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Smart Grid, Smart City
Distributed generation and storage trials
Robert Simpson, Ausgrid
26 November 2013
Smart Utilities ...
• $100 million Australian Government Initiative – Dept. of
Resources, Energy & Tourism
• Consortium led by Ausgrid with pa...
• What is Distributed Generation and Distributed Storage?
• Trial objectives and overview
• Trial areas and technology ove...
Distributed Generation
 Can generate electricity at small scale
 Connected to the electricity grid at the customer end
...
Solar photovoltaic system penetration
-
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
-
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
160....
One-way electricity flow
Network considerations for high DG penetration
Two way electricity flow, low
penetration
Two way ...
Trial overview
8
Three trial environments
1. “Suburban Saturation” - Newington
• PV repair campaign completed
• Data capture via Smart Mete...
Overview of DGDS technologies trialled
Trial Area Solar PV Small wind Fuel cells Batteries
kW No kW No kW No kW No
Sydney ...
Sydney trial area (Newington)
Suburbs Newington
Zone Substation Homebush Bay
Feeder Panel 13
Feeder peak load 3.59MW
Custo...
Newcastle trial area (Elermore Vale/ Wallsend South)
Trial Area Newcastle
Trial area (main
suburbs)
Elermore Vale,
Wallsen...
Scone trial area (Upper Gundy)
Trial Area Scone
Trial area (suburb) Upper Gundy
Zone Substation Scone
Feeder/ section 8906...
Distributed Generation – Uncontrollable renewable sources
Solar Photovoltaics
 Typically systems <10kW on residential roo...
High penetration solar PV - Newington (clear solar)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0:00
0:40
1:20
2:00
2:40
3:20
4:...
High penetration solar PV - Newington (intermittent solar)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0:00
0:40
1:20
2:00
2:40
...
Wind turbine – highly intermittent power
17
Effect on low voltage network of high penetration DGDS
Elermore Vale, Close St
transformer
•Measurement of low voltage
pha...
Using the smart grid for voltage management
•Elermore Vale, Kerry Avenue transformer, high penetration of batteries
•Volta...
Distributed Generation – Controllable gas fuel cells
Solid oxide fuel cell
 Runs on natural gas supply
 Electrical outpu...
• BlueGen net used to
control operation on a
scheduled basis
Electrical efficiency
• At 1.5kW, ~53%
• Modulating 0.5-1.5kW...
Fuel cell generation vs household consumption
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
0:30
1:30
2:30
3:30
4:30
5:30
6:30
7:30
8:30
9:30
10:30
11:3...
Waste heat capture and hot water usage patterns
Waste heat recovery highly dependent on customer hot water usage patterns....
Distributed Storage – customer versus grid
Customer Battery Storage
 Generates 5kW output up to 2 hours
 Weighs close to...
Battery performance – summer peak day 5 (full power)
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
12:00
AM
1:00
AM
2:00
AM
3:00
AM
4:00
AM
...
Battery performance – summer peak day 1 (half power)
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
12:00
AM
1:00
AM
2:00
AM
3:00
AM
4:00
AM
...
Summer peak reduction
-
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
12:00
AM
1:00
AM
2:00
AM
3:00
AM
4:00
AM
5:00
AM
6:00
AM
7:00
...
Load reductions in rural environment (non-peak day)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
12:0...
Individual household – no DGDS
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
0:15
0:45
1:15
1:45
2:15
2:45
3:15
3:45
4:15
4:45
5:15
5:45
6:15
6:45
7:...
Individual household – with DGDS (load matching)
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
0:15
0:45
1:15
1:45
2:15
2:45
3:15
3:45
4:15
4:45
5:15...
• High penetration studies (Solar PV and wind)
• Key issues are voltage impacts & potential to change load profiles
• Impa...
Questions?
Find out more
www.smartgridsmartcity.com.au
Trial outcomes can also be found at the Information Clearing House
...
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Smart Utilities 2013 - SGSC DGDS

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Smart Utilities 2013 - SGSC DGDS

  1. 1. Smart Grid, Smart City Distributed generation and storage trials Robert Simpson, Ausgrid 26 November 2013 Smart Utilities Australia & New Zealand 2013
  2. 2. • $100 million Australian Government Initiative – Dept. of Resources, Energy & Tourism • Consortium led by Ausgrid with partners including IBM, GE Australia, CSIRO, Transgrid, Gridnet, City of Newcastle, City of Lake Macquarie, Hunter Water, Sydney Water, University of Newcastle, University of Sydney • Late 2010 to September 2013 • Project Streams • Customer Applications • Electric Vehicles • Grid Applications • Distributed Generation and Storage The Smart Grid Smart City project 2
  3. 3. • What is Distributed Generation and Distributed Storage? • Trial objectives and overview • Trial areas and technology overview • Results from solar PV and wind trials • Results from gas fuel cell trials • Results from battery storage trials • Lessons learnt Overview 3
  4. 4. Distributed Generation  Can generate electricity at small scale  Connected to the electricity grid at the customer end  Examples - PV arrays (solar panels), small wind turbines, fuel cells  May be installed at customer premises or connected directly to the network Distributed Storage  Can store energy (rechargeable batteries)  Connected to the electricity grid at the customer end  Have controllable charge and discharge ability  May be installed at customer premises or within the network Related benefits, impacts and challenges = Energy Resource Management (ERM) What is distributed generation & distributed storage? 4
  5. 5. Solar photovoltaic system penetration - 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 - 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 Feb-09 Apr-09 Jun-09 Aug-09 Oct-09 Dec-09 Feb-10 Apr-10 Jun-10 Aug-10 Oct-10 Dec-10 Feb-11 Apr-11 Jun-11 Aug-11 Oct-11 Dec-11 Feb-12 Apr-12 Jun-12 Aug-12 Oct-12 Dec-12 Feb-13 Apr-13 Jun-13 Aug-13 Monthlyinstalledcapacity(kWp) Totalsolarpanelcapacity(MW) Ausgrid solar PV trends (2009 to Sep 2013) Monthly installed capacity (kW) Total Panel Capacity (MW) End of NSW SBS scheme (FiT) End of Federal solar credits Australian Statistics (4 November 2013) >1,132,000 solar PV systems >2,976,000 kWp ~6.6 million houses (Sources, Clean Energy Regulator and ABS Census 2011) 5
  6. 6. One-way electricity flow Network considerations for high DG penetration Two way electricity flow, low penetration Two way electricity flow, high penetration 6
  7. 7. Trial overview 8
  8. 8. Three trial environments 1. “Suburban Saturation” - Newington • PV repair campaign completed • Data capture via Smart Meters as deployed • Grid battery simulations 2. Urban “Smart Future” – Newcastle • 40 RedFlow battery devices deployed • 25 BlueGEN devices deployed • Installation of 2 wind turbines in commercial/industrial areas • Actively managing operations, collecting data and modelling high penetration scenarios 3. Rural “Thin Grid” - Scone (Upper Gundy) • 20 RedFlow battery devices deployed • 8 wind turbines commissioned • Collecting data Distributed Generation and Distributed Storage trial areas 9 1 2 3
  9. 9. Overview of DGDS technologies trialled Trial Area Solar PV Small wind Fuel cells Batteries kW No kW No kW No kW No Sydney (Newington) 1022 1104 1.5 1 5 1 Newcastle (Elermore Vale) 315 138 4.8 2 37.5 25 200 40 Scone (Upper Gundy) 15 2 19.2 8 100 20 10
  10. 10. Sydney trial area (Newington) Suburbs Newington Zone Substation Homebush Bay Feeder Panel 13 Feeder peak load 3.59MW Customers (NMIs) ~1,800 Network type Underground Total LV transformers 9 kiosks Network monitoring (LV transformers) 9 kiosks Smart meters ~240 Advanced meters 37 •Almost every house with solar PV (1kW or 0.5kW) •High density, ~60% townhouses, 40% apartments •Suburb built for 2000 Olympics Athlete Village •PV repair campaign indicated around 20 to 25% of systems not working 11
  11. 11. Newcastle trial area (Elermore Vale/ Wallsend South) Trial Area Newcastle Trial area (main suburbs) Elermore Vale, Wallsend South Zone Substation Jesmond Feeder 80784 Feeder peak load 5.35MW Customers (NMIs) ~1,800 Network type Overhead / underground Total LV transformers 17 pole top 6 kiosks Network monitoring (transformers) 4 pole top 3 kiosks Smart meters ~290 Advanced meters 91 12
  12. 12. Scone trial area (Upper Gundy) Trial Area Scone Trial area (suburb) Upper Gundy Zone Substation Scone Feeder/ section 89062/ Miranee Rd Peak load 2.68MW/120 kW Customers (NMIs) 31 Network type Overhead HV Total LV transformers 24 pole top Network monitoring Miranee Rd recloser Advanced meters 48 Recloser 13
  13. 13. Distributed Generation – Uncontrollable renewable sources Solar Photovoltaics  Typically systems <10kW on residential roofs  Mature technology  Established installation and connection policies and procedures Small wind turbines  Very low penetration  More suitable for rural areas  10 x 2.4kW rated, tail-less small wind turbines 14
  14. 14. High penetration solar PV - Newington (clear solar) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0:00 0:40 1:20 2:00 2:40 3:20 4:00 4:40 5:20 6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:10 10:50 11:30 12:10 12:50 13:30 14:10 14:50 15:30 16:10 16:50 17:30 18:10 18:50 19:30 20:10 20:50 21:30 22:10 22:50 23:30 11kVfeederload(kVA) TIME (AEST) on 30/09/2012 11kV feeder load (~1MWp and 60% of customers) Average load (10 mins) Minimum load (10 mins) Maximum load (10 mins) 15
  15. 15. High penetration solar PV - Newington (intermittent solar) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0:00 0:40 1:20 2:00 2:40 3:20 4:00 4:40 5:20 6:00 6:40 7:20 8:00 8:40 9:20 10:10 10:50 11:30 12:10 12:50 13:30 14:10 14:50 15:30 16:10 16:50 17:30 18:10 18:50 19:30 20:10 20:50 21:30 22:10 22:50 23:30 11kVfeederload(kVA) TIME (AEST) on 29/09/2012 11kV feeder load (~1MWp and 60% of customers) Average load (10 mins) Minimum load (10 mins) Maximum load (10 mins) 16
  16. 16. Wind turbine – highly intermittent power 17
  17. 17. Effect on low voltage network of high penetration DGDS Elermore Vale, Close St transformer •Measurement of low voltage phase at the transformer and end of distributor •Reverse power flow through pole top transformer •Within 1st/99th percentile voltage ranges (230v +10%, - 6%) but close to limits at the end of the line 18
  18. 18. Using the smart grid for voltage management •Elermore Vale, Kerry Avenue transformer, high penetration of batteries •Voltage ranges before and after transformer tap changes 19
  19. 19. Distributed Generation – Controllable gas fuel cells Solid oxide fuel cell  Runs on natural gas supply  Electrical output can be modulated (0.5-1.5kW)  Size of dishwasher  Requires natural gas, water, electricity and communications systems Cogeneration system  Waste heat recovery system  Domestic hot water tank  Gas instant hot water booster  Improves overall system efficiency 20
  20. 20. • BlueGen net used to control operation on a scheduled basis Electrical efficiency • At 1.5kW, ~53% • Modulating 0.5-1.5kW, ~40% • At 0.5kW, ~36% Modulating power output – efficiency effects 21
  21. 21. Fuel cell generation vs household consumption -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0:30 1:30 2:30 3:30 4:30 5:30 6:30 7:30 8:30 9:30 10:30 11:30 12:30 13:30 14:30 15:30 16:30 17:30 18:30 19:30 20:30 21:30 22:30 23:30 AveragePower(kWper30mins) Effect of fuel cell operation on household consumption Household profile Constant 1.5kW power Modulated to 1.5kW (2pm-10pm) •Typical average residential customer in Newcastle LGA, ~15kWh/day •Gas fuel cell trialled capable of generating 36kWh/day (1.5kW power 24/7) •Graph of participant usage ~28kWh/day summer average (40kWh on day shown) 22
  22. 22. Waste heat capture and hot water usage patterns Waste heat recovery highly dependent on customer hot water usage patterns. On average ~8 to 10% extra system efficiency. 24
  23. 23. Distributed Storage – customer versus grid Customer Battery Storage  Generates 5kW output up to 2 hours  Weighs close to 500kg  Roughly the size of a narrow household fridge  Connected at the meter board  Zinc Bromine flow battery Grid Battery Storage  Storage size 60kW for 2 hours  120kWh Lithium Ion batteries  Size of a 20 ft container  Directly connected to the local network 25
  24. 24. Battery performance – summer peak day 5 (full power) -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM AverageActivePower(kW) ElermoreVale Battery Performance(40 batteries) - 30 November 2012 Actual performance Ideal performance 26
  25. 25. Battery performance – summer peak day 1 (half power) -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM AverageActivePower(kW) ElermoreVale Battery Performance(40 batteries) - 18 January 2013 Actual performance Ideal performance 27
  26. 26. Summer peak reduction - 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 12:00 AM 1:00 AM 2:00 AM 3:00 AM 4:00 AM 5:00 AM 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM AverageActivePower(kW) Peakreduction effectof batteries on Jesmond feeder load: 18 January 2013 Estimated feeder Load (no batteries) Actualfeeder load (with actual battery operation) Estimated feeder load (ideal battery operation) Actual (half power): 0.4% (24kW) Ideal (half power): 1.7% (91kW) Theoretical (full power) : 3.7% (200kW) 28
  27. 27. Load reductions in rural environment (non-peak day) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 12:00 AM 04:00 AM 08:00 AM 12:00 PM 04:00 PM 08:00 PM 12:00 AM FeederCurrent(A) Power(kW) July 11 to 13 average time of day Feeder current calculated recloser power without batteries measured recloser power with batteries 29
  28. 28. Individual household – no DGDS -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0:15 0:45 1:15 1:45 2:15 2:45 3:15 3:45 4:15 4:45 5:15 5:45 6:15 6:45 7:15 7:45 8:15 8:45 9:15 9:45 10:15 10:45 11:15 11:45 12:15 12:45 13:15 13:45 14:15 14:45 15:15 15:45 16:15 16:45 17:15 17:45 18:15 18:45 19:15 19:45 20:15 20:45 21:15 21:45 22:15 22:45 23:15 23:45 AveragekWinahalfhour House load Newington Feeder (,000 kW) Evening peak 30
  29. 29. Individual household – with DGDS (load matching) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0:15 0:45 1:15 1:45 2:15 2:45 3:15 3:45 4:15 4:45 5:15 5:45 6:15 6:45 7:15 7:45 8:15 8:45 9:15 9:45 10:15 10:45 11:15 11:45 12:15 12:45 13:15 13:45 14:15 14:45 15:15 15:45 16:15 16:45 17:15 17:45 18:15 18:45 19:15 19:45 20:15 20:45 21:15 21:45 22:15 22:45 23:15 23:45 AveragekWinahalfhour House load Import from grid Export to grid Newington Feeder (,000 kW) Battery charging Battery in load matching Battery discharge and stripping Exporting during peak times 31
  30. 30. • High penetration studies (Solar PV and wind) • Key issues are voltage impacts & potential to change load profiles • Impacts determined by network characteristics and settings (not just penetration) • Small wind is restricted mainly to rural locations & has high output variability • Rural (thin) networks more influenced by high penetrations • Fuel cells – Operation is more suited to customers with high consumption and base load – Additional efficiency from waste heat capture is dependent on heating load characteristics • Battery storage – Distributed batteries can be controlled and utilised to reduce network peaks – Battery operation, performance and key parameters are important in assessing suitability (eg. kWh/kW ratio) – Advanced battery management/operation functions allow greater customer benefits • Smart grid – Network monitoring can assist in voltage management (including meters/devices) – Standard control interfaces on DGDS may assist in dual benefits for customers and networks (AS4755 & AS4777) Lessons learnt 32
  31. 31. Questions? Find out more www.smartgridsmartcity.com.au Trial outcomes can also be found at the Information Clearing House https://ich.smartgridsmartcity.com.au/ 33

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