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Distinguishing between questionable, low quality, and quality Indonesian open access journals

  1. Distinguishing between Questionable, Low Quality and Quality Indonesian Open Access Journals using DOAJ criteria and analytical tools Tom Olijhoek DOAJ Editor-in-Chief International Workshop for Indonesian Editors March 25-27, 2019, Hotel Grand Mega, Kuta, Bali. organized by HEBII (Indonesian Association of Scientific Journal Editors). and KEMENTERIAN RISET, TEKNOLOGI, DAN PENDIDIKAN TINGGI (Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education)
  2. You are free to: Copy, share, adapt, or re-mix; Blog, live-blog, or post video of; This presentation. Provided that: You attribute the work to its author and respect the rights and licenses associated with its components. Slide Concept by Cameron Neylon, who has waived all copyright and related or neighbouring rights. This slide only ccZero. Social Media Icons adapted with permission from originals by Christopher Ross. Original images are available under GPL at; Slides in this presentation by Tom Olyhoek, Judith Barnsby and Ina Smith
  3. Part 1 the basics • History DOAJ • The Team, The Structure, The Workflow • Journals: distribution countries languages • Differences with Scopus Web of Science • Quality of publishing versus content
  4. Part 2 Criteria for entering DOAJ • IMPORTANT: English is NOT requirement, full Bahassa is OK • Basic criteria • Extended non essential criteria • Recommended policies for specific criteria • Specific problems (Indonesia)
  5. Part 3 Scientific quality • Properties of low quality journals • Properties of questionable journals • Whitelists versus blacklist
  6. Part 4 Practical session • Filling out an application
  7. A not-for-profit Community Interest Company (C.I.C.), registered in the United Kingdom.
  8. What is the DOAJ? • Directory of Open Access Journals • THEN: launched in May 2003, Lund University, Sweden – list of 300 titles • NOW: Centrally, publicly and internationally available community-curated list of > 12,000 high quality open access journal titles across all disciplines (scientific/scholarly) from 129 countries • DOAJ Ambassador programme now covers all major world regions (with exception of Japan) • Also lists journals publishing in local language only
  9. The DOAJ core team • Managing Director • Operations Manager • Project and Communications Manager • Editor-in-Chief • Senior Managing Editor • 6 Managing Editors • We are based in Sweden, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, India & Denmark – And…
  10. Volunteers and Ambassadors • 50+ Voluntary Editors/Associate Editors working unpaid a few hours/week – distributed in editorial groups managing 20+ languages • 20 Ambassadors recruited to – Promote DOAJ – Handle applications of journals to be listed in DOAJ – Promote best publishing practice and – Help identifying and spotting questionable and unethical publishers • Ambassadors are based in – China, India, Russia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Algeria, South Africa and Mexico, Indonesia & Korea – covering Asia, Middle East, Africa and Latin America
  11. three-tier evaluation proces Managing Editor Associate Editors: reviewing applications, communicate with publishers, recommend inclusion/rejection Editors: allocating applications to Associate Editors, recommend inclusion/rejection Managing Editors: allocate applications to Editors & decide on inclusion/rejection
  12. Publisher/Editor Applies DOAJ Editor Assess/ISSN DOAJ Team Evaluate & Recommend DOAJ Editor Final Decision Feedback to Publisher/Editor Workflow 1. Reject 2. Approve 3. Approve & Seal
  13. New Governance Model • Board 8-10 seats, nominated by major contributors – tasks: Advice and feedback on Business issues (Strategy, Budget, End of Year Results, Fundraising Strategy • Council: Broader Advisory Group – 20-25 seats (to allow for geographical and stakeholder diversity). Based on a general call for nominations from current supporters. • Editorial Committee 10 members
  14. DOAJ ambassadors for Indonesia: Dian Eka Indriani Ikhwan Arief Mochammad Tanzil Multazam Due to the scale of operations in Indonesia, we have also appointed 2 honorary Ambassadors: Professor Toho Cholik Mutohir (in Indonesian) and Abdul Wahid Maktub. Professor Mutohir is a lecturer at Surabaya State University and Abdul Wahid Maktub is Special Advisor to the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia. INCREASING THE IMPACT OF OPEN ACCESS IN INDONESIA
  15. Algeria and Indonesia are the first countries outside the EU that have government directives for journals to be included in DOAJ
  16. DOAJ Statistics 2018
  18. Position of Indonesia NEED FOR IMPROVING JOURNAL QUALITY First rank in journals added to DOAJ in 2018 But also First rank in journals rejected
  20. • DOAJ looks at the quality of publishing using the principles of Best Practice in scholarly publishing The scientific quality of articles only plays a role in discriminating between low quality and questionable journals The journals in DOAJ are not routinely assessed for the quality of their content • Citations are not a good measure of article quality and alternatives are not yet well developed Assessing Quality of Journals
  21. • The scientific quality of a journal can not be assessed by the average citation scores of articles (the Journal Impact Factor JIF and derived methods like Citescore) • The scientific quality of articles cannot be assessed by where they are published • The scientific quality of scientist cannot be assessed by where or how much they publish Scientific quality and impact can only be assessed on article level Assessing Quality of Research
  22. Quality of Scholarly Publishing The basics
  23. The principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Communication • The Principles are very much inspired by the initial draft of the new DOAJ criteria, apply not only for Open Access publishing and has developed into de-facto standards. •
  25. The application form • The new application form: •
  26. Essential criteria for journals to be listed • ISSN registered • Clear and complete instructions for authors • An Open Access statement • Comply with the BOAI definition • Transparency on charges (APC, submission) • A peer-review process, details of the kind of process • An editor/editorial board with clearly identifiable members • Licensing and copyright information • Aims and scope • Published a least 5 articles per year to qualify
  27. Instructions for Authors* • Detailed style guide • Description of quality control process (review) • Copyright information • Licensing information • Plagiarism policy • Instructions on how to submit an article • Contact email address
  28. “Non essential” criteria • Archiving • Permanent article identifiers (DOI etc) • Deposit policy of journal in Sherpa Romeo or other • Plagiarism control • Uploading metadata • Use of Creative Commons licenses • NOTE all questions need to be answered! But ‘No” here is also acceptable
  29. Recommendations to journals wanting to be listed • Unrestricted copyright for the author • No exclusive publishing rights for the journal • No transfer of commercial rights • Use of Creative Commons licensing • Embedded licensing information with articles • Permanent article identifiers • No mention of impact factors
  30. • Openness, Reuse & Remixing rights, Licensing, Copyrights and Permissions! Openness
  31. Editorial issues Specify what kind of review process is applied: Editorial review, Peer Review, Blind Peer Review, Double Blind Peer Review, Open Peer Review
  32. Reuse/remix
  33. Licensing
  34. Copyright and permissions
  35. Archiving/Preservation • Archiving is important – too many OA-journals do not have an archiving arrangement
  36. Plagiarism etc
  37. Charges
  38. DOAJ Seal for Open Access Journals •Best practice recommendations for OA publishing •Based on 7 criteria relating to accessibility, openness, discoverability, reuse, and authors rights •All criteria must be met to be awarded the DOAJ Seal •Note the Seal does not reflect the academic quality of the journal
  39. DOAJ Seal
  40. DOAJ Seal criteria •Copyright •To allow authors to hold copyright and publishing rights without restriction •Copyright must be retained by the author •Exclusive publishing rights for the publisher do not qualify •Transfer of commercial rights to the publisher do not qualify
  41. DOAJ Seal criteria •Deposit policy •To provide information on authors’ self-archiving rights •Policies for archiving of pre-prints, post-prints and publisher’s version •Covers author’s own web site, institutional and subject repositories •SHERPA/RoMEO and others
  42. Depositing Policy
  44. • Website security (Malware) • Links are not to correct information • Copyright and licensing • Peer reviewer number and diversity • APC changes after DOAJ listing • Editorial board diversity • Authors = editors Examples of problems with DOAJ criteria in Indonesia
  45. Your journal's page has a “Not Secure” Warning in Chrome? Here's how to make your journal's page more secure 47 Website security (Malware)
  46. We reviewed more than 300 journals in terms of security after feedback on Malware in Gold Open Access Journals by Walt Crawford What does “Non Secure” mean? 48
  47. The latest version of the Google Chrome browser, version 68, introduced a new “Not Secure” warning in the address bar that appears anytime you are visiting an insecure web page. It’s alerting you that information sent and received with that page is unprotected and it could potentially be stolen, read, or modified by attackers, hackers, and entities with access to internet infrastructure. 49
  48. Over the last few years, websites have been transitioning to HTTPS—note the S appended to the end—which does provide security and is used by millions of websites including,, and, to protect your information while browsing, logging in, and making purchases. 50
  49. The “Not Secure” warning does not indicate that your computer or the site you are visiting is affected by malware. It only serves to alert you that you do not have a secure connection with that page. Learn more: -3452271450&p=ui_security_indicator&rd=1 51
  50. • All links given in the application form to same URL • Links point to wrong pages • Required information is not in the website Links are not to correct information
  51. • Copyright Notice • Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. • Every accepted manuscript should be accompanied by Copyright Transfer Agreement prior to the article publication Copyright and licensing •Authors retain copyright •Copyright Transfer Agreement in place
  52. •Open Access license •All rights reserved notice with the articles Copyright and licensing
  53. •Open Access license •Publisher restricts rights of the authors to fair use only Copyright and licensing Copyright transfer agreement. Penulis masih mempunyai hak untuk hal-hal berikut: 1. menggandakan seluruh atau sebagian materi yang dipublikasikan untuk digunakan oleh penulis sendiri sebagai bahan pengajaran di kelas atau bahan presentasi lisan dalam berbagai forum; 2. menggunakan kembali sebagian atau keseluruhan materi sebagai bahan kompilasi bagi karya tulis penulis selanjutnya; 3. membuat salinan dari bahan yang dipublikasikan untuk didistribusikan di lingkungan institusi tempat penulis bekerja.
  54. •Use of Open Access license (CC-BY-NC) •Rights restricted to using articles for educational purposes only Copyright and licensing
  55. •Copyright transferred to journal •Use of Open Access license (CC-BY-SA) •Exclusive rights for publisher Copyright and licensing
  56. • Articles reviewed by one reviewer • Most peer reviewers from same institute or university • Peer reviewers from non-relevant disciplines Peer reviewer number and diversity
  57. • before listing no APC, after listing APC • Before listing APC, after listing (much) higher APC APC changes after DOAJ listing
  58. • Editors from one Institute or University • Editors all local in International journal • Editors not experts in Journal’s scope Editorial board diversity
  59. • peer reviewers and editors as co-authors in (too)many of the articles of a journal (> 25 %) Authors = editors 4 /6 of the articles authored by editors / peer reviewers
  60. Differences between questionable and low-quality journals
  61. OUR DEFINITION Questionable publishers are publishers, who are not living up to reasonable standards in terms of content, services, transparency and business behavior.
  62. OUR DEFINITION Low Quality Publishers are publishers, who publish low quality articles due to inadequate peer review and or editors / peer reviewers from one institute only
  63. Questionable Publishing: the Media Picture • BIG PROBLEM LINKED TO OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS • OPEN ACCESS IS LOW QUALITY (everything accepted) • REPUTED SCIENTISTS ALSO PUBLISHED THERE • DANGER FOR THE REPUTATION OF SCIENCE • BIG MEDIA ATTENTION WITH BIASED SURVEYS * counts-an-investigation-part-1/ **Shen and Björk. BMC Medicine201513:230 THE STING
  64. Questionable Publishing: the Real Picture • NOT ONLY IN OPEN ACCESS JOURNALS • Not AS HIGH AS OFTEN REPORTED according to a study* by Walt Crawford the number questionable publishers in 2014 was about 3275 publishing about 121,000 articles and not 420,000 (Shen and Björk ** reported 8000 journals and 420,000 articles!!) * counts-an-investigation-part-1/ **Shen and Björk. BMC Medicine201513:230
  65. Questionable Publishing in Perspective • Proportion of low quality journals is comparable between open access and subscription publishing but it looks worse because Open Access journals are more visible FACTS • Not all subscription journals are in Scopus or WoS: only 20-30,000 of 100,000 (data Ulrich’s Web) • Not all open access journals are in DOAJ : only 8 -12,000 of 30,000 *** CONCLUSION Percentage of Quality Journals in Open Access and Subscription Journals is comparable *** Walt Crawford
  66. • Indonesia has not many questionable journals • The problem is more one of low quality publishing and bad understanding of Good Publishing Practices and the DOAJ criteria for assessing journal quality • There is a need for (repeated) nation-wide education • Useful to get Indonesian translation of the 'DOAJ for publishers info' page The good news is
  67. PRACTICAL Filling out an application online:
  68. Information on the DOAJ • Home: • About: • Publisher information: • Apply: • FAQs: • Best Practice: • comprehensive online resource
  69. Thanks to : All the Library Consortia, Universities and Publishers and our Sponsors for the financial support to DOAJ! Speed of Indexing in DOAJ and Indexing as such is independent of sponsor status of applicants Gold Sponsor
  70. Thank you for your attention!
  71. DOAJ depends entirely on donations