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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 3 - New approaches of plant breeding for diversified and sustainable farming systems - Isabelle Goldringer

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"New approaches of plant breeding for diversified and sustainable farming systems", Keynote by Isabelle Goldringer, INRA, France

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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 3 - New approaches of plant breeding for diversified and sustainable farming systems - Isabelle Goldringer

  1. 1. Participatory crop improvement for local / regional adaptation and produces Isabelle Goldringer, INRA Rennes, Diversifood Final Congress, December 10-12, 2018
  2. 2. •  Substituting chemical inputs by biological regulations induces: - more diverse farming practices - more contrasting environmental conditions = Genotype x Management x Soil x Climate => decentralized breeding Issues in breeding for sustainable farming and local adaptation and produces (1) Genotype x farming system interaction (Murphy et al. 2007)
  3. 3. •  Climate change and less protective conditions lead to: - more variable and unpredictable climate and environments = Need for buffering capacity Within field crop genetic diversity = lever for productivity and resilience => breeding for populations Issues in breeding for sustainable farming and local adaptation and produces (2)
  4. 4. •  Varieties must be adapted to: - farming practices, local conditions - the processes, produces, market chains = Incorpore the knowledge of the actors, = utilize a contextualized, inclusive innovation process => participatory approach Issues in breeding for sustainable farming and local adaptation and produces (3)
  5. 5. 5 Participatory Plant Breeding •  Participatory Plant Breeding involves scientists, farmers, and others (consumers, processors, extensionists,…) in plant breeding research. •  Participatory approaches: the processes used to develop new technologies can achieve a range of material and socially transformative outcomes. ≠ transfer-of-technology model that seeks efficient processes to generate standardized, uniform outcomes (Jones et al 2014). => New methods needed: * based on participatory approaches * adapted to decentralized on farm trials to manage, breed and adapt crop genetic diversity, embedded in local/regional food systems
  6. 6. 6 DIVERSIFOOD objectives for PPB (WP3) •  Establish new populations & evaluate the relative interest of the different methods used •  Develop or adapt methods and user-friendly tools •  specifically designed for on farm decentralized participatory breeding •  Apply a panoply of breeding strategies and compare them to identify the most promising
  7. 7. 7 New populations created for many crops species - A large number of new populations developed for many crops: tomato, broccoli, carrots, onion, bread and durum wheat, einkorn, barley, maize, white lupin, faba bean and buckwheat
  8. 8. A range of methods to create relevant diversity for PPB •  Landraces and old varieties (ex: ITAB, RSP): –  Large diversity available, adaptive potential to low input and agroecological conditions, organoleptic and nutritional quality –  Needs further adaptation •  Mixtures of landraces and old varieties (ex: INRA, ITAB, RSR): –  Allows to combine interesting traits from different varieties, easy and rapid –  Limited recombination in selfing mixtures, risk of competition, needs management •  Bi-parental crosses (ex: INRA, PSR): –  Creation of new genotypes combining advantageous traits from both parents –  Crossing plants of self-pollinated species is feasible on-farm by farmers, but is time consuming and requires dedicated skills. 8
  9. 9. A range of methods to create relevant diversity for PPB •  Landraces and old varieties (ex: ITAB, RSP): –  Large diversity available, adaptive potential to low input and agroecological conditions, organoleptic and nutritional quality –  Needs further adaptation •  Mixtures of landraces and old varieties (ex: INRA, ITAB, RSR): –  Allows to combine interesting traits from different varieties, easy and rapid –  Limited recombination in selfing mixtures, risk of competition, needs management •  Bi-parental crosses (ex: INRA, PSR): –  Creation of new genotypes combining advantageous traits from both parents –  Crossing plants of self-pollinated species is feasible on-farm by farmers, but is time consuming and requires dedicated skills. 9
  10. 10. A range of methods to create relevant diversity for PPB •  Landraces and old varieties (ex: ITAB, RSP): –  Large diversity available, adaptive potential to low input and agroecological conditions, organoleptic and nutritional quality –  Needs further adaptation •  Mixtures of landraces and old varieties (ex: INRA, ITAB, RSR): –  Allows to combine interesting traits from different varieties, easy and rapid –  Limited recombination in selfing mixtures, risk of competition, needs management •  Bi-parental crosses (ex: INRA, PSR): –  Creation of new genotypes combining advantageous traits from both parents –  Crossing plants of self-pollinated species is feasible on-farm by farmers, but is time consuming and requires dedicated skills. 10
  11. 11. A range of methods to create relevant diversity for PPB •  Composite Cross Populations (CCPs) and mixtures of crosses (ex: INRA, FiBL, ORC, RSR, LBI) –  High diversity and recombination, large potential for adaptation and mass selection => broad genetic basis population –  Heavy to carry out and difficult to design •  Open pollinated populations (ex: ITQB & IPC): –  In out-crossing species, allows to combine several parents in one or a few steps –  Difficult to apply mass selection on both parents, requires optimization of the within-population diversity 11
  12. 12. A range of methods to create relevant diversity for PPB •  Composite Cross Populations (CCPs) and mixtures of crosses (ex: INRA, FiBL, ORC, RSR, LBI) –  High diversity and recombination, large potential for adaptation and mass selection => broad genetic basis population –  Heavy to carry out and difficult to design •  Open pollinated populations (ex: ITQB & IPC): –  In out-crossing species, allows to combine several parents in one or a few steps –  Difficult to apply mass selection on both parents, requires optimization of the within-population diversity 12
  13. 13. 13 Definitions and description of PPB varieties and populations Deliverable D3.3 & Innovation Factsheet #2
  14. 14. Development of CCPs of white lupin at FiBL •  2 strategies for CCP creation: –  With or without selection for Colletotrichum resistance 14
  15. 15. CCPs, dynamic populations and evolutionary breeding •  Comparison of a CCP and a dynamic population (mixture) of bread wheat at INRA & ITAB: –  See Estelle Serpolay’s poster •  Test of selection methods in wheat CCPs at LBI: –  Rust, seed size, plant height, deep sowing vs normal sowing •  Evolutionary breeding with a bread wheat CCP at RSR: –  See Bettina Bussi & Matteo Petitti presentation 15
  16. 16. Multi-trait approaches to PPB in maize •  Combining agronomic, quality and genetic information to optimize crosses at ITQB-NOVA & IPC –  Crosses chosen to increase tocopherol and total phenolic content , minimize viscosity while maintaining genetic diversity •  Decision tools for improving underused Portuguese maize landraces at ITQB-NOVA & IPC: –  see ML Alves poster 16
  17. 17. 17 •  On-going PPB on bread wheat since 2006 in France (INRA & RSP). First 10 PPB population-varieties evaluated on farm for agronomic performance, nutritional and organoleptic qualities. In the middle: Renan, short, poor weed competitor, low bread making quality Aside and below: PPB varieties, tall, robust, good weed competitor, lodging resistant, good bread making quality Original and interesting populations-varieties developed through PPB at INRA & RSP PPB varieties showed higher level in Mg, Zn, Ca, Cu and K than commercial varieties.
  18. 18. Instability (VC %) Farm Year + Year x Farm R Farm Year + Year x Farm R PPB Populations 1% 24% 6% 23% 28% 17% Commercial varieties 0% 35% 5% 37% 35% 26% •  First 10 PPB population-varieties evaluated on 6 farms x 2 yrs for agronomic performance Wheat PPB populations are more stable Protein content Yield Thèse G van Frank (Dec 2018) + see Gaelle’s poster a 32 qx/ha 29 qx/ha
  19. 19. Collective assessment in PPB •  Participatory tomato breeding at Arche Noah: – Networking and cooperation between different stakeholders (farmers, consumers, retailers, chefs, scientists) => to define breeding strategies. – Collective breeding activities: participatory assessment of quality traits. 19
  20. 20. Row 1 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 2 Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6 Innovative statistical methods, designs and tools 20 •  Participatory on-farm experiments means: –  Numerous but small trials (few plots / trial) –  Few replication within and among farms –  Farmers evaluating different populations –  Broad range of traits selected ⇒  Innovative methods for statistical analyses and data mining specifically suited to PPB (RSP, RSR, IPC, ITQB, INRA) •  M1. Non parametric multivariate approaches for agronomic and nutritional traits •  M2-M3. Multivariate and clustering approaches for molecular and quality data •  M4-M5. Spatial analyses with optimized randomization & incomplete block designs for agro./nutri. traits •  M6. GxE analyses for agro./nutri. traits •  M7a-b. Models within the Bayesian framework for agro./nutri. traits •  M8. Analysis of network of seed circulation •  M9. Multiple factors analysis for sensorial data
  21. 21. 21 Technical booklet #3 – “Methods and tools for decentralized on farm breeding” ⇒ A decision tree including all possible analyses organized according to the type of trait, their objectives and the experimental capacities (RSP, INRA, RSR, IPC, ITQB) Innovative statistical methods, designs and tools
  22. 22. PPBstats : An R package for PPB statistical analyses •  Objectives: –  (i) to have a single package capable of performing all analyses required for PPB programmes with comprehensive documentation –  (ii) to create a community working on PPB programmes in order to improve the package, exchange on how to process data from PPB programmes and develop good practices. •  Methods: –  Freely available package based on the R software –  Collaborative plateforme on github 22
  23. 23. PPBstats : An R package for PPB statistical analyses •  Worlflow of analyses on data collected during PPB programs at four levels: network of seeds management, agronomic and nutritional trials, organoleptic tests and molecular analyses. •  A website dedicated to PPBstats with full documentation and a comprehensive tutorial to collaborate and use the package can be found at: https://priviere.github.io/PPBstats_web_site •  Use and contribute !!! 23
  24. 24. Key features and outcomes of PPB •  New populations developed and adopted by the farmers •  Complementary to ex-situ conservation: create and renew crop genetic diversity, increase use of landraces •  Relies on a collective organisation –  Very inclusive multi-actor approach with various types of stakeholders involved: researchers, farmers, breeders, processors, cookers / chefs and consumers –  Generic tools and methods for supporting collective selection / management of diversity •  Building capacity and empowering farmers to enact further change
  25. 25. Conclusion => Increase system resilience : -  For each farmer (resilience of population-varieties) -  At the collective level: seed control and decision making less concentrated and genetic variability is distributed => A new paradigm for research: collaboration between research and citizens –  Elaborate original and complex research questions where inter-disciplinary basic and applied research are interlocked –  Give more sense to research –  Stimulate citizens’ interest and involvement into research and identification of research needs V Chable, INRA Rennes On Raphael Balthassat’s farm in 2015: his PPB variety Savoysone
  26. 26. Bottlenecks and levers for a transition •  A long term process. •  Scaling up and/or making these small scale systems sustainable is a matter of training / organizing / funding. Need to: –  Train farmers’ organisation facilitators: they are key to the collective organization –  Increase sharing of tools and methods for PPB among local groups through common framework and perenial platforms –  Develop multi-stakeholders participatory research platforms to allow for recurrent funding –  Find sources of funding to make local community seed banks sustainable –  Create a status for varieties derived from PPB
  27. 27. 27 Thanks to the DIVERSIFOOD partners (WP3) Thank you for your attention ! PPB bread wheat population-variety Japhabelle
  28. 28. Ten bread wheat varieties derived from PPB Nom Origine Type Saint-Priest F Mercier, Maine-et-Loire Issue d’une variété Suédoise (Progress) Rouge du Roc JF Berthellot, Lot-et-Garonne Sélection massale dans Rouge de Bordeaux Pop dynamique 2 F Mercier, Maine-et-Loire Mélange de 3 variétés de pays et 2 variétés + récentes Mélange-5 Bourguignon B Ronot, Côte d’Or Mélange de 11 variétés de pays locales Mélange du Sud-Ouest JF Berthellot, Lot-et-Garonne Mélange de ~ 20 variétés de pays locales Savoysone R Balthassat, Haute-Savoie Issue d’un croisement entre 2 variétés de pays Rocaloex R Balthassat, Haute-Savoie Mélange de 11 populations issues de croisements Mélange-1 13 pops B Ronot, Côte d’Or Mélange de 13 populations issues de croisement Dauphibois C Dalmasso, Isère Mélange de ~25 variétés de pays, populations issues de croisements et variétés récentes Japhabelle JF Berthellot, Lot-et-Garonne Mélange de ~25 populations issues de croisements et sélectionnées

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