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Smart Domestic Appliances Provide Flexibility for Sustainable Energy Systems

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Smart Domestic Appliances Provide Flexibility for Sustainable Energy Systems

  1. 1. Smart Domestic Appliances Provide Flexibility for Sustainable Energy SystemsLeonardo Webinar Christof Timpe21 August 2009 Öko-InstitutThe sole responsibility for the content of this presentation lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.
  2. 2. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Partners in the Project “Smart Domestic Appliancesin Sustainable Energy Systems (Smart-A)” 2
  3. 3. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Overview• The Smart Appliances Vision• Demand Response Options by Smart Appliances• Consumer Acceptance of Smart Appliances• Model Results – Benefits provided by Demand Response Devices – Cost of Smart Appliances – Comparison of Cost and Benefits• A Snapshot on the Actors Involved and Incentives Required• Conclusions 3
  4. 4. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy SystemsThe Smart Appliances Vision © Öko-Institut e.V. 4
  5. 5. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Examples Illustrating the Smart-A Vision• The freezer receives a signal from the local Automatic electricity network operator that a load peak is smart operation expected around noon, and therefore it stores cold in the morning to avoid operation during peak time.• The user switches on the dishwasher in the Low-level morning and leaves for work. The appliance consumer interaction optimises the timing of its operation based on heat supply from the solar heat system.• The washing machine checks the weather Complex forecast from the Internet and signals to the consumer interaction user that a sunny day allows for the use of a programme with higher temperatures. 5
  6. 6. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy SystemsAppliance Load of a Generic European Household 900 Water Heater 800 Air Conditioner 700Power demand (W) Oven and Stove 600 Tumble Dryer 500 Washing Machine 400 Circul. Pump 300 Dishwasher 200 Refrigerator 100 Freezer 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time of day (hours) 6
  7. 7. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Demand Response Options for AppliancesSmart Timing of Appliances Cycles Washing Machine, Dryer: Typical <3 hrs.; Maximum 9 hrs. Dishwasher: Typical <6 hrs.; Maximum >12 hrs. Refrigerator, Freezer: n/a Other Appliances: Typical <15 mins. … 1 hr.Interruptions of the Appliance Cycle Washing Machine: Typical <10 mins. Dryer: Typical <30 mins. Dishwasher: Typical <10 mins. Refrigerator, Freezer: Typical <15 mins. Other Appliances: Typical <15 mins. 7
  8. 8. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Consumer Objections and Wishes• Higher investment cost • Economic Incentives• Consumers want to be able to • Enhanced safety functions retain full control over their Overloading signal appliances Temperature surveillance• Health and safety issues Water stop (fire, flooding, food might Detection of technical faults be compromised) • Enhanced comfort and usability• Doubts about maturity of the technology • High quality service & support• Scepticism about the • Attractive design ecological benefits Pictures © PIXELIO 8
  9. 9. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Applications of Demand Response –Requirements of Sustainable Energy Systems The key challenge of the future: Balancing out variable windSource: Abaravicius & Pyrko, 2006 (& solar) generation. 9
  10. 10. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy SystemsDetermining the Economic Benefits of Smart Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Step 1: Value of Demand Response Devices for Balancing Wind Generation 10
  11. 11. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Sample View on a Model Run 16000 15000 14000 13000 12000MW 11000 10000 9000 8000 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 hour Pd_original Pd_dsm 11
  12. 12. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Model A: Value of Generic 1kW DSM DeviceEffects of introducing DR into 100 All cases assume asystem balancing in energy 90 30% wind share insystems with high shares of wind: 80 installed generation & moderate CO2 cost – Reduced requirement for 70 “spinning reserve” from part- 60 EUR/kW/year loaded fossil fuel plants – Reduced necessity to shut 50 down wind plants in order to 40 ensure system stability 30Both effects result in: 20 – Reduced use of fossil fuel 10 – Reduced CO2 emissions 0 Low Flexibility Medium Flexibility High FlexibilityThe figure shows the annual Generation Generation Generation (DE, FR, PL ..) (ES, IT, PT ..) (Nordic, AT, CH, ..)value per kW of DR load. 12
  13. 13. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Model A: Application to EU29 Countries 104 130 100 2010, moderate energy prices, 100 CO2 cost included 2025, moderate energy prices, 90 CO2 cost included 2025, high energy prices, CO2 cost included 80 70EUR/kW DSM 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK 13
  14. 14. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Model B: Value of Selected Appliances 18 Low flexibility generationThe value of individual appliances 16 system with 30% wind share at moderateis driven by: energy and CO2 prices. 14 – The degree of flexibility offered (duration of the 12 EUR/appliance/year load shift) 10 – The volume of energy shifted 8 per appliance 6The figure shows the annual 4value of three selected appliancesused for DR. 2 0 Washing Machine Dishwasher Washer+Drier 14
  15. 15. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy SystemsDetermining the Economic Benefits of Smart Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Step 2: Cost of Enabling Smart Appliances as Demand Response Devices 15
  16. 16. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Cost for Providing DR by AppliancesThe following cost items are relevant• Additional production cost for the Smart Appliance – Significant reductions expected through mass production• Investments in an in-house communication hub – In the future, this function can be taken over by any WLAN system.• Cost for additional electricity consumption of Smart Appliances – Expected average value: 1 W extra for SA “ready to operate”. Smart Meters are not really required for Smart Appliances operation, Also, Smart Meters can provide other services to consumers as well.  No extra cost have been taken into account here. 16
  17. 17. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy SystemsDetermining the Economic Benefits of Smart Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Step 3: Comparison of Cost and Benefits of Smart Appliances 17
  18. 18. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Comparison of Cost and Benefits 104 130 100 2010, moderate energy prices, 100 CO2 cost included 2025, moderate energy prices, 90 CO2 cost included 2025, high energy prices, CO2 cost included 80 70EUR/kW DSM 60 50 40 30 Expected range of 20 costs (2025) 10 0 AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK 18
  19. 19. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems A Few Words of Caution• Models A and B only looked at benefits of Smart Appliances used for balancing wind power. – Additional benefits can be gained by other applications, e.g. managing local or regional network congestions.• The analysis is based on a number of rough assumptions. – Du to these uncertainties, the results should be regarded as rough estimates rather than precise results.• The analysis is performed on a country-by country basis. – To the extent that balancing markets in the EU become better connected, differences will be reduced. 19
  20. 20. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems A Snapshot on the Actors Involved Appliances Other Balancing Wind Other kWhManufacturers Power Providers Generators Generators Smart Appl. Appliances Aggregator Retailers „Smart“ System Power Household Balancing Market DSOs Retailer of Other „Smart“ Energy Household Consumers Other Retailers 20
  21. 21. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems A Snapshot on the Actors Involved Appliances Other Balancing Wind Other kWhManufacturers Power Providers Generators Generators Smart Appl. Appliances Aggregator Retailers „Smart“ System Power Household Balancing Market DSOs Retailer of Economic „Smart“ Benefit Other Household Economic Energy Disadvantage Consumers Other Options for Retailers Incentives 21
  22. 22. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Conclusions on Smart Appliances (SA)• Domestic appliances offer a variety of load management options. Technical constraints and consumer preferences define the limits.• Consumers tend to accept SA if their daily routines are not changed and comfort and safety are maintained.• From a system perspective the value of SA is driven by the flexibility of the conventional generation mix and the share of wind & solar energy.• Typical values of SA for balancing wind generation are moderate. Not all EU countries seem to offer viable potentials for SA.• SA can have significant value, when contributing to congestion relieve and reducing congestion costs.• Incentive mechanisms are needed to give the right signals to the actors involved in Demand Response through SA. 22
  23. 23. Smart Domestic Appliances in Sustainable Energy Systems Many Thanks for Your Attention!Christof Timpe Project WebsiteSmart-A Project Coordinator http://www.smart-a.orgOeko-Institut e.V. –Institute for Applied EcologyFreiburg - Darmstadt - BerlinPO Box 50 02 40,79028 Freiburg, GermanyPh.: +49-761-452 95-25c.timpe@oeko.dehttp://www.oeko.de 23

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