Indian pv-potential


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Indian pv-potential

  1. 1. Potential of Solar Energy in India NITT Tiruchirappalli 2009
  2. 2. Solar PV energy applications outside IndiaOpportunities for India to Leapfrog technology, Achieve energy security and Create high employment Considerable saving in import of oil and generate exports and employment as good as, if not better, than the ICT sector How it is done in the world? 2
  3. 3. Solar Energy PotentialKwh/m2 energy availability from the Sun 3
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  5. 5. Germany –Solar DataNo. of Sunny days/year 95Highest daytime temp. 22-280CLowest daytime temp. 2-60CSolar insolation kwh/m2 1050-1200PV electricity 2005 (MW) 837 MW 5
  6. 6. Solar PV in India- Opportunities Solar Data India Germany No. of Sunny days/year 300-320 95 Highest daytime temp. 35-480C 22-280C Lowest daytime temp. 10-250C 2-60C Solar insolation kwh/m2 1900-2100 1050-1200 PV electricity 2005 (MW) 55 MW 837 MW 6
  7. 7. In 2004 installed capacity of solar PVin the EU countries is higher thanIndia. Most European countries have about 80 to 100 sunny days in a year compared to 300 to 320 days in India. EU Total 1010.13 MW Germany 798.00 MW Netherlands: 49.08 MW Spain: 37.70 MW Italy: 30.70 MW Rest EU: 50.95 MW India 45.00 MW 7
  8. 8. PV in India- Opportunities India has ideal solar conditions for applications of PV technology nearly similar to California, Spain and Australia and far better than Germany Experience of Germany, Japan, USA and other Western Countries show that the solar technology is more suitable for commercialised major cities and urban areas 8
  9. 9. Solar PV power for rural Electrification
  10. 10. Definition of Rural From Socio-economic perspective the definition of rural areas is based on population densities and living conditions. Let us define rural as areas remote from the national grid and have no chances of accessing the grid even in the near future But these areas have a potential for the demand of electric energy services or expect to develop the potential in the foreseeable future. 10
  11. 11. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems Battery charging system, Electrical power for lighting, Electrical Power for pumping water, Electrical Power for telecommunication Electrical Power for rural industry 11
  12. 12. Rural Electrification Storage batteries are widely used in remote areas to provide low voltage electrical power for lighting and communications as well as for vehicles. A PV powered battery charging system usually consists of a small PV array plus a charge controller. 12
  13. 13. Components for stand-alone PV Systems-1Stand-alone (off-grid) PV systems require a battery,[the lead acid type], to store the energy for futureuse.High-quality batteries designed for solar applicationswith lifetimes of up to 15 years are available.However, the lifetime of the battery stronglydepends on the battery management and the user’sbehaviour. 13
  14. 14. Components for stand-alone PV Systems-2The battery is connected to the PV array viaa charge controller. The charge controllerprotects the battery from overcharging ordischarging, and can also provide informationabout the state of the system or enablemetering and pre-payment for the electricityused. If AC output is needed, an inverter isrequired to convert the DC power from thearray. 14
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  16. 16. Solar powered lamp-posts[with battery backup preferably] 16
  17. 17. Remote Lighting Systems Lighting is required at remote locations where the cost of power is too high to consider using the grid. Such applications include security lighting, navigation aids, illuminated road signs, railway crossing signs and village lighting. Solar PV are suited to such applications, although a storage battery is always required in such systems. They usually consist of a PV panel plus a storage battery, power conditioner and a low voltage, high efficiency DC fluorescent lamp. These systems are viable for remote areas, and this is one of the major applications of solar PV. 17
  18. 18. Battery Charging 18
  19. 19. Water Treatment SystemsIn remote areas electric power is often used to disinfect or purify drinking water. Photovoltaic cells are used to power a strong ultraviolet light that can be used to kill bacteria in drinking water. This can be combined with a solar powered water pumping system. 19
  20. 20. Telecommunications and Remote Monitoring SystemsPhotovoltaics provides a cost-effectivedevelopment of remote area telecommunicationsrepeater stations.Similar principles apply to solar powered radios andtelevision sets, emergency telephones andmonitoring systems.Remote monitoring systems may be used forcollecting weather data or other environmentalinformation and for transmitting it automatically viaradio to the home base. 20
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  22. 22. White LED Lamp for PV based systems WLED lamps represent a new low-cost entry point for rural households in less developed countries. LED-based lighting systems for PV rural white lighting applications can help take the one-third of the world literally still living in the dark ages into the modern age. Emerging high efficiency WLED technologies can significantly improve the quality, safety, and quantity of illumination for both rural and urban homes, while reducing overall costs and environmental emissions. 22
  23. 23. White LED Lamp with PV system-1PV modules are the best option to power WLEDs lamps in rural areas, since they can be installed at the site where the energy is needed and no further imports are required.Therefore, investment in infrastructure is not required. There are projects that are promoting WLEDs lamps technology powered with photovoltaic modules, which are reporting excellent technical results. 23
  24. 24. White LED Lamp with PV system-2However, the high initial cost, compared with fuel based lighting, is a barrier to achieve them, so other evaluation methods must be used such as the life cycle cost methodology, which found the PV LEDs are twice as cost effective as fluorescent lights, and three times more cost effective than traditional kerosene lighting technologies. 24
  25. 25. Photovoltaic pumping systems Photovoltaic pumping systems provide a welcome alternative to fuel burning generators or hand pumps. They provide the most water precisely when it is needed the most - when the sun shines the brightest! Solar pumps are simple to install and maintain. The smallest systems can be installed by one person in a couple hours, with no experience or special equipment required. 25
  26. 26. Advantages of using PV-powered pumpsinclude: low maintenance ease of installation reliability scalability 26
  27. 27. PV- powered pumpsSolar power differs fundamentally fromconventional electric or engine-poweredsystems, so solar pumps often departfrom the conventional.PV arrays produce DC power, rather thanthe AC from conventional sources. And,the power available varies with the sun’sintensity. 27
  28. 28. PV- powered pumpsSince it costs less to store water (intanks) than energy (in batteries) solarpumps tend to be low in power, pumpingslowly through the duration of the solarday.Simple, efficient systems are the key toeconomical solar pumping. Special, low-power DC pumps are used withoutbatteries or AC conversion. 28
  29. 29. Modern DC motors work well at varyingvoltage and speed. The better DC motorsrequire maintenance (brush replacement)only after periods of 5 years or more. Mostsolar pumps used for small scale application(homes, small irrigation, livestock) are“positive displacement” pumps which sealwater in cavities and force it upward. Thisdiffers from faster, conventional centrifugaltype pumps (including jet and submersiblepumps) which spin and “blow” the water up. 29
  30. 30. Building integrated photovoltaics-1 BI-PV are components of buildings that have photovoltaic cells embedded in them – For example, photovoltaic window glass or roof shingles that can be used instead of regular building materials to produce electricity. There are others where whole building facades are made from photovoltaics. 30
  31. 31. Building integrated photovoltaics-2 There are others where whole building facades are made from photovoltaics. The significance of this development is that these photovoltaic materials can replace something else that would have been used anyway, so the actual cost is the incremental cost between the two. This is often very small, which makes photovoltaics very cost-effective in these applications. In building facades, for example, they have made photovoltaic panels that look like marble and that actually cost less than the real thing! 31
  32. 32. At present the initial cost of the PV system is high. The PVmodules account for a significant share of the overall costof a PV system. During the past five years a downwardtrend in the cost of Photovoltaic modules in India has beenexperienced. This reduction in cost was possible due to• Expanded Government supported programme;• Increasing competition among the PV productsmanufacturers;• Incentives provided by the government;• Increased production volumes; and• Improvements in the product quality andperformance. 32