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Diversity in food supply chains
Bernadette Oehen &
Adanella Rossi
Diversifood Final Congress
«Cultivating diversity and
food quality»
Rennes, 11th December 2018
“Lessons learnt from strategies
to embed diversity in the food
supply chain”
Activities in DIVERSIFOOD to understand
strategies to embed food diversity
•  Analysis of
–  valorisation strategies of local and diverse food
products based on newly bred lines from PPB or
conservation varieties,
–  Factors of success,
–  Communication strategies using labelling strategies,
–  “Label experiment”
–  Consumer attitudes,
–  A potential correlation between food diversity and
regional crop diversity.
2
3	
WP1:		
Methods/Methodologies	
WP2	 WP	3	
WP6	
WP4	
Crops,	networks/cases	
Dissemination	tools/platforms	
Networks,	policy	
WP 5 embedded in DIVERSIFOOD
WP5:	Embedding	diversity	in	the	
food	supply	chain
Synthesis	and	
recommendations	
Case	studies	about	
the	valorisation	of	
-	agrobiodiversity	
-	participatory		
breeding	
Relation	between	
local	crops	
production	and	
food	offered	to		
consumers	
Consumer	attitudes	
and	communication	
strategies	and	tools	
for	food	diversity	
4	
Adanella	Rossi,	UNIPI	
Philipp	Holzherr,	PSR	
Claudia	Meier,	FiBL	
Pierre	Riviere,	RSP	
Marjo	Keskitalo,	LUKE	
Lauri	Jauhiainen,	LUKE	
Posters about the work done in WP 5
5	
The	analysis	of	a	
variety	of	initiatives	
developed	around	
biodiverse	
products…..
6	
The virtuous circle of
the sustainable management of
plant genetic resources
7	
Diversity in emergence and
development
Initiated by a collaboration of
– Researcher and farmers,
– Seed Savers/Seed
Communities and farmers,
– Local supply chain actors and
farmers,
– NGO,
– Network of farmers.
Supported by Policy for
– Rural development,
– Agrobiodiversity,
– Research on agrobiodiversity
conservation.
Supported by a consumer/market
interest.
8	
Diversity in marketing strategies
– Territorially embedded
niche markets
– Producer-consumer
networks/food
communities
– Farmers’ markets
– Supermarkets
– With a label/ a logo
– Participatory
guarantee system
– Third party
certification
9	
Diversity in the approach to
biodiverse foods
– Health,
– Taste,
– Local food traditions,
– Cultural capital and
identity,
– Local food production
system,
– Commitment to the
management or
conservation of
genetic resources,
– Farmers’ varieties.
Importance of internal coherence:
knowledge, visions, practices
uncover factors
and mechanisms
underlying this
process
10	
•  Alignment around common
awareness and visions
•  Coherence of action
è A challenging process
Importance of relationship and
interaction
Exchanges within a
network dimension
11	
•  Understanding of quality of varieties
and derived products
•  Re-definition of practices of farming
and processing
•  Definition of suitable tools and
arrangements along the chain
•  Management of marketing and
communication
•  Support for farmers and other supply
chain actors
Collective learning
Collective learning
Interaction among different types of knowledge,
expertise, awareness
12	
•  Types of knowledge
–  Experiential, scientific,
technical, institutional,
legal, economic, political
•  Knowledge carriers
–  Farmers
–  Other chain actors
–  Scientists
–  Consultants/extension services
–  ONGs, other networks
and creation of new
shared knowledge
Importance of other interactions
Exchanges with other
networks, pathways
locally and in broader
contexts
13	
•  to share knowledge, catch new
opportunities and develop
collective awareness, identity
and agency around
agrobiodiversity issues
•  to strengthen the initiatives
•  to create synergies
•  to prevent or facing difficulties
Facing critical points / taking opportunities
14	
Seed,
varieties
management Farmers	
Breeding
Farming
Other	chain	
actors	
Marketing Consumption Researchers	
Processing
Public	actors	
Consumers	
Public	
policies	
Research	
Facilitators
Embedding diversity in food supply chains
•  Understanding, creating, catching, and managing
values
–  collective action è participatory approaches
•  The added value is beyond agrobiodiversity
–  diversity of actors è interaction, participation, collaboration
–  diversity of knowledge resources è exchanges, collective
learning, transdisciplinarity
–  diversity of dimensions involved è systemic approach
–  diversity of situations è place-based solutions
15	
Lessons learnt about valorisation of
diverse food products
Lessons learnt from the collaboration
in DIVERSIFOOD
•  Enthusiastic collaboration
•  It needs time and thoughtfulness to
–  Clarify, understand and agree on approaches
–  Face difficulties of applying a theoretical approach in
a real life situation
–  Involve case study partners in the process
–  Establish an exchange among the different tasks and
work packages.
16
Many thanks to all
partners, who have
participated!
Diversity in food supply chains
Diversifood Final Congress
«Cultivating diversity and
food quality»
Rennes, 11th December 2018
“Lessons learnt from strategies
to embed diversity in the food
supply chain”
Ancient cereals in modern times: is
there a future for underutelised
cereals?
Boki Luske
Edwin Nuijten
Rennes, 11 December 2018
Cultivation of cereals in NL
Wheat	
Barley	
Oats	
Rye	
Triticale	
CBS,	2017	
•  Acreage of cereals is declining, due to low prices for
cereals on world market
•  Negative economic balance cereals à cash crops &
tight crop rotations
‘Nature inclusive farming’
•  Decline of many wild
farmland species (birds,
butterflies, bees)
–  Wider crop rotations needed
–  More low input cereals and
flowering crops
•  Growing demand for high
quality products
–  Healthy, tasty from the
region
–  ‘Foodies’
21	
Red	list	species	Scandix	pecten-veneris	and	
Ranunculus	arvensis	grow	next	to	the	trial	
field
22	
Goal of trial in NL
More diversity on the field and on the plate
•  Test landraces, populations of einkorn, emmer and rivet
wheat from European seed banks in Dutch
circumstances
–  3 years (2015-2018) «Hard data»
•  Local value chain development
•  Selection with stakeholders
–  Farmers, millers, bakers, consumers, ecologists
–  Demonstration, education
•  Interviews with key stakeholders
–  What are the conditions for the development of sustainable
value chains with ancient cereals? «Soft data»
Stakeholder meetings
“Happy walking
in the grain”
Social media
Wiebaktmee
Baking (con)tests
Farm visits
23
Eenkoorn Triticum monococcum
•  First domesticated wheat
species
•  Several archeological
sites in Turkey (8700BC)
•  Flat spikes with small
hulled grains
24
Emmer wheat Triticum dicoccoides
•  Wild emmer wheat is common
ancestor of other wheat species
•  Flat spikes with large hulled grains
25
Rivet wheat Triticum turgidum
subsp. turgidum
•  ‘Brother’ of durum tarwe
(Triticum turgidum)
•  Naked grains
26
27	
Einkorn	
Triticum	
monococcum	
2n		
Wild	einkorn	
Triticum	
boeoticum	
2n		
Wild	emmer	wheat	
T.	dicoccoides	
T.	turgidum	var.	
dicoccoides	
4n		
Wild	grass	
Triticum	saersii?	
2n		
Emmer	wheat	
Triticum	
turgidum	subsp.	
dicoccum		
4n		
Durum	wheat	
Triticum	
turgidum	conv.	
durum	
4n		
Goatgrass	
Aegilops	
tausschii	
2n		
Wheat	
Triticum	
aestivum		
6n		
Rivet	wheat	
Triticum	
turgidum	subsp.	
turgidum	
4n		
Spelt	
Triticum	spelta		
6n
28	
Results field trial
Recreational nature area, loamy soil, low input farming
•  First year: single plots
•  Heavy rain in june: lodging tolerance/plant height
•  Second year: replicated block design
•  Cold, dry spring: weed suppression
•  Third year: replicated block design
•  Hot and dry summer: disease and drought tolerance
•  4 best accessions per species selected
2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018
	 Nr	
of	
acc
ess
ion
s
Av.	yield	±	
st.	dev.	(t/
ha)
Log.	tol. Nr	
of	
acc
essi
ons
Av.	yield	±	st.	
dev.	(t/ha)
Log.	tol. Nr	of	
acce
ssion
s
Av.	yield	±	
st.	dev.	(t/
ha)
Log.	tol.
Einkorn 7 1.4	±	0.58 8.1	±	1.57 7 0.8	±	0.16 7.6	±	0.17 4 1.9	±	0.16 8.4	±	0.60
Dutch	
einkorn
1 2.4 7 1 0.7	±	0.18 7.5	±	0.41 1 2.0	±	0.35 8.8	±	0.50
Emmer 13 0.6	±	0.26 6.4	±	3.10 9 0.9	±	0.29 7.7	±	0.45 7 1.2	±	0.22 7.7	±	0.66
Zweikorn	
GT-196
1 1.0 9 1 1.2	±	0.50 8.1	±	0.25 1 1.3	±	0.10 8.1	±	0.63
Rivet 16 0.8	±	0.42 4.6	±	2.94 9 1.6	±	0.34 7.6	±	0.42 4 1.8	±	0.31 7.3	±	0.66
Rampton	
rivet
1 7 1 2.3	±	0.66 7.5	±	0.71 1 2.1	±	0.40 7.8	±	0.50
29	
Results field trial
Local value chain development
•  Difficult, but possible
–  Building social capital
•  Personal relations between farmer, mill, baker are essential
•  Time investment on storytelling, networking
•  Confidence in partners
•  Knowledge gap bakers
•  Different nutritional properties of ancient cereals
Protein content, sedimentation, minerals
•  Other baking processes are needed, with longer resting
periods
•  Not included in regular training and education of bakers
Recently more interest among bakers
30
Local value chain development
•  Push and pull factors
•  Farmers are often a push factor
•  Intrinsic motivation
•  There is a growing demand but…
•  Bakers and famers need to find eachother (former role of
mill)
•  Value chain management
•  Plan ahead (1,5 year!): find a baker before sowing, this
also creates commitment
•  Diversify value chain: beer, pasta, flakes
•  Logistics, storage, marketing: often done also by farmer
31
Local value chain development
•  Storytelling by baker to consumer: gaps need to
be filled
•  Nutritional aspects
32
Conclusions
•  Ancient cereals have low yields, but grow on poor soils
–  Alternative crop for arable fields in nature area’s
–  Lower costs for land
–  Rich soils: lodging risk
•  Stakeholders also look at aesthetics
–  Dark emmer accessions
•  Close knowledge gaps
–  Nutritional benefits to increase demand (analyses in progress)
•  Supply chain manager / broker
–  Reliable person who understands passion of stakeholders
–  Broker between farmer and baker, accelerate upscaling, new
products and optimize logistics
–  Inform consumers, bakers, nature organisations about nutritional
and ecological benefits
33
Is there a future for ancient cereals? It all starts with
coming across them…
34
Diversity in food supply chains
Diversifood Final Congress
«Cultivating diversity and
food quality»
Rennes, 11th December 2018
“Lessons learnt from strategies
to embed diversity in the food
supply chain”
Embedding food diversity in supply chains
Experience of eight European case
studies
Anna Sellars
Susanne Padel
Organic Research Centre, UK
Very brief overview
•  8 case studies from 6 different countries
•  Case studies of cereal and vegetable supply chains
•  Two main approaches
–  Revival of traditional foods and products
–  Use of traditional/diverse varieties in new and innovative
ways
•  Types of supply chains and sales outlets
–  More national/international
–  More local/decentralised
Source: Own data.
Characterisation of the case study initiatives according to main aims and
motivations.
Agreed market vision and strategy among
actors
•  Agreement on where/how the initiative intends to
market – National vs. local? Mainstream vs.
decentralised?
•  Lack of agreement à lack of clarity and coordination
among actors à fragmentation of network
•  Does not need to be either national or local
–  Doing both offers:
•  Balance of risk between enterprises
•  Subsidising less profitable products or routes to market that are
important for ethos of initiative
•  Creating greater, long-term public awareness of the product
Need for clarity in stakeholders’ common
understanding of the distinctiveness and
values embedded in the product
•  New/innovative crop, or is it a heritage/traditional?
•  Informs business development and marketing
decisions
•  Strong and clear story = easy for consumers to see
value added compared to other products
What	narratives	do	
stakeholders	want	
use	to	describe	the	
product?	
What	narratives	do	
consumers	identify	
with?	
Nutritious,	
heritage,	local,	
artisan,	healthy	
etc.
Challenging the assumption that demand is
often a limiting factor
•  Common assumption that an effective market and
demand needs to be established to sustain an
underutilised crop
•  Evidence that supply factors are limiting success
–  e.g. instability of supply and yield, seasonality, lack of access to
seeds and production on a small-scale
–  Larger initiatives e.g. PSR in Switzerland – not just small-scale
initaitives
Scaling up, scaling out, scaling deep – best
ways to scale?
•  Scale up - Collaborate with larger actors in the
marketplace and increasing sales power
–  e.g. PSR and work with Coop, Hungarian einkorn with beer
campaign and selling internationally
•  Scale out – Increasing production output and reach
more people
–  Careful not to compromise values of local culture e.g. concern in
purple carrot initiative in Spain
–  Entering diversified markets e.g. purple carrots for food colouring
•  Scaling deep – Changing consumer relationships and
values with food more long-term
–  approaches rich in education and communication about stories
of products, changing consumer relationships with food
Choosing the right communication to suit:
a) the consumers and b) the initiative
•  Face-to-face, explaining the product characteristics,
story and quality, and tasting
–  Quality of local communication à potential for more meaningful
and direct impact
•  Virtual, through websites with details about nutrition,
qualities and story of products
–  Reaches a geographically wider audience, and people who may
not go to local/community events e.g. young, city people
•  Need for a clear and common understanding –
what are the messages that need to be
communicated, and how?
44	
Key	
elements	
for	
success	
Agreed	
common	vision	
and	values	
Clear	and	
distinct	values	
of	the	product	
Demand	often	
isn’t	a	limiting	
factor	–	supply	
is	
Scaling	up	vs.	
scaling	out	vs.	
scaling	deep	
Consumer-	and	
initiative-	
appropriate	
communication
Thank you for your attention!
And thanks to all partners who
contributed to the case studies in
Subtask 5.1.1.!
45
Diversity in food supply chains
Diversifood Final Congress
«Cultivating diversity and
food quality»
Rennes, 11th December 2018
“Lessons learnt from strategies
to embed diversity in the food
supply chain”
Building valorisation
strategies for biodiverse
food products
Adanella	Rossi
Building valorisation strategies for
biodiverse food products
Objective	
Define	an	approach	to	
develop	valorisation	
strategies	aimed	at	
strengthening	and	
promoting	the	entire	
food	systems	based	on	
diverse	genetic	resources	
Methods	
•  A	multi-actor	and	
systemic	approach	
•  A	network	perspective	
•  A	focus	on	the	social	
processes	underlying	
the	development	of	
shared	knowledge	and	
consistent	practices
Building valorisation strategies for
biodiverse food products
Main	result	
•  Centrality	of	interaction	
for	an	effective	and	
coherent	action	around	
agrobiodiversity	values	
•  No	one-size-fits-all							
è	context-specific	
strategies
Building valorisation strategies for
biodiverse food products
In	summary,	a	
valorisation	strategies	for	
biodiverse	products	is	
part	of	a	broader	
collective	action	around	
agrobiodiversity	values	
adanella.rossi@unipi.it	
Take Home Message
Diversity in food supply chains
Diversifood Final Congress
«Cultivating diversity and
food quality»
Rennes, 11th December 2018
“Lessons learnt from strategies
to embed diversity in the food
supply chain”
Relationship between local crop
species diversity and food sales
of local supermarkets
Marjo	Keskitalo	and	Lauri	Jauhiainen
Relationship between local crop
species diversity and food sales of
local supermarkets
Objective	
•  Description	of	the	
relation	between	local	
crop	species	diversity	
and	food	sales	in	local	
supermarkets?	
Methods	
•  The	impact	of	different	
variables	was	analyzed	
with		variance	
component	model
Relationship between local crop
species diversity and food sales of
supermarkets
Main	result	
•  Local	crop	diversity	on	
the	fields	may	have	an	
impact	on	food	sales	of	
the	local	supermarkets.	
•  The	relation	between	
crop	diversity	and	sales	
was	quite	small	but	
obvious.	
	
	
Municipalities	in	
Finland		with	
different	crop	
species	diversity	
indices	(spots	with	
different	colour),	
and	the	studied	
areas	(black	circles)
Relationship between local crop
species diversity and food sales of
supermarkets
•  To	sum	up,	new	
connections	between	
crop	diversity	and	food	
sales	may	have	been	
detected	in	this	study.			
•  marjo.keskitalo@luke.fi	
Take Home Message
The	data	provided	
by	S	Group	in	
Finland	,	is	warmly		
acknowledged
Diversity in food supply chains
Diversifood Final Congress
«Cultivating diversity and
food quality»
Rennes, 11th December 2018
“Lessons learnt from strategies
to embed diversity in the food
supply chain”
Communication and Label Concept
for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
Philipp	Holzherr,	ProSpecieRara	
Bernadette	Oehen,	FiBL
Communication and Label Concept
for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
Objective	
•  Develop	a	flagship	
approach	to	
communicate	the	value	
of	biodiverse	products	
to	consumers		
	
Methods	
•  Analysis	of	existing	
approaches	using	
online	survey,	
stakeholder	interviews	
and	workshops
Main	result	
•  Many	individual	
approaches	identified	
•  Decision	support	matrix	
instead	of	a	flagship	
approach	
•  Nine	categories	of	
topics	to	analyse	
Communication and Label Concept
for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
•  The	decision	support	matrix	shall	help	organisations	
find	their	individual	valorisation	strategy	
•  A	label	could	result	–	but	other	ways	of	building	
trust	and	credibility	exist	
•  From	the	plethora	of	communication	tools	only	
pursue	the	ones	you	have	enough	resources	for	
philipp.holzherr@prospecierara.ch	
Take Home Message
Communication and Label Concept
for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
Diversity in food supply chains
Diversifood Final Congress
«Cultivating diversity and
food quality»
Rennes, 11th December 2018
“Lessons learnt from strategies
to embed diversity in the food
supply chain”
Peasant seeds at the test of
identification signs
Frédéric	Latour	,	Pierre	Rivière	,	Patrick	de	Kochko	
Réseau	Semence	Paysannes,	France	
	
Market	value	versus	value	of	use	
Your	Logo
Peasant seeds at the test of
identification signs
Objective	
Does		a	brand	on	
products	stemming	from	
peasants	seeds	help	to	
renew	cultivated	
biodiversity	?	
Methods	
The	development	of	a	
label	for	vegetables	
produced	from	farmers	
seeds	was	experimentally	
tested	over	2	years
Main	result	
During	the	test,	the	
irruption	of	an	
unexpected	actor	
stopped	the	
development	of	the	
identification	sign.	
•  Picture	
Peasant seeds at the test of
identification signs
Brand/lable	on	farmers’	seeds	are	an	IPR	
They	adapt	virtuous	products	to	the	capitalistic	market	
mechanisms.		
Moreover,	they	divert	consumers	attention	from	the	
growing	food	market	with	seeds	stemming	from	
biotechnological	seeds.		
The	concept	of	commons	offers	an	alternative	to	
brands/logos	and	labels.	The	concept	of	commons	
would	help	farmers	to	renew	cultivated	biodiversity.	
	
		
Take Home Message
Peasant seeds at the test of
identification signs
Diversity in food supply chains
Diversifood Final Congress
«Cultivating diversity and
food quality»
Rennes, 11th December 2018
“Lessons learnt from strategies
to embed diversity in the food
supply chain”
Consumer
preferences for
farmers’ varieties
Claudia	Meier	(claudia.meier@fibl.org)	
Bernadette	Oehen	(bernadette.oehen@fibl.org)
Consumer preferences for
farmers’ varieties
Objective	
Assess	market	potential	
of	farmers’	varieties	
and	provide	
recommendations	for	
market	strategy	
Methods	
Representative	online	
survey	in	four	
European	countries	
(CH,ESP,IT,FR)	with	
500	respondents	per	
country
Consumer preferences for
farmers’ varieties
Main	results	
Consumers	like	farmers’	
varieties	and	are	
willing	to	pay	a	price	
premium	
Marketing	should	focus	
on	taste,	regional	
provenance,	diversity	
and	independence	for	
farmers	
	
Picture
Consumer preferences for
farmers’ varieties
Farmers’	varieties	
respond	to	consumer	
needs	for	regional,	
authentic,	non-
industrial	and	tasty	
food	products	
claudia.meier@fibl.org	
bernadette.oehen@fibl.org
Thank you for your
attention

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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 5 - Value chains studies - Bernadette Oehen & Adanella Rossi

  • 1. Diversity in food supply chains Bernadette Oehen & Adanella Rossi Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  • 2. Activities in DIVERSIFOOD to understand strategies to embed food diversity •  Analysis of –  valorisation strategies of local and diverse food products based on newly bred lines from PPB or conservation varieties, –  Factors of success, –  Communication strategies using labelling strategies, –  “Label experiment” –  Consumer attitudes, –  A potential correlation between food diversity and regional crop diversity. 2
  • 6. 6 The virtuous circle of the sustainable management of plant genetic resources
  • 7. 7 Diversity in emergence and development Initiated by a collaboration of – Researcher and farmers, – Seed Savers/Seed Communities and farmers, – Local supply chain actors and farmers, – NGO, – Network of farmers. Supported by Policy for – Rural development, – Agrobiodiversity, – Research on agrobiodiversity conservation. Supported by a consumer/market interest.
  • 8. 8 Diversity in marketing strategies – Territorially embedded niche markets – Producer-consumer networks/food communities – Farmers’ markets – Supermarkets – With a label/ a logo – Participatory guarantee system – Third party certification
  • 9. 9 Diversity in the approach to biodiverse foods – Health, – Taste, – Local food traditions, – Cultural capital and identity, – Local food production system, – Commitment to the management or conservation of genetic resources, – Farmers’ varieties.
  • 10. Importance of internal coherence: knowledge, visions, practices uncover factors and mechanisms underlying this process 10 •  Alignment around common awareness and visions •  Coherence of action è A challenging process
  • 11. Importance of relationship and interaction Exchanges within a network dimension 11 •  Understanding of quality of varieties and derived products •  Re-definition of practices of farming and processing •  Definition of suitable tools and arrangements along the chain •  Management of marketing and communication •  Support for farmers and other supply chain actors Collective learning
  • 12. Collective learning Interaction among different types of knowledge, expertise, awareness 12 •  Types of knowledge –  Experiential, scientific, technical, institutional, legal, economic, political •  Knowledge carriers –  Farmers –  Other chain actors –  Scientists –  Consultants/extension services –  ONGs, other networks and creation of new shared knowledge
  • 13. Importance of other interactions Exchanges with other networks, pathways locally and in broader contexts 13 •  to share knowledge, catch new opportunities and develop collective awareness, identity and agency around agrobiodiversity issues •  to strengthen the initiatives •  to create synergies •  to prevent or facing difficulties
  • 14. Facing critical points / taking opportunities 14 Seed, varieties management Farmers Breeding Farming Other chain actors Marketing Consumption Researchers Processing Public actors Consumers Public policies Research Facilitators
  • 15. Embedding diversity in food supply chains •  Understanding, creating, catching, and managing values –  collective action è participatory approaches •  The added value is beyond agrobiodiversity –  diversity of actors è interaction, participation, collaboration –  diversity of knowledge resources è exchanges, collective learning, transdisciplinarity –  diversity of dimensions involved è systemic approach –  diversity of situations è place-based solutions 15 Lessons learnt about valorisation of diverse food products
  • 16. Lessons learnt from the collaboration in DIVERSIFOOD •  Enthusiastic collaboration •  It needs time and thoughtfulness to –  Clarify, understand and agree on approaches –  Face difficulties of applying a theoretical approach in a real life situation –  Involve case study partners in the process –  Establish an exchange among the different tasks and work packages. 16
  • 17. Many thanks to all partners, who have participated!
  • 18. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  • 19. Ancient cereals in modern times: is there a future for underutelised cereals? Boki Luske Edwin Nuijten Rennes, 11 December 2018
  • 20. Cultivation of cereals in NL Wheat Barley Oats Rye Triticale CBS, 2017 •  Acreage of cereals is declining, due to low prices for cereals on world market •  Negative economic balance cereals à cash crops & tight crop rotations
  • 21. ‘Nature inclusive farming’ •  Decline of many wild farmland species (birds, butterflies, bees) –  Wider crop rotations needed –  More low input cereals and flowering crops •  Growing demand for high quality products –  Healthy, tasty from the region –  ‘Foodies’ 21 Red list species Scandix pecten-veneris and Ranunculus arvensis grow next to the trial field
  • 22. 22 Goal of trial in NL More diversity on the field and on the plate •  Test landraces, populations of einkorn, emmer and rivet wheat from European seed banks in Dutch circumstances –  3 years (2015-2018) «Hard data» •  Local value chain development •  Selection with stakeholders –  Farmers, millers, bakers, consumers, ecologists –  Demonstration, education •  Interviews with key stakeholders –  What are the conditions for the development of sustainable value chains with ancient cereals? «Soft data»
  • 23. Stakeholder meetings “Happy walking in the grain” Social media Wiebaktmee Baking (con)tests Farm visits 23
  • 24. Eenkoorn Triticum monococcum •  First domesticated wheat species •  Several archeological sites in Turkey (8700BC) •  Flat spikes with small hulled grains 24
  • 25. Emmer wheat Triticum dicoccoides •  Wild emmer wheat is common ancestor of other wheat species •  Flat spikes with large hulled grains 25
  • 26. Rivet wheat Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum •  ‘Brother’ of durum tarwe (Triticum turgidum) •  Naked grains 26
  • 28. 28 Results field trial Recreational nature area, loamy soil, low input farming •  First year: single plots •  Heavy rain in june: lodging tolerance/plant height •  Second year: replicated block design •  Cold, dry spring: weed suppression •  Third year: replicated block design •  Hot and dry summer: disease and drought tolerance •  4 best accessions per species selected
  • 29. 2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 Nr of acc ess ion s Av. yield ± st. dev. (t/ ha) Log. tol. Nr of acc essi ons Av. yield ± st. dev. (t/ha) Log. tol. Nr of acce ssion s Av. yield ± st. dev. (t/ ha) Log. tol. Einkorn 7 1.4 ± 0.58 8.1 ± 1.57 7 0.8 ± 0.16 7.6 ± 0.17 4 1.9 ± 0.16 8.4 ± 0.60 Dutch einkorn 1 2.4 7 1 0.7 ± 0.18 7.5 ± 0.41 1 2.0 ± 0.35 8.8 ± 0.50 Emmer 13 0.6 ± 0.26 6.4 ± 3.10 9 0.9 ± 0.29 7.7 ± 0.45 7 1.2 ± 0.22 7.7 ± 0.66 Zweikorn GT-196 1 1.0 9 1 1.2 ± 0.50 8.1 ± 0.25 1 1.3 ± 0.10 8.1 ± 0.63 Rivet 16 0.8 ± 0.42 4.6 ± 2.94 9 1.6 ± 0.34 7.6 ± 0.42 4 1.8 ± 0.31 7.3 ± 0.66 Rampton rivet 1 7 1 2.3 ± 0.66 7.5 ± 0.71 1 2.1 ± 0.40 7.8 ± 0.50 29 Results field trial
  • 30. Local value chain development •  Difficult, but possible –  Building social capital •  Personal relations between farmer, mill, baker are essential •  Time investment on storytelling, networking •  Confidence in partners •  Knowledge gap bakers •  Different nutritional properties of ancient cereals Protein content, sedimentation, minerals •  Other baking processes are needed, with longer resting periods •  Not included in regular training and education of bakers Recently more interest among bakers 30
  • 31. Local value chain development •  Push and pull factors •  Farmers are often a push factor •  Intrinsic motivation •  There is a growing demand but… •  Bakers and famers need to find eachother (former role of mill) •  Value chain management •  Plan ahead (1,5 year!): find a baker before sowing, this also creates commitment •  Diversify value chain: beer, pasta, flakes •  Logistics, storage, marketing: often done also by farmer 31
  • 32. Local value chain development •  Storytelling by baker to consumer: gaps need to be filled •  Nutritional aspects 32
  • 33. Conclusions •  Ancient cereals have low yields, but grow on poor soils –  Alternative crop for arable fields in nature area’s –  Lower costs for land –  Rich soils: lodging risk •  Stakeholders also look at aesthetics –  Dark emmer accessions •  Close knowledge gaps –  Nutritional benefits to increase demand (analyses in progress) •  Supply chain manager / broker –  Reliable person who understands passion of stakeholders –  Broker between farmer and baker, accelerate upscaling, new products and optimize logistics –  Inform consumers, bakers, nature organisations about nutritional and ecological benefits 33
  • 34. Is there a future for ancient cereals? It all starts with coming across them… 34
  • 35. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  • 36. Embedding food diversity in supply chains Experience of eight European case studies Anna Sellars Susanne Padel Organic Research Centre, UK
  • 37. Very brief overview •  8 case studies from 6 different countries •  Case studies of cereal and vegetable supply chains •  Two main approaches –  Revival of traditional foods and products –  Use of traditional/diverse varieties in new and innovative ways •  Types of supply chains and sales outlets –  More national/international –  More local/decentralised
  • 38. Source: Own data. Characterisation of the case study initiatives according to main aims and motivations.
  • 39. Agreed market vision and strategy among actors •  Agreement on where/how the initiative intends to market – National vs. local? Mainstream vs. decentralised? •  Lack of agreement à lack of clarity and coordination among actors à fragmentation of network •  Does not need to be either national or local –  Doing both offers: •  Balance of risk between enterprises •  Subsidising less profitable products or routes to market that are important for ethos of initiative •  Creating greater, long-term public awareness of the product
  • 40. Need for clarity in stakeholders’ common understanding of the distinctiveness and values embedded in the product •  New/innovative crop, or is it a heritage/traditional? •  Informs business development and marketing decisions •  Strong and clear story = easy for consumers to see value added compared to other products What narratives do stakeholders want use to describe the product? What narratives do consumers identify with? Nutritious, heritage, local, artisan, healthy etc.
  • 41. Challenging the assumption that demand is often a limiting factor •  Common assumption that an effective market and demand needs to be established to sustain an underutilised crop •  Evidence that supply factors are limiting success –  e.g. instability of supply and yield, seasonality, lack of access to seeds and production on a small-scale –  Larger initiatives e.g. PSR in Switzerland – not just small-scale initaitives
  • 42. Scaling up, scaling out, scaling deep – best ways to scale? •  Scale up - Collaborate with larger actors in the marketplace and increasing sales power –  e.g. PSR and work with Coop, Hungarian einkorn with beer campaign and selling internationally •  Scale out – Increasing production output and reach more people –  Careful not to compromise values of local culture e.g. concern in purple carrot initiative in Spain –  Entering diversified markets e.g. purple carrots for food colouring •  Scaling deep – Changing consumer relationships and values with food more long-term –  approaches rich in education and communication about stories of products, changing consumer relationships with food
  • 43. Choosing the right communication to suit: a) the consumers and b) the initiative •  Face-to-face, explaining the product characteristics, story and quality, and tasting –  Quality of local communication à potential for more meaningful and direct impact •  Virtual, through websites with details about nutrition, qualities and story of products –  Reaches a geographically wider audience, and people who may not go to local/community events e.g. young, city people •  Need for a clear and common understanding – what are the messages that need to be communicated, and how?
  • 45. Thank you for your attention! And thanks to all partners who contributed to the case studies in Subtask 5.1.1.! 45
  • 46. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  • 47. Building valorisation strategies for biodiverse food products Adanella Rossi
  • 48. Building valorisation strategies for biodiverse food products Objective Define an approach to develop valorisation strategies aimed at strengthening and promoting the entire food systems based on diverse genetic resources Methods •  A multi-actor and systemic approach •  A network perspective •  A focus on the social processes underlying the development of shared knowledge and consistent practices
  • 49. Building valorisation strategies for biodiverse food products Main result •  Centrality of interaction for an effective and coherent action around agrobiodiversity values •  No one-size-fits-all è context-specific strategies
  • 50. Building valorisation strategies for biodiverse food products In summary, a valorisation strategies for biodiverse products is part of a broader collective action around agrobiodiversity values adanella.rossi@unipi.it Take Home Message
  • 51. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  • 52. Relationship between local crop species diversity and food sales of local supermarkets Marjo Keskitalo and Lauri Jauhiainen
  • 53. Relationship between local crop species diversity and food sales of local supermarkets Objective •  Description of the relation between local crop species diversity and food sales in local supermarkets? Methods •  The impact of different variables was analyzed with variance component model
  • 54. Relationship between local crop species diversity and food sales of supermarkets Main result •  Local crop diversity on the fields may have an impact on food sales of the local supermarkets. •  The relation between crop diversity and sales was quite small but obvious. Municipalities in Finland with different crop species diversity indices (spots with different colour), and the studied areas (black circles)
  • 55. Relationship between local crop species diversity and food sales of supermarkets •  To sum up, new connections between crop diversity and food sales may have been detected in this study. •  marjo.keskitalo@luke.fi Take Home Message The data provided by S Group in Finland , is warmly acknowledged
  • 56. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  • 57. Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist Philipp Holzherr, ProSpecieRara Bernadette Oehen, FiBL
  • 58. Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist Objective •  Develop a flagship approach to communicate the value of biodiverse products to consumers Methods •  Analysis of existing approaches using online survey, stakeholder interviews and workshops
  • 59. Main result •  Many individual approaches identified •  Decision support matrix instead of a flagship approach •  Nine categories of topics to analyse Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
  • 60. •  The decision support matrix shall help organisations find their individual valorisation strategy •  A label could result – but other ways of building trust and credibility exist •  From the plethora of communication tools only pursue the ones you have enough resources for philipp.holzherr@prospecierara.ch Take Home Message Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
  • 61. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  • 62. Peasant seeds at the test of identification signs Frédéric Latour , Pierre Rivière , Patrick de Kochko Réseau Semence Paysannes, France Market value versus value of use Your Logo
  • 63. Peasant seeds at the test of identification signs Objective Does a brand on products stemming from peasants seeds help to renew cultivated biodiversity ? Methods The development of a label for vegetables produced from farmers seeds was experimentally tested over 2 years
  • 66. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  • 68. Consumer preferences for farmers’ varieties Objective Assess market potential of farmers’ varieties and provide recommendations for market strategy Methods Representative online survey in four European countries (CH,ESP,IT,FR) with 500 respondents per country
  • 69. Consumer preferences for farmers’ varieties Main results Consumers like farmers’ varieties and are willing to pay a price premium Marketing should focus on taste, regional provenance, diversity and independence for farmers Picture
  • 70. Consumer preferences for farmers’ varieties Farmers’ varieties respond to consumer needs for regional, authentic, non- industrial and tasty food products claudia.meier@fibl.org bernadette.oehen@fibl.org
  • 71. Thank you for your attention