Agricultural innovation

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Presented by Marc Schut at the Humidtropics Capacity Development Workshop, Nairobi, 29 April–2 May 2014


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Agricultural innovation

  1. 1. Agricultural innovation Marc Schut (marc.schut@wur.nl) Wageningen University, the Netherlands Humidtropics capacity development workshop, Nairobi, 29 April – 2 May 2014 http://humidtropics.cgiar.org/
  2. 2. Objectives of the session • Participants: – Are triggered to think about different characteristics of complex agricultural problems – Are triggered to think about different agricultural innovation strategies to address such problems – Are familiarised with tools that can support the: • Structural analysis of complex agricultural problems • Development of coherent innovation strategies to address complex agricultural problems
  3. 3. Complex agricultural problems 4 Key characteristics of complex agricultural problems: • Different problem dimensions • Interactions across different levels • Involvement of multiple stakeholders and the organisations they represent • How problems develop and what will be the impact of solutions is uncertain and unpredictable
  4. 4. Complex agricultural problems 1. Multi-dimensional • Biophysical • Technological • Socio-cultural • Economic • Institutional • Political Analysing problems/ exploring solutions is unlikely to be successful if these dimensions are analysed separately
  5. 5. Climate change and food security Rainfall patterns Temperature Drought resistant varieties Reduced yield/ income Kyoto protocol Carbon credits Who is responsible? Who pays? Cropping calendar
  6. 6. Complex agricultural problems 2. Multi-level interactions • International • Regional • National • Subnational • Community • Farm • Plot Exploring solutions requires interventions across different levels
  7. 7. Climate change and food security Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – awareness of and structural allocation of resources to CC SADC Climate Change Adaptation Strategy – impact of CC on water availability for amongst others agriculture Kenya National Climate Change Response Strategy – urban polution/ clean energy/ deforestation/ desertificaiton Farmer climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies (e.g. rain water harvesting)
  8. 8. Complex agricultural problems 3. Multi-stakeholder • Policymakers • Civil society • Development • Donors • Farmers • Private sector • Consultants • Researchers None of these stakeholders can solve the complex problem on their own.
  9. 9. Climate change and food security
  10. 10. Climate change and food security
  11. 11. Multi-stakeholder platform
  12. 12. Multi-stakeholder platform
  13. 13. Complex agricultural problems 4. Highly uncertain and unpredictable • How problem will develop over time • Type of solutions and their (undesired) impacts • Stakeholder interactions • Phases in e.g. policy processes • Chaos and crises
  14. 14. Climate change and food security • How will climate change develop over time? • What type of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies will be effective? • Will different types of stakeholder continue to work together?
  15. 15. Need for agricultural innovations Solution strategies with attention for: • Integrated analysis of problem dimensions, design integrated solutions • Interactions between multiple levels • Needs and interest of different stakeholder groups (including gender, age, ethnic groups) • Flexibility and adaptive capacity to respond to uncertain and unpredictable context
  16. 16. How innovations emerge? http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=NugRZGDbPF U
  17. 17. How innovations emerge? • Spaces for creativity • Where ideas of different people can mingle • Connectivity, borrow from each other, combine perspectives • Finding the missing piece • Such processes take time • “The whole is bigger than the sum of its parts”
  18. 18. Define agricultural innovation
  19. 19. Define agricultural innovation (1) • Technology, practice or product handling that will bring increased yield and income to the farmer • Modern/ improved or superior production technique used to improve production or quality and quantity required at a given time. • Novel idea, process, tool, or solution to facilitate healthy and sustainable agriculture that is tailored to a specific context.
  20. 20. Define agricultural innovation (2) • Combined hardware (technologies – e.g. seeds) and software (social-organisational – e.g. seed systems) to enhance development and business objectives, change for the better • Tool that can guide analysis of complex agricultural problems, and the identification of entry points that enhance the innovation capacity of the agricultural system in which the complex agricultural problem is embedded.
  21. 21. Agricultural Innovation Systems • From technology-oriented to systems approaches to innovation Technology Transfer (TT) Farming Systems Analysis (FSR) Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS) Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) Era From 1960’s From 1970’s/ 1980’s From 1990’s From 2000’s Approach Research develops technologies that are transferred to farmers Research identifies and reliefs (land, labour) constraints of farmers Research collaborates with extension officers and farmers in developing solutions Create an enabling environment for innovation
  22. 22. Agricultural Innovation Systems Technology Transfer (TT) Farming Systems Analysis (FSR) Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS) Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) Roles of farmers  Adopters of technologies  Adopters of knowledge and technologies  Source of information  Experimenters  Experts  Partners  Entrepreneurs  Part of innovation network Roles of research and researchers  Developers of knowledge and technologies  Experts  Capacity builders  Facilitators of learning  Enhance innovation capacity in the system  Members innovation network
  23. 23. Agricultural Innovation Systems Technology Transfer (TT) Farming Systems Analysis (FSR) Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS) Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) Intended outcomes Technology adoption and uptake Adapt technologies to farming systems Joint development of technologies Capacities to co- innovate, learn and change Key intervention approach Technology dissemination through extension and mass media Surveys, typologies, modelling of impact Participatory research, Farmer Field Schools Establish, implement and support multi- stakeholder platforms Weaknesses Disregards farmer involvement and adoption context Focus on field and farm level Local orientation, costly, scaling up and scaling out Lacks empirical evidence, system’s boundaries are difficult to define
  24. 24. Agricultural Innovation Systems AIS AKIS FSR TT
  25. 25. Agricultural Innovation Systems
  26. 26. Analyze Agricultural Innovation Systems • Analyse complex agricultural problems – Complex problem (multiple dimensions/ levels/ stakeholders) – System in which the problem is embedded – Components/ elements that support or constrain innovation in the agricultural system • Identify entry points for innovation to address complex agricultural problems – Specific entry points for innovation (e.g. Striga in maize) – Generic entry points for innovation (e.g. crop protection)
  27. 27. ? Current situation Desired situation Change/ innovation/ intervention
  28. 28. Break
  29. 29. What is RAAIS? • ‘An easy way to make people do a difficult job’ • Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems is a tool to: – Analyse characteristics of complex problems – Identify challenges and constraints for innovation in the agricultural system – Identify opportunities for innovation in systems • Use different types of data/ methods – Workshops, questionnaires, interviews, existing statistics
  30. 30. RAAIS workshop methodology Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 1 Categorising constraints and challenges Exploring opportunities for innovation Identifying constraints and challenges Entry theme Specific and generic entry points for innovation
  31. 31. RAAIS mini workshop – Exercise 1 • Identify different participant groups – Farmer representatives – NGO/ civil society representatives – Private sector representatives – Government representatives – Research/ training representatives • Each participant receives 5 coloured cards – Write your name, country and/or Action Site on the back of each of the 5 cards
  32. 32. RAAIS mini workshop – Exercise 2 • Entry Theme: What are – according to you – the five biggest constraints for agricultural innovation in your country/ Action Site? Write the five constraints on the five cards that you have received (one constraint per card)
  33. 33. RAAIS mini workshop – Exercise 3 • Form groups – Farmer representatives – NGO/ civil society representatives – Private sector representatives – Government representatives – Research/ training representatives • Discuss the constraints identified by the different participants and together develop a top-5 of constraints and challenges
  34. 34. RAAIS mini workshop – Exercise 4 • For each card, identify the type of constraint dimension: – Biophysical – Technological – Socio-cultural – Economic – Institutional – Political • Place X if dimension applies to the constraint • Circle X of dimension that applies best
  35. 35. The dimensions of complex agricultural problems Biophysical Technological Socio-culturel Economic Institutional Political 1. 2. 3. 4. Etc. 5.
  36. 36. 4. Type of constraints
  37. 37. 4. Type of constraints 0 5 10 15 20 Biophysical Technological Socio-cultural Economic Institutional Political Burundi Rwanda HL Rwanda LL Congo
  38. 38. 4. Type of constraints 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Farmer/ producer Civil society/ NGO Private sector Government Research and training
  39. 39. 5. What is causing the constraints 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Infrastructure and assets Institutions Interaction and collaboration Capactities and resources Rwanda LL Rwanda HL Congo Burundi
  40. 40. 6. Level where constraint can be solved? 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Burundi Congo Rwanda HL Rwanda LL
  41. 41. 7. Relations between constraints Diseases Inadequate extension Absence of infra in high potential areas Poor infrastruc. Inadequate access to farm inputs Costs of farm inputs Availability of markets Poor backstopping of extension Poor knowledge of inputs Limited agricultural education
  42. 42. 8. Relationship with objectives
  43. 43. 9. Short-, middle- and long term
  44. 44. 10. Research needs Type of research needed to address constraints and challenges % Productivity research 20% NRM research 10% Institutional research 69% Nutrition research 1%
  45. 45. 11. Prioritisation of research needs
  46. 46. 12. Action plan for innovation
  47. 47. Validation • Combine multiple methods? –E.g. workshops, in-depth interviews, surveys, secondary data analyses –Validate and triangulate data –What insights do multi-stakeholder workshop not provide? • Towards implementation and action
  48. 48. Reflection and closure • Participants: – Are triggered to think about different characteristics of complex agricultural problems – Are triggered to think about different agricultural innovation strategies to address such problems – Are familiarised with tools that can support the: • Structural analysis of complex agricultural problems • Development of coherent innovation strategies to address complex agricultural problems
  49. 49. Thank you so much! Marc Schut (marc.schut@wur.nl) Wageningen University, the Netherlands Capacity Development Workshop 29 April – 2 May 2014, Nairobi, Kenya

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