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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 6 - Paradigm shift for muti-actor and transdisciplinary research - Edwin Nuijten


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"A holistic multi-actor approach to agrobiodiversity enhancement" Keynote by Edwin Nuijten, LBI, NL

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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 6 - Paradigm shift for muti-actor and transdisciplinary research - Edwin Nuijten

  1. 1. Edwin Nuijten, LBI Adanella Rossi, UNIPI Estelle Serpolay-Besson, ITAB Véronique Chable, INRA Final Diversifood Congress, Rennes, France 12 December 2018 A holistic multi-actor approach to agrobiodiversity enhancement
  2. 2. •  Need for development of inclusive approaches –  Role of farmers –  Role of other food chain players •  Processors •  Traders •  Consumers Ø Crucial to understand barriers and opportunities that affect sustainable use and maintenance of crop genetic diversity Ø Need for multi-actor approaches 2 Maintenance and development of crop diversity
  3. 3. •  Need to identify these factors related to: 1)  crop (such as breeding system, plant phenology and architecture) 2)  socio-cultural aspects (labour organisation, taste preferences, learning processes and change of attitudes), 3)  economic aspects (value distribution along the chain, affordability), 4)  agro-ecological elements (climate, soils, farming system), 5)  organisational-institutional elements (forms of coordination among actors, norms) 6)  legal-political aspects (regulatory frames, tools for genetic material protection, incentives) 3 Enabling and hampering factors shaping agri-food systems
  4. 4. 4 Developing new multi-actor approaches in Diversifood Three tools to operationalise multi-actor approach 1)  Common definitions for key-words and concepts 2)  Toolkit of multi-actor methods 3)  An overarching methodological framework
  5. 5. Challenges •  Allow common understanding (from the different points of view of all partners) •  Try to propose a framework that COMBINES the different approaches and ways of thinking (and NOT propose a framework to HOMOGENISE them) –  Show and keep diversity at the different levels •  Not obliged to bridge paradigms –  Facilitate an effective communication among partners
  6. 6. Balance in paradigms needed •  Paradigm (world view) •  Methodology (research approach) »  Method (means to answer question) •  Tool (concrete objects) •  Maintain diversity in methods, methodologies and paradigms •  Maintain and express the diversity in the project, in biological, economic, social processes (and plants and crops)
  7. 7. 1 The importance of key-words •  Contribute to good internal communication (everybody has different backgrounds) –  Create awareness that people can have different ideas / perspectives •  Culture •  Language •  Education •  Etc…. –  We need to listen to each other and then come to share the same meaning attached to words •  Means to stimulate the collaborative process in the project •  To uncover diversity but also to help combine it in a common, shared framework
  8. 8. Identification of key-words and concepts
  9. 9. Result survey on key-words (n = 25) Pre-selection of key words Score (in %) Additional key words Score (in %) sustainable agriculture 100 agrobiodiversity 44 local adaptation 92 organic farming 28 resilience 88 local market 28 evolutionary processes 60 food quality 28 collaborative research 80 innovative farming system 24 participatory action research 72 innovation 24 transdisciplinarity 92 diversified food chain 24 nutritional quality 84 farmers rights 20 empowerment 80 diversity breeding 20 food chain 88 community(agro)biodiversity management 20 food culture 84 informal seed system 16 promoting autonomy 84 GxE interaction 16 food sovereignty 16 decentralised and participatory research / participation 16 diversity / functional biodiversity 16
  10. 10. 1.  Diversified food system 2.  Food quality 3.  Sustainable food systems 4.  Food democracy 5.  Community management of agro-biodiversity 6.  Collaborative, participative and action research 7.  Trans-disciplinarity and paradigmatic shift 8.  Co-evolutionary processes 9.  Resilience Ø Together these key concepts describe the multi-actor approach in Diversifood 10 The nine key concepts
  11. 11. Leaflet with definitions of 9 selected keywords, translated in 7 languages 11
  12. 12. •  Development of approach to analyse and compare methodologies of partners cases Ø  Ask partners to describe a case study in terms of ‘approach, methodology, method and tools’ 12 2 Toolkit: Connecting methodologies and methods; partners cases
  13. 13. Next steps: partners cases (ii) •  2016: Cases of all partners were summarised in posters o  Posters were used as input for discussions in workshop during 2nd annual meeting in Bologna •  2017: A new table was developed to describe o  Involvement of actors in various research phases o  Methods, knowledge resources and other resources used in the case study •  2017: A scheme was developed to describe o  Relationships among actors, methods and knowledge resources •  All information is used as input for development of a toolkit, and an overarching framework 13
  14. 14. 14 Posters describing case studies with Goals, Research operationalisation, Methods and Tools
  15. 15. •  common will, •  common vocabulary, •  trust building, •  transparency, •  facilitation, •  various types of resources, •  adapted distribution of the work 16 General building blocks of multi-actor approach
  16. 16. •  Type of approach is related to development stage of technology –  Number of knowledge fields and methods may vary •  Decision making and research operationalisation: continuous process –  May change over time, needs continuous care •  Transparancy –  Sufficient time and resources are needed for the process •  Unexpected results oblige the group to do reflection –  Allow space for needs, creativity and serendipity 17 Important lessons for multi-actor approaches
  17. 17. •  Better underpinning for the use of holistic multi-actor research approach for different socio-biological contexts •  Taking into account all aspects and components involved in the whole food chain •  Consistent design from a methodological point of view •  A more informed and comprehensive implementation and monitoring •  Optimise the use of the outcomes by and for involved actors 18 3 An overarching framework for multi-actor research
  18. 18. Achievements evaluation Research operationalisation Problem / research goal definition Level of democracy Reflexivity Multi- dimensionality Trans- disciplinarity a.  different forms and levels of actor involvement in the different stages è level of democracy b.  different kinds of knowledge resources mobilized and the degree of their integration in the research operationalisation è transdisciplinarity c.  dimensions involved in each stage (technical, breeding, agronomical, socio-cultural, economic, organisational-institutional, legal- political) è multi-dimensionality d.  level and modes of evaluation of achievements and of the suitability-effectiveness of the research choices è (self)-reflexivity Overarching methodological framework
  19. 19. Thank you for your attention! 20
  20. 20. •  Plant breeding as a design activity to create the plant resources of agroecology –  by Laurent Hazard, INRA, France •  NOVIC: A Participatory Project to Trial and Breed Vegetable Varieties for Organic Systems –  by Bill Tracey, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, USA •  Posters •  Participatory ideotyping for organic and locally adapted wheat variety mixtures –  by Emma Forst, INRA, France •  Seeding the Green Future – Participatory organic cotton breeding –  by Monika Messmer, Fibl, Switzerland •  LIVESEED boosting organic seed and plant breeding across Europe –  by Monika Messmer, Fibl, Switzerland •  Paradigm shift for multi-actor and transdisciplinary research –  Veronique Chable, INRA, France •  Roundtable & plenary discussion 21 Schedule session 6