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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 5 - Value chains studies - Bernadette Oehen & Adanella Rossi

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Lessons learnt from value chains studies in Diversifood: factors in support and hindering their success
Keynote by Bernadette Oehen, Fibl, Switzerland, and Adanella Rossi, University of Pisa
Embedding food diversity in supply chains – Experience of eight European case studies
by Anna Sellars, ORC, UK
Ancient cereals in modern times: is there a momentum for underutilised cereals?
by Boki Luske, LBI, NL
Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
by Philipp Holzherr, PSR, Switzerland
Peasant seeds at the test of identification signs
by Pierre Rivière, RSP, France
The potential impact of crop species diversity on food sales in local markets
by Marjo Keskitalo, LUKE, Finland
Consumer preferences for vegetables from participatory on-farm breeding networks
by Claudia Meier, Fibl, Switzerland

Published in: Food
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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 5 - Value chains studies - Bernadette Oehen & Adanella Rossi

  1. 1. Diversity in food supply chains Bernadette Oehen & Adanella Rossi Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  2. 2. Activities in DIVERSIFOOD to understand strategies to embed food diversity •  Analysis of –  valorisation strategies of local and diverse food products based on newly bred lines from PPB or conservation varieties, –  Factors of success, –  Communication strategies using labelling strategies, –  “Label experiment” –  Consumer attitudes, –  A potential correlation between food diversity and regional crop diversity. 2
  3. 3. 3 WP1: Methods/Methodologies WP2 WP 3 WP6 WP4 Crops, networks/cases Dissemination tools/platforms Networks, policy WP 5 embedded in DIVERSIFOOD WP5: Embedding diversity in the food supply chain
  4. 4. Synthesis and recommendations Case studies about the valorisation of - agrobiodiversity - participatory breeding Relation between local crops production and food offered to consumers Consumer attitudes and communication strategies and tools for food diversity 4 Adanella Rossi, UNIPI Philipp Holzherr, PSR Claudia Meier, FiBL Pierre Riviere, RSP Marjo Keskitalo, LUKE Lauri Jauhiainen, LUKE Posters about the work done in WP 5
  5. 5. 5 The analysis of a variety of initiatives developed around biodiverse products…..
  6. 6. 6 The virtuous circle of the sustainable management of plant genetic resources
  7. 7. 7 Diversity in emergence and development Initiated by a collaboration of – Researcher and farmers, – Seed Savers/Seed Communities and farmers, – Local supply chain actors and farmers, – NGO, – Network of farmers. Supported by Policy for – Rural development, – Agrobiodiversity, – Research on agrobiodiversity conservation. Supported by a consumer/market interest.
  8. 8. 8 Diversity in marketing strategies – Territorially embedded niche markets – Producer-consumer networks/food communities – Farmers’ markets – Supermarkets – With a label/ a logo – Participatory guarantee system – Third party certification
  9. 9. 9 Diversity in the approach to biodiverse foods – Health, – Taste, – Local food traditions, – Cultural capital and identity, – Local food production system, – Commitment to the management or conservation of genetic resources, – Farmers’ varieties.
  10. 10. Importance of internal coherence: knowledge, visions, practices uncover factors and mechanisms underlying this process 10 •  Alignment around common awareness and visions •  Coherence of action è A challenging process
  11. 11. Importance of relationship and interaction Exchanges within a network dimension 11 •  Understanding of quality of varieties and derived products •  Re-definition of practices of farming and processing •  Definition of suitable tools and arrangements along the chain •  Management of marketing and communication •  Support for farmers and other supply chain actors Collective learning
  12. 12. Collective learning Interaction among different types of knowledge, expertise, awareness 12 •  Types of knowledge –  Experiential, scientific, technical, institutional, legal, economic, political •  Knowledge carriers –  Farmers –  Other chain actors –  Scientists –  Consultants/extension services –  ONGs, other networks and creation of new shared knowledge
  13. 13. Importance of other interactions Exchanges with other networks, pathways locally and in broader contexts 13 •  to share knowledge, catch new opportunities and develop collective awareness, identity and agency around agrobiodiversity issues •  to strengthen the initiatives •  to create synergies •  to prevent or facing difficulties
  14. 14. Facing critical points / taking opportunities 14 Seed, varieties management Farmers Breeding Farming Other chain actors Marketing Consumption Researchers Processing Public actors Consumers Public policies Research Facilitators
  15. 15. Embedding diversity in food supply chains •  Understanding, creating, catching, and managing values –  collective action è participatory approaches •  The added value is beyond agrobiodiversity –  diversity of actors è interaction, participation, collaboration –  diversity of knowledge resources è exchanges, collective learning, transdisciplinarity –  diversity of dimensions involved è systemic approach –  diversity of situations è place-based solutions 15 Lessons learnt about valorisation of diverse food products
  16. 16. Lessons learnt from the collaboration in DIVERSIFOOD •  Enthusiastic collaboration •  It needs time and thoughtfulness to –  Clarify, understand and agree on approaches –  Face difficulties of applying a theoretical approach in a real life situation –  Involve case study partners in the process –  Establish an exchange among the different tasks and work packages. 16
  17. 17. Many thanks to all partners, who have participated!
  18. 18. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  19. 19. Ancient cereals in modern times: is there a future for underutelised cereals? Boki Luske Edwin Nuijten Rennes, 11 December 2018
  20. 20. Cultivation of cereals in NL Wheat Barley Oats Rye Triticale CBS, 2017 •  Acreage of cereals is declining, due to low prices for cereals on world market •  Negative economic balance cereals à cash crops & tight crop rotations
  21. 21. ‘Nature inclusive farming’ •  Decline of many wild farmland species (birds, butterflies, bees) –  Wider crop rotations needed –  More low input cereals and flowering crops •  Growing demand for high quality products –  Healthy, tasty from the region –  ‘Foodies’ 21 Red list species Scandix pecten-veneris and Ranunculus arvensis grow next to the trial field
  22. 22. 22 Goal of trial in NL More diversity on the field and on the plate •  Test landraces, populations of einkorn, emmer and rivet wheat from European seed banks in Dutch circumstances –  3 years (2015-2018) «Hard data» •  Local value chain development •  Selection with stakeholders –  Farmers, millers, bakers, consumers, ecologists –  Demonstration, education •  Interviews with key stakeholders –  What are the conditions for the development of sustainable value chains with ancient cereals? «Soft data»
  23. 23. Stakeholder meetings “Happy walking in the grain” Social media Wiebaktmee Baking (con)tests Farm visits 23
  24. 24. Eenkoorn Triticum monococcum •  First domesticated wheat species •  Several archeological sites in Turkey (8700BC) •  Flat spikes with small hulled grains 24
  25. 25. Emmer wheat Triticum dicoccoides •  Wild emmer wheat is common ancestor of other wheat species •  Flat spikes with large hulled grains 25
  26. 26. Rivet wheat Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum •  ‘Brother’ of durum tarwe (Triticum turgidum) •  Naked grains 26
  27. 27. 27 Einkorn Triticum monococcum 2n Wild einkorn Triticum boeoticum 2n Wild emmer wheat T. dicoccoides T. turgidum var. dicoccoides 4n Wild grass Triticum saersii? 2n Emmer wheat Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum 4n Durum wheat Triticum turgidum conv. durum 4n Goatgrass Aegilops tausschii 2n Wheat Triticum aestivum 6n Rivet wheat Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum 4n Spelt Triticum spelta 6n
  28. 28. 28 Results field trial Recreational nature area, loamy soil, low input farming •  First year: single plots •  Heavy rain in june: lodging tolerance/plant height •  Second year: replicated block design •  Cold, dry spring: weed suppression •  Third year: replicated block design •  Hot and dry summer: disease and drought tolerance •  4 best accessions per species selected
  29. 29. 2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-2018 Nr of acc ess ion s Av. yield ± st. dev. (t/ ha) Log. tol. Nr of acc essi ons Av. yield ± st. dev. (t/ha) Log. tol. Nr of acce ssion s Av. yield ± st. dev. (t/ ha) Log. tol. Einkorn 7 1.4 ± 0.58 8.1 ± 1.57 7 0.8 ± 0.16 7.6 ± 0.17 4 1.9 ± 0.16 8.4 ± 0.60 Dutch einkorn 1 2.4 7 1 0.7 ± 0.18 7.5 ± 0.41 1 2.0 ± 0.35 8.8 ± 0.50 Emmer 13 0.6 ± 0.26 6.4 ± 3.10 9 0.9 ± 0.29 7.7 ± 0.45 7 1.2 ± 0.22 7.7 ± 0.66 Zweikorn GT-196 1 1.0 9 1 1.2 ± 0.50 8.1 ± 0.25 1 1.3 ± 0.10 8.1 ± 0.63 Rivet 16 0.8 ± 0.42 4.6 ± 2.94 9 1.6 ± 0.34 7.6 ± 0.42 4 1.8 ± 0.31 7.3 ± 0.66 Rampton rivet 1 7 1 2.3 ± 0.66 7.5 ± 0.71 1 2.1 ± 0.40 7.8 ± 0.50 29 Results field trial
  30. 30. Local value chain development •  Difficult, but possible –  Building social capital •  Personal relations between farmer, mill, baker are essential •  Time investment on storytelling, networking •  Confidence in partners •  Knowledge gap bakers •  Different nutritional properties of ancient cereals Protein content, sedimentation, minerals •  Other baking processes are needed, with longer resting periods •  Not included in regular training and education of bakers Recently more interest among bakers 30
  31. 31. Local value chain development •  Push and pull factors •  Farmers are often a push factor •  Intrinsic motivation •  There is a growing demand but… •  Bakers and famers need to find eachother (former role of mill) •  Value chain management •  Plan ahead (1,5 year!): find a baker before sowing, this also creates commitment •  Diversify value chain: beer, pasta, flakes •  Logistics, storage, marketing: often done also by farmer 31
  32. 32. Local value chain development •  Storytelling by baker to consumer: gaps need to be filled •  Nutritional aspects 32
  33. 33. Conclusions •  Ancient cereals have low yields, but grow on poor soils –  Alternative crop for arable fields in nature area’s –  Lower costs for land –  Rich soils: lodging risk •  Stakeholders also look at aesthetics –  Dark emmer accessions •  Close knowledge gaps –  Nutritional benefits to increase demand (analyses in progress) •  Supply chain manager / broker –  Reliable person who understands passion of stakeholders –  Broker between farmer and baker, accelerate upscaling, new products and optimize logistics –  Inform consumers, bakers, nature organisations about nutritional and ecological benefits 33
  34. 34. Is there a future for ancient cereals? It all starts with coming across them… 34
  35. 35. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  36. 36. Embedding food diversity in supply chains Experience of eight European case studies Anna Sellars Susanne Padel Organic Research Centre, UK
  37. 37. Very brief overview •  8 case studies from 6 different countries •  Case studies of cereal and vegetable supply chains •  Two main approaches –  Revival of traditional foods and products –  Use of traditional/diverse varieties in new and innovative ways •  Types of supply chains and sales outlets –  More national/international –  More local/decentralised
  38. 38. Source: Own data. Characterisation of the case study initiatives according to main aims and motivations.
  39. 39. Agreed market vision and strategy among actors •  Agreement on where/how the initiative intends to market – National vs. local? Mainstream vs. decentralised? •  Lack of agreement à lack of clarity and coordination among actors à fragmentation of network •  Does not need to be either national or local –  Doing both offers: •  Balance of risk between enterprises •  Subsidising less profitable products or routes to market that are important for ethos of initiative •  Creating greater, long-term public awareness of the product
  40. 40. Need for clarity in stakeholders’ common understanding of the distinctiveness and values embedded in the product •  New/innovative crop, or is it a heritage/traditional? •  Informs business development and marketing decisions •  Strong and clear story = easy for consumers to see value added compared to other products What narratives do stakeholders want use to describe the product? What narratives do consumers identify with? Nutritious, heritage, local, artisan, healthy etc.
  41. 41. Challenging the assumption that demand is often a limiting factor •  Common assumption that an effective market and demand needs to be established to sustain an underutilised crop •  Evidence that supply factors are limiting success –  e.g. instability of supply and yield, seasonality, lack of access to seeds and production on a small-scale –  Larger initiatives e.g. PSR in Switzerland – not just small-scale initaitives
  42. 42. Scaling up, scaling out, scaling deep – best ways to scale? •  Scale up - Collaborate with larger actors in the marketplace and increasing sales power –  e.g. PSR and work with Coop, Hungarian einkorn with beer campaign and selling internationally •  Scale out – Increasing production output and reach more people –  Careful not to compromise values of local culture e.g. concern in purple carrot initiative in Spain –  Entering diversified markets e.g. purple carrots for food colouring •  Scaling deep – Changing consumer relationships and values with food more long-term –  approaches rich in education and communication about stories of products, changing consumer relationships with food
  43. 43. Choosing the right communication to suit: a) the consumers and b) the initiative •  Face-to-face, explaining the product characteristics, story and quality, and tasting –  Quality of local communication à potential for more meaningful and direct impact •  Virtual, through websites with details about nutrition, qualities and story of products –  Reaches a geographically wider audience, and people who may not go to local/community events e.g. young, city people •  Need for a clear and common understanding – what are the messages that need to be communicated, and how?
  44. 44. 44 Key elements for success Agreed common vision and values Clear and distinct values of the product Demand often isn’t a limiting factor – supply is Scaling up vs. scaling out vs. scaling deep Consumer- and initiative- appropriate communication
  45. 45. Thank you for your attention! And thanks to all partners who contributed to the case studies in Subtask 5.1.1.! 45
  46. 46. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  47. 47. Building valorisation strategies for biodiverse food products Adanella Rossi
  48. 48. Building valorisation strategies for biodiverse food products Objective Define an approach to develop valorisation strategies aimed at strengthening and promoting the entire food systems based on diverse genetic resources Methods •  A multi-actor and systemic approach •  A network perspective •  A focus on the social processes underlying the development of shared knowledge and consistent practices
  49. 49. Building valorisation strategies for biodiverse food products Main result •  Centrality of interaction for an effective and coherent action around agrobiodiversity values •  No one-size-fits-all è context-specific strategies
  50. 50. Building valorisation strategies for biodiverse food products In summary, a valorisation strategies for biodiverse products is part of a broader collective action around agrobiodiversity values adanella.rossi@unipi.it Take Home Message
  51. 51. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  52. 52. Relationship between local crop species diversity and food sales of local supermarkets Marjo Keskitalo and Lauri Jauhiainen
  53. 53. Relationship between local crop species diversity and food sales of local supermarkets Objective •  Description of the relation between local crop species diversity and food sales in local supermarkets? Methods •  The impact of different variables was analyzed with variance component model
  54. 54. Relationship between local crop species diversity and food sales of supermarkets Main result •  Local crop diversity on the fields may have an impact on food sales of the local supermarkets. •  The relation between crop diversity and sales was quite small but obvious. Municipalities in Finland with different crop species diversity indices (spots with different colour), and the studied areas (black circles)
  55. 55. Relationship between local crop species diversity and food sales of supermarkets •  To sum up, new connections between crop diversity and food sales may have been detected in this study. •  marjo.keskitalo@luke.fi Take Home Message The data provided by S Group in Finland , is warmly acknowledged
  56. 56. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  57. 57. Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist Philipp Holzherr, ProSpecieRara Bernadette Oehen, FiBL
  58. 58. Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist Objective •  Develop a flagship approach to communicate the value of biodiverse products to consumers Methods •  Analysis of existing approaches using online survey, stakeholder interviews and workshops
  59. 59. Main result •  Many individual approaches identified •  Decision support matrix instead of a flagship approach •  Nine categories of topics to analyse Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
  60. 60. •  The decision support matrix shall help organisations find their individual valorisation strategy •  A label could result – but other ways of building trust and credibility exist •  From the plethora of communication tools only pursue the ones you have enough resources for philipp.holzherr@prospecierara.ch Take Home Message Communication and Label Concept for Underutilized Crops: Checklist
  61. 61. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  62. 62. Peasant seeds at the test of identification signs Frédéric Latour , Pierre Rivière , Patrick de Kochko Réseau Semence Paysannes, France Market value versus value of use Your Logo
  63. 63. Peasant seeds at the test of identification signs Objective Does a brand on products stemming from peasants seeds help to renew cultivated biodiversity ? Methods The development of a label for vegetables produced from farmers seeds was experimentally tested over 2 years
  64. 64. Main result During the test, the irruption of an unexpected actor stopped the development of the identification sign. •  Picture Peasant seeds at the test of identification signs
  65. 65. Brand/lable on farmers’ seeds are an IPR They adapt virtuous products to the capitalistic market mechanisms. Moreover, they divert consumers attention from the growing food market with seeds stemming from biotechnological seeds. The concept of commons offers an alternative to brands/logos and labels. The concept of commons would help farmers to renew cultivated biodiversity. Take Home Message Peasant seeds at the test of identification signs
  66. 66. Diversity in food supply chains Diversifood Final Congress «Cultivating diversity and food quality» Rennes, 11th December 2018 “Lessons learnt from strategies to embed diversity in the food supply chain”
  67. 67. Consumer preferences for farmers’ varieties Claudia Meier (claudia.meier@fibl.org) Bernadette Oehen (bernadette.oehen@fibl.org)
  68. 68. Consumer preferences for farmers’ varieties Objective Assess market potential of farmers’ varieties and provide recommendations for market strategy Methods Representative online survey in four European countries (CH,ESP,IT,FR) with 500 respondents per country
  69. 69. Consumer preferences for farmers’ varieties Main results Consumers like farmers’ varieties and are willing to pay a price premium Marketing should focus on taste, regional provenance, diversity and independence for farmers Picture
  70. 70. Consumer preferences for farmers’ varieties Farmers’ varieties respond to consumer needs for regional, authentic, non- industrial and tasty food products claudia.meier@fibl.org bernadette.oehen@fibl.org
  71. 71. Thank you for your attention

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