWh/person or Wh/m2h: case A consumes the least (C consumes 44% more than A)
  40. 40. Hours of occupationNot considered by area metrics• Comparison of two similar healthcare buildings • Hospital ”A” open 24 hrs / Hospital ”B” open 12 hrs • kWh/m2 does not provide an allowance for the longer day of ”A” • Thus ”A” has a higher energy consumption per m2 and seems less energy efficient
  41. 41. Case study: Hours of occupation • Simulated case study: office building in Helsinki • Area: 4650m2 • Population density 10m2 / person Similar occupation densities, different day lengths Case D E F Working hours per day (h) 12 9 6 Hours of occupancy 08 - 20 08 - 17 09 - 15 Energy consumption (kWh/m2) 115 99 84 Energy consumption (kWh/person) 1330 1150 981 Energy consumption (Wh/m2h) 0.092 0.105 0.134 Results • kWh/m2: case F consumes the least • kWh/person or Wh/m2h: case D consumes the least (F consumes 45% more than D)
  42. 42. Concept development Virtual Energy Smart Grid Prices Advanced Advanced Presence Controls Detection Technology Measure per Measure Person Wh/m2h Behaviour Motivation / Change Incentives
  43. 43. Summary• Smart grid will bring more efficiency in energy generation• Cheaper prices on average, but a different way of charging• People who prepare for smart grid will save money – people who dontprepare will pay more• Can we reduce our peak load AND measure energy efficiency more accurately?
  44. 44. Ken DooleySustainability Group ManagerEnergy and Environmentken.dooley@granlund.fi

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