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Heterogeneous Material
Initial results from the EU
temporary marketing experiment
Ambrogio Costanzo
The Organic Research C...
Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
sufficient identity and varietal purity
From Article 1 “Subject matter”
From Article 2 “Scope”
Populations = plant groupings that result from a given
combination ...
Art.2 (c)
An example: Composite Cross Populations
F1
F2 F3
etc..
Varietal purity?
That’s what we don’t want…
Ambrogio Cost...
Four positive “Cs”
‒ Capacity:
more phenotypic and genotypic variation
‒ Complementation:
optimise use of resources across...
Populations: why do they matter?
How to deal with the “illegal”
status of seed?
‒ Avoidance: “closed club”?
‒ Inclusion: n...
The EU temporary experiment to date
Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
• Six Member States:
UK, Germany, Denmar...
Initiated the demand for the temporary
experiment
DEFRA-funded projects (2001-12)
lines selections, constitution of popula...
The UK case study
‒ Greater yield stability
‒ Protein content and hardiness were significantly increased
‒ Baking quality
...
The UK case study
Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
“Normal” situation (early sowing) “Stressful” situation (l...
The UK case study
YQ CCP marketed as “ORC Wakelyns Population”
2015 2016 2017
Bunt infection
9 tonnes
marketed
14 tonnes
m...
The UK case study
‒ Like any variety as far as seed safety (diseases, weed seeds) is concerned
‒ Difference: from DUS and ...
The UK case study
So far
‒ Increasing seed sales
‒ Increasing market interest for
the grains
‒ Breeders, seed companies,
f...
The UK case study
What next
‒ Other populations on the way
‒ Quality CCP
‒ Spring CCP
‒ Other species?
‒ Barley? Oats?
‒ I...
Other case studies
Leading authority: CREA-DC
Working group RSR
‒ Bread wheat: 2 populations, 1st marketing 2017, 15 tonne...
Other case studies
France
‒ Applicant: UBIOS
‒ Leading authority: GEVES
‒ Two Winter Wheat populations
‒ YQ CCP and ‘Megam...
Other case studies
‒ Three Winter Wheat CCPs
‒ Leading authority: NAK
‒ Foundations: farmers save own seeds (pure evolutio...
Research
Breeders
Seed supply
chain
Farmers
Farmers
Processors
Seed
companies
ResearchersConsumers
Breeders
Authorities
Mu...
Work ongoing on open questions
‒ Phenotypic traits do change, and not only
in frequencies (and that’s good!)
‒ Not only re...
In conclusion
Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
Far beyond a niche experience: responding to broad global and ...
Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
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First results of EU experimentation in marketing Heterogeneous Material: presentation of case studies - Ambrogio Costanzo, The Organic Research Centre

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How to better embed crop diversity for resilient sustainable food systems? On April 11th, the DIVERSIFOOD Forum with policy makers and stakeholders addressed this and other fundamental questions to promote cultivated biodiversity. The event was hosted by the European Committee of the Regions in Brussels and involved different stakeholders: from policy makers to researchers, from NGOs to Farmer Organisations and Value chain actors. This talk "First results of EU experimentation in marketing Heterogeneous Material: presentation of case studies" was given by Ambrogio Costanzo, Organic Research Centre (DIVERSIFOOD Project Partner)

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First results of EU experimentation in marketing Heterogeneous Material: presentation of case studies - Ambrogio Costanzo, The Organic Research Centre

  1. 1. Heterogeneous Material Initial results from the EU temporary marketing experiment Ambrogio Costanzo The Organic Research Centre (UK) ambrogio.c@organicresearchcentre.com DIVERSIFOOD Forum with policy makers and stakeholders Brussels, 11th April 2018
  2. 2. Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 sufficient identity and varietal purity
  3. 3. From Article 1 “Subject matter” From Article 2 “Scope” Populations = plant groupings that result from a given combination of genotypes […] ⁻ Crossing >5 varieties and bulking progenies ⁻ Growing together >5 varieties of cross-pollinated spp. and bulking the progeny ⁻ Inter-crossing varieties with other methods to produce a population that does not contain varieties Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  4. 4. Art.2 (c) An example: Composite Cross Populations F1 F2 F3 etc.. Varietal purity? That’s what we don’t want… Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 This for a single gene, imagine for all the genes …
  5. 5. Four positive “Cs” ‒ Capacity: more phenotypic and genotypic variation ‒ Complementation: optimise use of resources across time and space ‒ Compensation: if some fail, others take their place ‒ Change: adaptive shifts in response to selection One (potentially) negative “C” ‒ Competition: intra-varietal competition may work against the above Cs Populations: why do they matter? Functional diversity Evolutionary breeding Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  6. 6. Populations: why do they matter? How to deal with the “illegal” status of seed? ‒ Avoidance: “closed club”? ‒ Inclusion: negotiation! ✓ 2014/150/EU Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 Four positive “Cs” ‒ Capacity: more phenotypic and genotypic variation ‒ Complementation: optimise use of resources across time and space ‒ Compensation: if some fail, others take their place ‒ Change: adaptive shifts in response to selection One (potentially) negative “C” ‒ Competition: intra-varietal competition may work against the above Cs
  7. 7. The EU temporary experiment to date Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 • Six Member States: UK, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Italy and France • 31 populations have been authorised to date Bread wheat, durum wheat, barley and maize (mostly wheat) Variable quantities, most authorisations in Italy and Germany • Most of the populations have been bred according to Article 2(c)(i) in the Commission Decision (crossing of more than 5 varieties and bulking) • Just over 100 t of seed produced in total • Slightly less than 100 t marketed.
  8. 8. Initiated the demand for the temporary experiment DEFRA-funded projects (2001-12) lines selections, constitution of populations, comparative testing and populations reproduction on > 30 farms Three main Populations: Y = Yield CCP of high yielding parents Q = Quality CCP of high quality parents YQ = Yield-Quality CCP (20 parents) The UK case study Composite Cross Population ≠ Mixture of Varieties ‒ “YQ mixture” would be 20 fixed types growing together ‒ “YQ CCP” is the bulk progeny of 107 different crosses, each generating a diversity of types Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  9. 9. The UK case study ‒ Greater yield stability ‒ Protein content and hardiness were significantly increased ‒ Baking quality ‒ As nutritious ‒ Suitable as an animal feed ‒ Resilience Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 Inc. Feed varieties Milling varieties “YQ population” compared to two sets of modern varieties in two organic locations (harvest 2017)
  10. 10. The UK case study Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 “Normal” situation (early sowing) “Stressful” situation (late sowing) CCP Commercial CCP Commercial ‒ Greater yield stability ‒ Protein content and hardiness were significantly increased ‒ Baking quality ‒ As nutritious ‒ Suitable as an animal feed ‒ Resilience
  11. 11. The UK case study YQ CCP marketed as “ORC Wakelyns Population” 2015 2016 2017 Bunt infection 9 tonnes marketed 14 tonnes marketed More than 12 tonnes sold (12/2017) Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 Seed non marketable
  12. 12. The UK case study ‒ Like any variety as far as seed safety (diseases, weed seeds) is concerned ‒ Difference: from DUS and “varietal purity” to certified traceability Submit sample and drill seed crop Crop Entry Form Crop Inspections Harvest and seed processing Seed testing Notify authority: • not a Variety = no DUS • Seed sample: a control plot is drilled All traceability details Traceability: Certified inspector present on any opening/closing of seed bags Field standards respected Seed safety OK? Green Light for market Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  13. 13. The UK case study So far ‒ Increasing seed sales ‒ Increasing market interest for the grains ‒ Breeders, seed companies, farmers, millers, bakers networking in a plurality of value chains (DIVERSIFOOD case studies) ‒ Positive interaction with authorities, mutual learning experience Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  14. 14. The UK case study What next ‒ Other populations on the way ‒ Quality CCP ‒ Spring CCP ‒ Other species? ‒ Barley? Oats? ‒ Innovative, collaborative business models Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  15. 15. Other case studies Leading authority: CREA-DC Working group RSR ‒ Bread wheat: 2 populations, 1st marketing 2017, 15 tonnes marketed ‒ Durum wheat: 3 populations, first marketing in 2018 Working group ARCOIRIS and PANE VIRGO ‒ 1 bread wheat population, 50 tonnes marketed in 2017 Working group UNIPG ‒ 1 Barley population, first marketing 2017 Working group UNIFI ‒ 1 Durum wheat population, first marketing 2018 Italy: 4 working groups, 8 Populations Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  16. 16. Other case studies France ‒ Applicant: UBIOS ‒ Leading authority: GEVES ‒ Two Winter Wheat populations ‒ YQ CCP and ‘Megamix’ ‒ Traceability AND Work on populations identification ‒ Phenotypic traits frequencies ‒ Genetic analyses ‒ First commercialisation in 2018 and results on the way Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  17. 17. Other case studies ‒ Three Winter Wheat CCPs ‒ Leading authority: NAK ‒ Foundations: farmers save own seeds (pure evolutionary approach) or take seeds from neighbours ‒ Focus on identification: how to distinguish populations from one another? ‒ VCU instead of DUS? ‒ Comparing farm seeds with sample plots in central trials ‒ Some populations are more stable, other evolve quite rapidly Netherlands Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018
  18. 18. Research Breeders Seed supply chain Farmers Farmers Processors Seed companies ResearchersConsumers Breeders Authorities Multi-actor, inclusive and highly innovative seed-to-product value chains enter an official seed market alongside mainstream linear seed systems. Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 Reliable, safe seed Sustainable crops and value chains Was the experiment successful?
  19. 19. Work ongoing on open questions ‒ Phenotypic traits do change, and not only in frequencies (and that’s good!) ‒ Not only relevant for cereals, what about vegetables? ‒ How much of (and to whom) is an “absolute” identification really necessary? ‒ Are “process certifications” embedded in the contexts of use more relevant? ‒ What after 2022? Tasks for the 2018-2022 experiment: ✓ More populations ✓ Identification relevant to distinguish populations from one another ✓ Inspirations from DIVERSIFOOD WPs conclusions ✓ Opportunities from the revised organic seed regulation? Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 Was the experiment successful?
  20. 20. In conclusion Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018 Far beyond a niche experience: responding to broad global and EU development goals ‒ Enabling sustainable production Populations perform well with very low inputs ‒ Enabling resilience to climate change Response to unpredictability is one of the most apparent strengths ‒ Enabling experiences of ‘circular economy’? ‘improve efficiency’ : low-input and low-cost breeding and farming ‘design for the future’ : evolutionary approach ‘collaboration to create joint-value’ : along supply chains
  21. 21. Ambrogio Costanzo – Brussels, 11th April 2018

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