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Publishing in Open Access Journals – How DOAJ can help to avoid questionable publishers

  1. Publishing in Open Access Journals – How DOAJ can help to avoid questionable publishers 17 Nov 2018 ICTs for Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness in Agricultural Research, Education and Extension of NARES 13-22 Nov 2018 ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore By Leena Shah, Managing Editor & Ambassdor, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) Email: 1
  2. Overview Part A • What is Open Access? • What problem in Scholarly Communication is OA trying to address? • How & why do you participate in OA? • What are the typical concerns about OA? • Questionable publishers • Recent trends in OA – how does this impact us in the Global South? 2
  3. Overview Part B • Questionable (predatory) publishers • Tips on avoiding Q publishers • Blacklists vs Quality Indexing • What is DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) • What makes DOAJ Credible – Criteria for selection • What information can you find in DOAJ? • Think.Check.Submit • Popular OA resources and search tools 3
  4. • Open Access is the practice of providing on-line access to scientific information that is free of charge to the reader and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.1&2 • OA is a kind of access, not a kind of business model, license, or content.2 1 2 What is Open Access? 4
  5. Budapest Open Access Initiative1 in 2002 5 Open Access Definition By Open Access to research literature we mean it is “freely available online, permitting users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full texts of these articles or use them for any other lawful purpose.“ The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. 1
  6. 6 For a work to be OA, the copyright holder must consent in advance to let users “copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship” Remove access & price barriers Remove permission barriers Open Access Definition Bethesda2 and Berlin Statement3 2003 2 3
  7. How open is it?4 4 Created by SPARC, PLOS and OASPA 7
  8. Libraries Universities & Institutions Scholars Free Provide access OPEN ACCESS ARCHIVES GREEN ROUTE Articles freely available in repositories – discoverable on the Internet Inelastic supply Increase disciplines & therefore titles –sm Profiteering? DUE TO : SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION CRISIS OPEN ACCESS Articles freely available in peer review OA journals OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS GOLD ROUTE Publishers Sign over copyright Peer review FC Choy (2015). Why is Open Access important to researchers? [PowerPoint Slides]. Presented at Academic Publishing 2015, NTU Libraries, Singapore. 8
  9. How do you participate in OA as a researcher? GOLD ROUTE GREEN ROUTE 9
  10. GOLD ROUTE Identify a reputable OA journal1 Send your paper for peer review 2 When paper is accepted – you may pay an “article processing charge” (APC) to publisher 3 Your paper is published in the OA journal 4 10
  11. Use DOAJ to look for OA journals  12,301 journals  128 countries  3 m articles Full-text OA journals Identify a reputable OA journal 1 Send your paper for peer review 2 When paper is accepted – you may pay an “article processing charge” (APC) to publisher 3 Your paper is published in the OA journal 4 GOLD ROUTE 11
  12. Submit paper to selected journal as per normal 1 When paper is accepted – submit final peer-reviewed copy to an open repository (e.g. institutional Repository such as ePrints@IISc) 2 Metadata of record will be picked up by Google 3 GREEN ROUTE 4 Anyone can find your article via Google 12
  13. Submit paper to selected journal as per normal 1 When paper is accepted – submit final peer-reviewed copy to an open repository (e.g. institutional Repository such as ePrints@IISc) 2 Metadata of record will be picked up by Google 3 GREEN ROUTE 4 Anyone can find your article via Google Self-archiving Publishers typically allow with embargo period – 6 months to 2 years Most publishers only allow “accepted version” and not the journal formatted version to be archived in repository Accepted version is your final manuscript after peer review. Most publishers allow this version to be made available via your institutional repository. Do not lose it! 13
  14. Green Vs Gold OA Green OA: • May not be available immediately due to publisher embargoes • It is free, a cost-effective solution • Complexity of Green OA – when, where and what version of a paper can be made OA has led to it being ignored by researchers. Gold OA: • May involve an Article Processing Charge (APC) for the author • Immediately available with re-use rights ( Creative Commons License) • DOAJ indexes only Gold OA journals 14
  15. A common misunderstanding is that all OA journals use an ‘author pay’ business model. Gold OA Journals 8709 3148 68 APC information about OA Journals Indexed in DOAJ No Yes No info 163 75 APC information about Indian OA Journals Indexed in DOAJ No Yes 15
  16. Diamond OA: • Journals do not charge publication fees nor access charges • Similar to Gold OA with the article going through peer review Other OA models Bronze OA: • Unlicensed papers, free to read Hybrid OA: • Provide OA to specific articles in an otherwise subscription journal • Double Dipping – second income stream • DOAJ does not index hybrid OA journals 16
  17. What is a Preprint? Author’s original manuscript before peer review and before it is formally published in a journal. It is freely available on preprint servers. Preprint Servers Preprint Servers: By discipline: arXiv, bioRxiv, SocArXiv, EarthArXiv, PsyArXiv, AgriXiv, ChemArxiv, PaleorXiv, ASAPbio, Peer J Preprints, RePEc By Geography: indiarxiv, INArxiv, ArabiXiv, FrenXiv, ChinaXiv Video – what are Preprint Servers: 17
  18. Why should you participate in OA? 18
  19. Benefits of participating in OA 19
  20. 20 Compliance with Mandates National Institute of Health (2007) mandate First mandate from major US funding agency - Deposit to PUBMED Central - 12 months embargo - 75% compliance (2012, Poynder) DBT & DST OA Policy, India (2014) Accepts Green route Research Council UK (RCUK)(2012) Accept both Gold and Green routes – 6 months embargo European Commission From 2014, requires deposit in IR upon publication. 6 months embargo in STEM and 12 months for humanities & social sciences Large foundations – Gates, Ford, Packard, Open Society, etc. Requires grantees to publish their work under CC BY license – allow use, reuse, remixing, etc.
  21. Concerns about Open Access 21
  22. OA journals indexed in WoS & Scopus are approach ing same impact & quality as subscripti on journals (Bjork & Solomon, 2012) Scientific Impact of OA journals vs Subscription journals 22
  23. Average Citations per paper over a three-year window (2015-17) for top 20 largest publishers in 2017 in SCImago (2018) split into subscription journals (gray) and OA journals (red). Reference: citation-advantage-over-subscription-journals/ OA journals have a citation advantage over Subscription journals (source: Across the last three years, OA journals receive on average 7% more citations than subscriptio n journals (Mirjam Curno & Stephanie Oeben) 23
  24. Questionable Publishers “Sting operation” by John Bohannon (Science News), 2013 - Variation of a bogus paper submitted to 304 OA journals - Half of the OA journals accepted the paper QUESTIONABLE (or PREDATORY) PUBLISHERS The practice of charging APC in Gold OA encouraged some unscrupulous publishers to exploit researchers eager to publish quickly RETORT: Is it about OA or peer review; No control group Warning signs: promise of quick turnaround with peer review; falsifying credentials; using unsolicited mail, etc. Consult your librarian!. 24
  25. Recent Events and Trends 25
  26. Growing interest in Europe & US in engineering a global ‘flip’ of legacy subscription journals to a ‘pay- to-publish’ OA model. 1 • If paywalls are replaced by publication walls – Impact on researchers from the Global South? • Elsevier also raised a discussion about adopting a ‘region- specific’ OA for e.g. European articles made available as gold OA in Europe and ‘Green’ OA outside of Europe. 2 1 2 Pay-to-Publish OA 26
  27. • July 2018 – Researchers in Germany lost access to recent articles from Elsevier following a breakdown in negotiations between Projekt Deal (German consortium) and Elsevier • May-July 2018 - Researchers in Sweden lost access to new articles in Elsevier’s journals following a breakdown in negotiations between the Bibsam Consortium in Sweden and Elsevier • Mar 2018 –, the French consortium cancelled subscriptions to Springer Nature journals. Discussions continue.. • Mar 2018 – Dutch consortium VSNU announced “that Dutch universities and Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing have been unable to reach a new agreement on access to scientific journals” Pulling out of Publishing Deals 27
  28. OA Initiative launched in Sept 2018 by European Commission and Science Europe  Ensure that by 2020, all research papers arising from funding are made OA immediately on publication  Structured around 10 principles  Recent news: Wellcome Trust & Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation joined Criticism:  may have implications for academic freedom PlanS 28
  29. Journal twins : part A & B (theoretical) Part A : already existing subscription/ hybrid journal Part B: Fully OA version of the same title - Separate ISSN - Same Editorial Board & peer review system - Once accepted author is given a choice - Gives authors the option to continue to publish in their preferred community journal Mirror Journals 29
  30. End of Part A Recap GBCY 30
  31. What is questionable or unethical publishing? 31
  32. •Jeffrey Beall coined the term “predatory publishers” •Preferred Term at DOAJ : Questionable Publishing •Definition: “The sort of OA publishers and journals who only aims to collect article processing charges (APCs), but they lack RIGOROUS peer review and PROPER marketing practices” Predatory Publishing 32
  33. Questionable Publishing in India 33
  34. Questionable Publishing in India 34
  35. • It undermines science and the trust that the system is built upon • Viewed as a problem largely for Gold open access journals • Brings open access into disrepute • Unfairly targets authors in developing countries (see next slides) Questionable Publishing in India Why is it a problem? 35
  36. Why are researchers publishing in questionable journals at all? • Ignorance – lack of attention • Aggressive marketing scams cheats researchers • Publish or Perish – get something on my CV! • Research assessment – decision makers counting beans • Exclusion from highly reputable journals from (mostly) global north • Researchers from Global South are particularly vulnerable Questionable Publishing 36
  37. Global Bias 37
  38. •60.3% - Asia (34.7% from India) •2.3% - South America •16.4% - Africa Conclusion: The problem of questionable OA publishing is highly limited and regional to a few developing countries, where ‘international publication’ is a prerequisite for academic appointment, more funding, or promotion. Björk B, Shen C, Laakso M. (2016) A longitudinal study of independent scholar-published open access journals. PeerJ 4:e1990 Questionable journals (authors) 38
  39. • Questionable OA publishers and/or journals has (1) caused negative publicity to OA publishing in general (‘pay to publish’) and (2) posed a danger to the landscape of Science (‘production of low-quality research’) • What can we do to combat the fast growth of questionable OA publishing market? Questionable Publishing in India - A reflection 39
  40. How to identify questionable OA publishers and/or journals? 40
  41. • Two major characteristics: – Inappropriate marketing practices • Spam emails • Journal titles with “International”, “American” or “European” • Fake impact factors • Advertise a very short publishing time • Advertise a relative low publication fees – No or little quality control of contents • Low-standard peer review process or even don’t have peer review at all Quick 5 Min Check 41
  42. Blacklists? OR Quality Indexing? Identify Questionable Publishing 42
  43. Blacklists are not the solution Beall’s list - Jeffery Beall maintained an online public list popularly known as Beall’s list of ‘potential, possible or probably predatory scholarly open-access publishers’. It was taken down in January 2017. 43
  44. Quality indexing by indexing services • DOAJ DIRECTORY OF OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS OA Journals only, no ranking, other language journals equal to English journals • SCOPUS OA & subscription journals , ranking, geographical bias (English) • WEB OF SCIENCE OA & subscription journals , ranking, geographical bias (english) • NATIONAL LISTS OA & subscription journals, ranking (often based on scopus, wos) 44
  45. What is DOAJ? 45
  46. DOAJ – more than a list of journals! • Curates OA title in all subjects and languages – journals undergo evaluation based on a set of criteria – whitelist of 12,288 Journals (Oct 2018) • An aggregation of article level metadata – Publishers upload article metadata into DOAJ – 73% of the journals do so – Currently 3,438,715 articles • All DOAJ services and data are free for all to use, download and re-use 46
  47. OA journals indexed in DOAJ - Languages 9481 2362 1702 1124 889 509 442 351 240 175 English Spanish Portugese Indonesian French Russian Italian German Turkish Persian 47
  48. OA journals indexed in DOAJ - Countries 1438 1363 1284 670 665 534 425 334 327 317 UK Indonesia Brazil Spain USA Poland Iran Italy Turkey Romania 48
  49. OA journals indexed in DOAJ – APC Information OA Journals in DOAJ Indian OA Journals in DOAJ 49
  50. What makes the DOAJ index credible & trustworthy? Criteria ? 50
  51. Principles of Transparency and Best Practices in Scholarly Communication 51
  52. Criteria  Content Requirements – fully OA, no hybrid, no embargo..  ISSN  OA statement  Copyright and Licensing Information  Editorial Process – Ed Board, Peer review  Journal Info requirement – Aim & scope, Author Instructions 52
  53. • Low publishing quality Journal name, website, fees, peer review, publisher, ownership, volume of articles, advertisements, prominent soliciting for editors • Low scientific quality focus, format, self-citations, plagiarism • Malpractice false claims, hidden costs, spamming authors, wrong information, predatory behaviour How DOAJ detects questionable journals 53
  54. • Dedicated team investigating suspicious cases • No reapplication from proven questionable publishers for a longer time period • Low quality journals will be rejected but can reapply after 6months • Transparency: public list of journals added/removed DOAJ procedures for keeping it clean 54
  55. DOAJ listed in Top 10 platforms for listing Creative Commons work OASPA TO REQUIRE DOAJ LISTING FOR SINGLE- JOURNAL PUBLISHERS listing-for-single-journal-publishers/ DOAJ is supported by more than 500 libraries and academic institutions around the world. DOAJ support and recognition from other organisations 55
  56. How authors can avoid questionable journals 56
  57. Watch the Video: 57
  58. Directories – OA and Free Journals • DOAJ (Directory of OA journals) • OpenDOAR (Directory of OA Repositories) • DOAB (Directory of OA books) Disciplinary Archives • arXiv • SSRN • bioRxiv • ChemRxiv Publishers & distributors • BioMed Central • Public Library of Science (PLoS) • PubMed Central (PMC) • SciELO • Wiley OA journals science/open-access/index.html • HighWire Press • PeerJ • SAGE Open Databases and networks • ScienceOpen • Digital Commons Network • PKP Index Free E-book on OA • The Open Revolution: rewriting the rules of the information age • Jhangiani, R S and Biswas-Diener, R 2017 Open: The Philosophy and Practices that are Revolutionizing Education and Science. London: Ubiquity Press. DOI: License: CC-BY 4.0 OA Resources 58
  59. • Unpaywall (Impactstory) Harvests OA content from open repositories run by universities, governments, open content hosted by publishers and scholarly societies • OAJF (Enago) Open Access Journal Finder • 1findr (1science) Analytics and discovery platform. Aims to find all peer reviewed articles - green, gold and hybrid OA articles. A paid-for service with a free version OA Search Tools 59
  60. Hands-on Activity -1 Using Q. You are looking for peer reviewed journal articles on Dengue. Use DOAJ to find them. 1. How many articles did you find on Dengue? 2. If you wanted to use the article content for commercial purposes - Can you find out what is the journal’s use/re-use policy? 3. You have limited funds to publish your article on ‘Dengue’. You want it to be OA - which OA journal would you choose? 60
  61. Hands-on Activity - 2 Assume you want to publish your research in this journal. Use Think.Check.Submit to check if it is a legitimate journal. List 2 reasons why you would/would not publish in it? a. Journal of Surgery etails/journal-of-surgery-ISSN-2575-9760 61
  62. Hands-On Activity 3 Finding OA articles using unpaywall browser extension 62
  63. Thank You 63