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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 7 - Cultivating diverse food systems in the shell of the uniform - Phil Howard

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"Cultivating diverse food systems in the shell of the uniform: power relations and transitions to sustainability" Keynote Speech by Phil Howard, Michigan State University, USA. The DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress was held in Rennes on 10-12 December 2018.

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DIVERSIFOOD Final Congress - Session 7 - Cultivating diverse food systems in the shell of the uniform - Phil Howard

  1. 1. Cultivating diverse food systems in the shell of the uniform: power relations and transitions to sustainability Philip H. Howard, Michigan State University
  2. 2. MonopolyOligopolyPartial OligopolyCompetitive Unconcentrated Concentrated
  3. 3. MonopolyOligopolyPartial OligopolyCompetitive Unconcentrated Concentrated 4 Firms - 40% of sales
  4. 4. BASF DuPont Syngenta Monsanto Dow Bayer Chem- China Corteva Cross-licensing agreements for genetically engineered seed traits
  5. 5. BASF DuPont Syngenta Monsanto Dow Bayer Chem- China Corteva 4 Firms • over 60% of seed sales • over 70% of agricultural chemical sales
  6. 6. Table 7.2 Intellectual property protections for living organisms: key US policy changes Year Policy Impact 1930 Plant Patent Act Patents on asexually reproducing plants 1970 Plant Variety Protection Act Patent-like protections for sexually reproducing plants 1980 Bayh-Dole Act Patents allowed for publicly funded research outputs 1980 Diamond v. Chakrabarty GE organisms patentable 1985 Ex parte Hibberd Plants patentable under general utility patent provisions 1987 Ex parte Allen Multicellular animals patentable 1994 Amended Plant Variety Protection Act Selling seed without license from owner prohibited 1995 Asgrow v. Winterboer Increased restrictions on selling saved seed 2001 JEM Agricultural Supply v. Pioneer Hi-Bred Saving seeds with utility patents prohibited 2013 Bowman v. Monsanto Enforces contract provisions beyond first sale
  7. 7. Source: National Geographic July 2011
  8. 8. Photo: Glen Stubbe, Star Tribune
  9. 9. Power ResistanceCo-optation Alternatives
  10. 10. Power ResistanceCo-optation Alternatives
  11. 11. EXPORT ORIENTATION PATH DEPENDENCY CONCENTRATION OF POWER MEASURES OF SUCCESS COMPARTMENTALIZED THINKING SHORT-TERM THINKING EXPECTATION OF CHEAP FOOD FEED THE WORLD NARRATIVES THE EIGHT KEY LOCK-INS OF INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE IPES-Food 2016 From Uniformity to Diversity: A Paradigm Shift From Industrial Agriculture to Diversified Agroecological Systems
  12. 12. 3 4 5 67 2 1 Develop new indicators for sustainable food systems. Shift public support towards diversified agroecological production systems. Use public procurement to support local agroecological produce. Support short supply chains & alternative retail infrastructures. Develop food planning processes and joined-up ‘food policies’ at all levels. Mainstream agroecology and holistic food systems approach into education & research agendas. Strengthen movements that unify diverse constituencies around agroecology. EXPORT ORIENTATION PATH DEPENDENCY CONCENTRATION OF POWER MEASURES OF SUCCESS COMPARTMENTALIZED THINKING SHORT-TERM THINKING EXPECTATION OF CHEAP FOOD FEED THE WORLD NARRATIVES TURNING LOCK-INS INTO ENTRY POINTS FOR CHANGE IPES-Food 2016
  13. 13. 2 3 4 5 67 1 Develop new indicators for sustainable food systems. Shift public support towards diversified agroecological production systems. Use public procurement to support local agroecological produce. Support short supply chains & alternative retail infrastructures. Develop food planning processes and joined-up ‘food policies’ at all levels. Mainstream agroecology and holistic food systems approach into education & research agendas. Strengthen movements that unify diverse constituencies around agroecology. New sales outlets... Basisfor... Basis for... Basisfor... Basis for... Advocate for & par ticipatein... Define priorities for... Knowledge to underpin... Build new relationships... Define priorities for... Build supp ortfor... CREATING VIRTUOUS CIRCLES TO SUPPORT DIVERSIFIED AGROECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS IPES-Food 2016
  14. 14. Figure 7: Trajectories in Hierarchy-Energy Space Livelihood energy Bichler & Nitzan 2017
  15. 15. Hain Celestial #79 ShariAnn's M&M Mars #11 Mondelez #19 (spinoff from Kraft) Coca-Cola #5 Cargill #16 White- Wave #39 (spinoff of Dean) ConAgra #7 Kellogg #13 Walnut Acres Millina's Finest Frutti di Bosco Muir Glen Celestial Seasonings Imagine/Rice Dream/Soy Dream Little Bear Arrowhead Mills Bearitos Spectrum Organics Lightlife The Organic Cow of Vermont Breadshop Alta Dena Westbrae Mountain Sun DeBole's Earth's Best Nile Spice Health Valley Westsoy Cascadian Farm Garden of Eatin' Casbah Horizon Odwalla Silk Organic Industry Structure: Acquisitions & Alliances, Top 100 Food Processors in North America October 2001 $181 M July 1998, 13% Equity; January 2004, 100% Equity, $216 M Morningstar Farms/Natural Touch November 1999 $307 M Organic Brand Acquisitions # Numbers refer to rank in North American food & beverage sales according to Food Processing, August 2015 October 1997 $23.5 M June 2003 October 2001 June 2001 September 1999 from Heinz March 2000 $390 M December 2002 April 1999 $80 M April 1998 $80 M December 1998 Back to Nature Boca Foods Seeds of Change 1997 July 2000; September 2013, sold to Brynwood Partners December 1999 March 1998 May 2002 $189 M May 1999 April 1999 June 2000 September 2003 100% equity; August 2012 majority stake sold to Brynwood Partners Kashi August 2005 $33 M February 2000 Food Processors # Hershey Foods #20 Dagoba October 2006 TofuTown June 2007 From Dean Naked Juice Pepsi #1 November 2006 Green & Black's January 2010 Alexia Foods July 2007 Wholesome & Hearty Bear Naked November 2007 $122 M Nestle #3 Tribe Mediterranean Foods September 2008, $57M via Israeli subsidiary Osem Group (50.1% equity) LaraBar Honest Tea January 2016 February 2008 40% equity $43 M; March 2011 100% equity June 2008 MaraNatha SunSpire March 2008 Golden Temple Peace Cereal Willamette Valley Granola Food Should Taste GoodFebruary 2012 Campbell Soup Co. #25 Bolthouse Farms July 2012 $1.55 B Phil Howard, Associate Professor Michigan State University Hillshire Brands (formerly Sara Lee) Aidell's Sausage May 2011 $87 M Sweet Leaf Tea May 2011 Stonyfield Brown Cow J.M. Smucker #23 R.W. Knudsen Santa Cruz Organic Late July BluePrint November 2012 May 2013 Ella's Kitchen Happy Family May 2013 92% equity AB InBev #6 Goose Island March 2011 $38.8 M Ralcorp (private label organic foods) Bloomfield Bakers Lovin Oven March 2007 $140 M Millstone November 2008 1984 1989 December 2007 19% equity; November 2014 80% equity February 2003 October 2001 40% equity; January 2004 85% equity May 2013 $158 M May 2010 $71 M Miller- Coors #15 Crispin February 2012 Fox Barrel January 2010 Olafson's Baking Co. February 2014 $1.7 B July 2002 Perdue Farms #29 Coleman Natural May 2011 Hans August 2003 August 2007 Draper Valley FarmsPetaluma/ Rosie January 2002 Tea Forte January 2012 Wolfgang Puck July 2008 Foster Farms #52 Humboldt Creamery August 2009 $19.5 M CROPP (Organic Valley) #91 Canada Bread Co. TreeHouse Foods #38 Sturm Foods December 2009 $660 M Naturally FreshMarch 2012 $25 M Hearthside Foods (cereal division) Meyer Natural Foods December 2010 J&J Snack Foods #93 Kim & Scott's June 2012 $7.9 M June 2010; joint marketing agreement November 2009, Stonyfield brand licensed to CROPP for fluid milk Danone (Dannon) #46 Dakota Beef Peet's Coffee & Tea August 2012 $1 B New Morning December 2012 Erewhon Plum Organics May 2013 Earthbound Farm December 2013 $600 M Enray August 2013 PowerBar Pria February 2014 (from Nestle) Golden Boy December 2013 Dakota Growers Pasta September 2013 Immaculate Baking January 2013 Green Mountain Coffee February 2013 10% equity $1.25 B 2014 additional 7% Hormel #14 Flowers Foods #31 Pinnacle Foods #45 EPIC Provisions Keurig Green Mountain Boulder Brands (Earth Balance) Alpine Valley Bread Co. Dave’s Killer Bread Suja Juice Wallaby Yogurt Garden Fresh Gourmet Applegate Farms Blake’s Annie’s Homegrown So Delicious Protenergy Natural Foods Rudi’s Organic Bakery August 2015 30% equity $90 M January 2015 $1.15 BD.E. Master Blenders (formerly Sara Lee) October 2013 $10.4 B Stumptown December 2015 $13.9 B MOM/Malt-O- Meal/Better Oats Caribou Einstein Bros./ Noah Intelligentsia Mighty Leaf September 2014 $374 M August 2014 October 2015 October 2015 December 2012 January 2016 Rhythm Superfoods January 2016 partial equity $3 M November 2015 $975 M September 2015 $120 M August 2015 $275 M August 2015 $125 M September 2014 $195 M June 2015 $231 M April 2014 $61 M May 2015 $775 M May 2015 September 2014 $820 M Tyson #2 August 2014 $8.5 B Van’s April 2014 $165 M April 2014 $150 M Michael Foods April 2014 $2.45 B Diamond Foods #97 October 2015 $1.27 B Kettle February 2010 $615 M B&G Foods #95 TrueNorth May 2013 Sioux- Preme Packing September 2015 FreeBird/ Plainville Farms July 2014 $40 M Willamette Egg Farms September 2015 $90 M Udi’s June 2012 $125 M Evol December 2013 $48 M November 2015 $2.7 B from ConAgra Bimbo Bakeries #20 JAB Holding Company Post Foods #49 (spinoff from Ralcorp) Snyder's- Lance #68 General Mills #10 Lifeway October 2000 21.2% equity Fresh Made Dairy First Juice Helios July 2006 $8 M February 2009 $14 M September 2010 Stacy’s Pita Chip November 2005
  16. 16. ConAgra #7 Muir Glen Spectrum Organics Lightlife Earth's Best Nile Spice Cascadian Farm September 1999 from Heinz December 1998 S C July 2000; September 2013, sold to Brynwood Partners December 1999 March 1998 Alexia Foods July 2007 LaraBar June 2008 Food Should Taste GoodFebruary 2012 Print ember 012 May 2013 Ella's Kitchen Ralcorp (private label organic foods) Bloomfield Bakers Lovin Oven March 2007 $140 M TreeHou Foods #38 N Mo Er Immaculate Baking January 2013 Pinnacle EPIC Provisions Boulder Brands (Earth Balance) Blake’s Annie’s Homegrown Protenergy Natural Foods Rudi’s Organic Bakery January 2016 Rhythm Superfoods January 2016 partial equity $3 M November 2015 $975 M April 2014 $61 M May 2015 September 2014 $820 M April 2014 $150 M B&G Foods #95 rth May 2013 Udi’s June 2012 $125 M Evol December 2013 $48 M General Mills #10
  17. 17. ConAgra #7 Muir Glen Spectrum Organics Lightlife Earth's Best Nile Spice Cascadian Farm September 1999 from Heinz December 1998 S C July 2000; September 2013, sold to Brynwood Partners December 1999 March 1998 Alexia Foods July 2007 LaraBar June 2008 Food Should Taste GoodFebruary 2012 Print ember 012 May 2013 Ella's Kitchen Ralcorp (private label organic foods) Bloomfield Bakers Lovin Oven March 2007 $140 M TreeHou Foods #38 N Mo Er Immaculate Baking January 2013 Pinnacle EPIC Provisions Boulder Brands (Earth Balance) Blake’s Annie’s Homegrown Protenergy Natural Foods Rudi’s Organic Bakery January 2016 Rhythm Superfoods January 2016 partial equity $3 M November 2015 $975 M April 2014 $61 M May 2015 September 2014 $820 M April 2014 $150 M B&G Foods #95 rth May 2013 Udi’s June 2012 $125 M Evol December 2013 $48 M General Mills #10
  18. 18. White- Wave #39 (spinoff of Dean) Kellogg #13 Celestial Seasonings Imagine/Rice Dream/Soy Dream Little Bear Bearitos The Organic Cow of Vermont Alta Dena Westsoy Casbah Horizon Odwalla Silk July 1998, 13% Equity; January 2004, 100% Equity, $216 M Morning Farms/N Touc Nove 19 $30 $390 M December 2002 May 2002 $189 M May 1999 April 1999 June 2000 Kashi Naked Juice Pepsi #1 November 2006 Wholesome & Hearty Bear Naked November 2007 $122 M Nestle #3 Tribe Mediterranean Foods eptember 2008, $57M eli subsidiary Osem Group (50.1% equity) February 2014 Kim & Scott's Earthbound Farm December 2013 $600 M Hormel #14 Flowers Foods #31 Dave’s Killer Bread Wallaby Yogurt Applegate Farms So Delicious August 2015 $275 M August 2015 $125 M September 2014 $195 M May 2015 $775 M Stacy’s Pita Chip November 2005
  19. 19. White- Wave #39 (spinoff of Dean) Kellogg #13 Celestial Seasonings Imagine/Rice Dream/Soy Dream Little Bear Bearitos The Organic Cow of Vermont Alta Dena Westsoy Casbah Horizon Odwalla Silk July 1998, 13% Equity; January 2004, 100% Equity, $216 M Morning Farms/N Touc Nove 19 $30 $390 M December 2002 May 2002 $189 M May 1999 April 1999 June 2000 Kashi Naked Juice Pepsi #1 November 2006 Wholesome & Hearty Bear Naked November 2007 $122 M Nestle #3 Tribe Mediterranean Foods eptember 2008, $57M eli subsidiary Osem Group (50.1% equity) February 2014 Kim & Scott's Earthbound Farm December 2013 $600 M Hormel #14 Flowers Foods #31 Dave’s Killer Bread Wallaby Yogurt Applegate Farms So Delicious August 2015 $275 M August 2015 $125 M September 2014 $195 M May 2015 $775 M Stacy’s Pita Chip November 2005 Danone $12.5 Billion 2017
  20. 20. realorganicproject.org
  21. 21. ABInBev Molson Coors
  22. 22. Karbach 2016 Four Peaks 2015 AB InBev: fully owned craft subsidiaries Golden Road 2015 Breckenridge 2015 Goose Island 2011 Blue Point 2014 Wicked Weed 2017 Devils Backbone 2016 Elysian 2015 10 Barrel 2014
  23. 23. Yuen- gling ANHEUSER- BUSCH INBEV #1 HEINEKEN #4 Amstel Wild Blue Franzis- kaner Beck's Birra Moretti PABST (OASIS BEV.) #5 Blatz Blue Moon Bud- weiser Busch Tsing- tao Coors CONSTELLA- TION #3 Corona CRAFT BREW ALLIANCE #14 Cruz- campo Dos Equis FIFCO (NORTH AMERICAN BREWERIES) #8 Moun- tain Brew Beer Schaef- er Gen- esee Goose Island #15 DIAGEO #9 Guin- ness Hamm's Harbin Harp Heile- man Hein- eken Henry Wein- hard's Ice- house Schlitz Key- stone Killian's Irish Red Kirin Ko- kanee Kona Labatt- USA Lech Leffe Leinen- kugel's Lone Star Port- land/ MacTar- nahan's Magic- Hat Margar- itaville/ Land Shark Mich- elob Miller Milwau- kee's Best Modelo Molson MOLSON COORS #2 Mur- phy's National Bohem- ian Natural Red- bridge New Belgium New- castle Old Mil- waukee Olympia Pabst Jacob Best Pacifico Pearl Piels Broth- ers Pilsner Urquell Primo Pyramid Rainier Falstaff Ball- antine Red Stripe Red Dog Red Hook Rolling Rock Samuel Adams Schmidt Seven- Kings Shock Top Sierra Nevada Smith- wick's Kil- kenny Sol Minerva Stag Stella Artois St Pauli Girl Stroh's Tiger Beer Tyskie Widmer Broth- ers YUENGLING #7 Ziegen- Bock Zywiec BOSTON BEER #6 SIERRA NEVADA #11 NEW BELGIUM #12 Ownership of Leading U.S. Beer Brands Bodd- ingtons GAMBRINUS #16 Bridge- Port Spoetzl/ Shiner Tappeto Volante Trumer Pils BassHoe- gaarden Tecate Sam Adams Third Shift New Belgium 32.2% equity Sierra Nevada Lagu- nitas #13 Shorts 19.99% equity Ballast Point #18 Funky Buddha Kar- bach Devils Back- bone Blue Point Golden Road 10 Barrel Four Peaks Brecken -ridge Wicked Weed Elysian Saint Archer Terrapin Hop Valley Revolv- er Sweet- Water minority equity TSG Consumer Partners minority equity DUVEL MOORTGAT #20 Boule- vard Fire- stone Walker MAHOU SAN MIGUEL Found- ers #21 Omme- gang 30% equity Encore Consumer Capital Full Sail Coney Island Mag- nolia SAPPORO Anchor Steam UNITED BREWERIES Mendo- cino Hum- boldt Carmel Olde Sara- toga Angel City Fireman Capital Partners Oskar Blues Perrin Brewing Cigar City Wa- satch Squatt- ers South- end Moon- light Indepen dence minority equity KIRIN Brook- lyn #23 24.5% equity Ulysses Manage- ment South- ern Tier Victory October 2017 philhoward.net “crafty”craft non- craft Partial Ownership Distribution Sapp- oro 50% equity BELL’S #17 Bell’s DESCHUTES #19 STONE #22 Stone De- schutes Ford- ham Dom- inion 49% equity 49% equity Traveler Con- crete Beach private equity Center- bridge Capital Rock Bottom Gordon Biersch Sage Capital Schlafly LNK Partners Dogfish Head #25 15% equity Valterra Lord Hobo minority equity Castanea Partners Bruery Butte Creek The Riverside Co. Uinta minority equity King- fisher Taj Mahal Flying Horse 44% equity Mc- Sorley's Barmen Carling Extra Gold Staro- pramen Colo- rado Native Herman Jo- seph’s Old Vienna Enjoy Beer Abita Small Town Best Damn New Holland Dog Tag # sales rank according to Beer Insights, 2017 MINHAS #24 Minhas Estrella Jalisco Spaten Presi- dente Montejo Faust Grolsch Peroni Foster’s Sol Aguila Cristal Cus- quena Congruent; Main St. Capital HopCat Honey Brown Uni- broue
  24. 24. Ownership of Leading U.S. Beer Brands GAMBRINUS #16 Bridge- Port Spoetzl/ re mer al Full Sail Brook- lyn #23 24.5% equity “crafty”craft non- craft Partial Ownership Distribution private equity Valterra Lord Hobo minority equity # sales rank according to Beer Insights, 2017
  25. 25. Yuen- gling ANHEUSER- BUSCH INBEV #1 HEINEKEN #4 Amstel Wild Blue Franzis- kaner Beck's Birra Moretti PABST (OASIS BEV.) #5 Blatz Blue Moon Bud- weiser Busch Tsing- tao Coors CONSTELLA- TION #3 Corona CRAFT BREW ALLIANCE #14 Cruz- campo Dos Equis FIFCO (NORTH AMERICAN BREWERIES) #8 Moun- tain Brew Beer Schaef- er Gen- esee Goose Island #15 DIAGEO #9 Guin- ness Hamm's Harbin Harp Heile- man Hein- eken Henry Wein- hard's Ice- house Schlitz Key- stone Killian's Irish Red Kirin Ko- kanee Kona Labatt- USA Lech Leffe Leinen- kugel's Lone Star Port- land/ MacTar- nahan's Magic- Hat Margar- itaville/ Land Shark Mich- elob Miller Milwau- kee's Best Modelo Molson MOLSON COORS #2 Mur- phy's National Bohem- ian Natural Red- bridge New Belgium New- castle Old Mil- waukee Olympia Pabst Jacob Best Pacifico Pearl Piels Broth- ers Pilsner Urquell Primo Pyramid Rainier Falstaff Ball- antine Red Stripe Red Dog Red Hook Rolling Rock Samuel Adams Schmidt Seven- Kings Shock Top Sierra Nevada Smith- wick's Kil- kenny Sol Minerva Stag Stella Artois St Pauli Girl Stroh's Tiger Beer Tyskie Widmer Broth- ers YUENGLING #7 Ziegen- Bock Zywiec BOSTON BEER #6 SIERRA NEVADA #11 NEW BELGIUM #12 Ownership of Leading U.S. Beer Brands Bodd- ingtons GAMBRINUS #16 Bridge- Port Spoetzl/ Shiner Tappeto Volante Trumer Pils BassHoe- gaarden Tecate Sam Adams Third Shift New Belgium 32.2% equity Sierra Nevada Lagu- nitas #13 Shorts 19.99% equity Ballast Point #18 Funky Buddha Kar- bach Devils Back- bone Blue Point Golden Road 10 Barrel Four Peaks Brecken -ridge Wicked Weed Elysian Saint Archer Terrapin Hop Valley Revolv- er Sweet- Water minority equity TSG Consumer Partners minority equity DUVEL MOORTGAT #20 Boule- vard Fire- stone Walker MAHOU SAN MIGUEL Found- ers #21 Omme- gang 30% equity Encore Consumer Capital Full Sail Coney Island Mag- nolia SAPPORO Anchor Steam UNITED BREWERIES Mendo- cino Hum- boldt Carmel Olde Sara- toga Angel City Fireman Capital Partners Oskar Blues Perrin Brewing Cigar City Wa- satch Squatt- ers South- end Moon- light Indepen dence minority equity KIRIN Brook- lyn #23 24.5% equity Ulysses Manage- ment South- ern Tier Victory October 2017 philhoward.net “crafty”craft non- craft Partial Ownership Distribution Sapp- oro 50% equity BELL’S #17 Bell’s DESCHUTES #19 STONE #22 Stone De- schutes Ford- ham Dom- inion 49% equity 49% equity Traveler Con- crete Beach private equity Center- bridge Capital Rock Bottom Gordon Biersch Sage Capital Schlafly LNK Partners Dogfish Head #25 15% equity Valterra Lord Hobo minority equity Castanea Partners Bruery Butte Creek The Riverside Co. Uinta minority equity King- fisher Taj Mahal Flying Horse 44% equity Mc- Sorley's Barmen Carling Extra Gold Staro- pramen Colo- rado Native Herman Jo- seph’s Old Vienna Enjoy Beer Abita Small Town Best Damn New Holland Dog Tag # sales rank according to Beer Insights, 2017 MINHAS #24 Minhas Estrella Jalisco Spaten Presi- dente Montejo Faust Grolsch Peroni Foster’s Sol Aguila Cristal Cus- quena Congruent; Main St. Capital HopCat Honey Brown Uni- broue
  26. 26. ANHEUSER- BUSCH INBEV #1 HEINEKEN #4 Amstel Wild Blue Franzis- kaner Beck's Birra Moretti Blue Moon Bud- weiser Busch Coors TION #3 CRAFT BREW ALLIANCE #14 Cruz- campo Dos Equis Goose Island #15 Hamm's Harbin Hein- eken Ice- house Key- stone Killian's Irish Red Kirin Ko- kanee Kona Leffe Leinen- kugel's Lone Star Margar- itaville/ Land Shark Mich- elob Modelo Molson MOLSON COORS #2 Mur- phy's Natural Red- bridge New- castle Pacifico Primo Rainier Red Dog Red Hook Rolling Rock Sam Ad Shock Top Sierra Sol Stella Artois St Pauli Girl oh's Tiger Beer Widmer Broth- ers Ziegen- Bock Zywiec BO B SIERRA Bodd- ingtons BassHoe- gaarden Tecate Third Shift 32.2% equity Sie Nev Lagu- nitas #13 Shorts 19.99% equity Kar- bach Devils Back- bone Blue Point Golden Road 10 Barrel Four Peaks Brecken -ridge Wicked Weed Elysian Saint Archer Terrapin Hop Valley UNITED BREWERIES Mendo- cino Hum- boldt Carmel Olde Sara- toga reman apital rtners Perrin Brewing South- end Moon- light Indepen dence minority equity 50% equity DESCHUTES #19 De- schutes Ford- ham Dom- inion 49% equity 49% equity B Sage apital Schlafly Castanea Partners Butte Creek Uinta King- fisher Taj Mahal Flying Horse 44% equity Carling Colo- rado Native Old Vienna Best Damn Estrella Jalisco Spaten Presi- dente Montejo Faust Foster’s HopCat
  27. 27. DeKalb (1995) HybriTech (1995) SementesAgroceres CustomFarmSeed DeKalbAyalaAyala AgriProWheat HybriTechEurope PauEuralis Seminis Cargill's intl. seed division FirstLine JacobHartz (1995) Asgrow Holdens Renessen Cargill Calgene CargillNorthAmerica Agracetus PBIC Unilever Monsoy FTSementes DeltaPineLand Syngenta's Global Cotton Division Paras Mahendra Daehnfeldt ASI Crows MidwestSeedGenetics WilsonSeeds GoldCountry HeritageSeeds NCPlusHybrids SpecialtyHybrids Fontanelle StewartSeeds TrelaySeeds StoneSeeds CornBelt Advanta Canola HubnerSeed LewisHybrids REA MoweaquaSeeds iCORN Jung BoCa InterstateCanola Sensako Agroeste CDMMandiyu Ciagro Carnia Diener Sieben Kruger Trisler CampbellSeed FieldersChoice HeartlandHybrids Hawkeye NebraskaIrrigated Limagrain Canada Poloni ISG Western Peotec Mahyco Terrazawa DeRuiter AlyParticipacoes (CanaVialis; Alellyx) Marmot Cotton States Stoneville CornStatesHybrid CornStatesIntl Ecogen CNDK ChinaSeed EIDParryRallis Gustafson Nunhems (1995) Paragon SeedEx Aventis AgrEvo Schering Proagro SementesRibeiral Sementes Fartura MitlaPesquisa Granja4Irmaos AgrEvoCottonPGS PlanTecBiotech GeneXSorghum CottonSeedIntl Sunseeds Hoechst Nunza (1986) RhonePoulenc LeenDeMos RioColorado California PlantingCotton Reliance GeneticsAssocFarmersDelinting NideraSemillas Nidera Pioneer CurrySeed ShandongDenghaiPioneer Denghai Dunhuang DunhuangPioneer DoisMarcos Hybrinova Solae (ProteinTech. Int.) OptimumQualityGrains SPS GoldenHarvest Goldsmith ResourceSeeds ZeraimGedera Sanbei Fischer AdvantaNACornSoybeans Garst InterstatePayco AgriPro PSAGenetics Gutwein DiaEngei Novartis CibaGeigy Sandoz AstraZeneca AstraZeneca Mogen ExSeed Genetics Thurston Maisadour KoipesolAgrosemAgra EridaniaBeghinSay/ Koipe SturdyGrow Agritrading NorthrupKing AdvantaEUVegetable Westhove HarrisMoran Clause Biogemma RhoBio AgReliant Wensman ProducersHybrids LochowPetkus (1967) CPBTwyford Hazera CarlSperling Kyowa Innoseeds BioSeeds VandenBerg GermainsCotton HollandCottonseed BrownfieldSeedDelinting HelenaCotton Indusem Agroceres Barham Petoseed (1995) RoyalSluis (1995) ChoongAng Horticeres Bruinsma (1994) Genecorp (1994) Hungnong GreenLeafGenetics Danisco Avesthagen ConradFafard LongReach AWB Swaghat CeeKay AustralianGrainTech YuanLongping DairylandSeed Mycogen BioPlantResearch RenzeHybrids Agromen MTI Sudwestsaat Brodbeck DuoMaize Triumph EmpresaBrasileira Hytest ABIAlfalfa SpecialtyGrains CooperativeBusinessIntl Agriliance CenexHarvest FarmlandIndustries Cenex HarvestStates SOYGENETICS FFRCoop NickersonVerneuil Morgan UnitedAgriseeds HibridosColorado BiogeneticaDeMilho DinamilhoCarol Phytogen JGBoswell IllinoisFoundation AdvancedAgriTraits Seed Industry Structure 1996 - 2013 Phil Howard, Associate Professor, Michigan State University http://www.msu.edu/~howardp Chemical Companies Zimmerman Seed Companies Other Companies Partial OwnershipSize proportional to global seed market share Full Ownership Sunseeds CropDesign (1995) Roussel -Uclaf Dahlco joint research & development Becker Underwood Kenfeng- KWS Kenfeng Genective GreatLakes CerealGrains SunbeamExtract SemíliaGenética Melhoramento Riber DeltaPesquisa Devgen Sunfield Maribo Pybas Synergene Monsanto's global hybrid sunflower seeds MayAgro's vegetable breeding Metabolon PasteuriaBioscience CircleOne Global Doebler's Pennsylvania Hybrids Terral Nandi's cotton business Pannar SeedConsultants NuTech Nagarjuna's cotton germplasm AgVenture Hoegemeyer Hybrids Verdia Warner AgSource AnhuiHengji Link Eurodur Genetica Agricola BiscoBioSciences Brasmilho's corn & sorghum seed Anadolu Century Maïcentre Domagri ClovisMatton Atash LSL K&BDevpt's onion business SuTarim Mikado CampbellSoupCo's vegetable seed wheat joint venture DonMario Cal/West PrairieBrandSeeds Northwest PlantBreeding HRZWheats GrandValleyHybrids Hyland PfisterHybrids Floragenex Melhoramento Agropastoril's soy germplasm Wehrtec ProSoyGenetics' germplasm Abbot&Cobb's melon seed business SoyTech Hornbeck RapsGBR's canola business EUROSORT SORT Prophyta Agrauxine AgraQuest AgroGreen's BioNem Athenix Pannon InterGrain Seminium WestBred Semillas Cristiani Burkard Divergence Beeologics Precision Planting RaNA Therapeutics Grassroots Biotechnology Rosetta Green Synthetic Genomics Inc. EmergentGenetics Monsanto Syngenta DuPont Land O'Lakes KWS Limagrain -Vilmorin Bayer Dow BASF ChannelBio Chem- China $43B $63B $130B
  28. 28. ASI HeritageSeeds NCPlusHybrids SpecialtyHybrids Fontanelle StewartSeeds StoneSeeds HubnerSeed LewisHybrids REA Jung BoCa Sieben CampbellSeed FieldersChoice HeartlandHybrids Hawkeye NebraskaIrrigated SPS GoldenHarvest Goldsmith ResourceSeeds ZeraimGedera Sanbei Fischer AdvantaNACornSoybeans Garst InterstatePayco AgriPro PSAGenetics Gutwein DiaEngei Novartis CibaGeigy Sandoz AstraZeneca AstraZeneca Mogen ExSeed Genetics Thurston Maisadour KoipesolAgrosemAgra EridaniaBeghinSay/ Koipe SturdyGrow Agritrading NorthrupKing GreenLeafGenetics ConradFafard LongReach AWB Zimmerman Sun CropDesign Devgen Sunfield Maribo Pybas Synergene Monsanto's global hybrid sunflower seeds MayAgro's vegetable breeding Metabolon PasteuriaBioscience CircleOne Global P Se Warner AgSourc Syngenta BASF ChemChina
  29. 29. DeKalb (1995) HybriTech (1995) Sementes Agroceres CustomFarmSeed DeKalbAyalaAyala AgriProWheat HybriTechEurope PauEuralis Seminis Cargill's intl. seed division FirstLine JacobHartz (1995) Asgrow Holdens Renessen Cargill Calgene CargillNorthAmerica Agracetus PBIC Unilever Monsoy FTSementes DeltaPineLand Syngenta's global cotton division Paras MahendraDaehnfeldt ASI Crows MidwestSeed Genetics WilsonSeeds GoldCountry HeritageSeeds NCPlusHybrids Specialty Hybrids Fontanelle StewartSeeds TrelaySeeds StoneSeeds CornBelt Advanta Canola Hubner Seed LewisHybrids REA MoweaquaSeeds iCORN Jung BoCa InterstateCanola Sensako Agroeste CDMMandiyu Ciagro Carnia Diener Sieben Kruger Trisler CampbellSeed FieldersChoice Heartland Hybrids Hawkeye NebraskaIrrigated Limagrain Canada Poloni ISG Western Peotec Mahyco Terrazawa DeRuiter AlyParticipacoes (CanaVialis; Alellyx) Marmot Cotton States Stoneville (to BASF 2018) CornStatesHybrid CornStatesIntl Ecogen CNDK ChinaSeed EIDParryRallis Gustafson Nunhems (to BASF 2018) Paragon SeedEx Aventis AgrEvo Schering Proagro SementesRibeiral Sementes Fartura MitlaPesquisa Granja4Irmaos AgrEvoCotton PGS PlanTecBiotech GeneXSorghum CottonSeedIntl Sunseeds Hoechst Nunza (1986) RhonePoulenc LeenDeMosRioColorado California PlantingCotton Reliance Genetics AssocFarmers Delinting Pioneer CurrySeed ShandongDenghaiPioneer Denghai Dunhuang DunhuangPioneer DoisMarcos Hybrinova Solae (ProteinTech. Int.) OptimumQualityGrains SPS GoldenHarvest Goldsmith ResourceSeeds ZeraimGedera Sanbei Fischer AdvantaNA CornSoybeans Garst InterstatePayco AgriPro PSAGenetics Gutwein DiaEngei Novartis CibaGeigy Sandoz AstraZeneca Astra Zeneca Mogen ExSeed Genetics Thurston Maisadour KoipesolAgrosemAgra EridaniaBeghinSay/ Koipe SturdyGrow Agritrading NorthrupKing AdvantaEUVegetable Westhove HarrisMoran Clause Biogemma RhoBio AgReliant Wensman ProducersHybrids LochowPetkus (1967) CPBTwyford Hazera Carl Sperling Kyowa Innoseeds BioSeeds VandenBerg GermainsCotton HollandCottonseed BrownfieldSeed Delinting HelenaCotton Indusem Agroceres Barham Petoseed (1995) RoyalSluis (1995) ChoongAng Horticeres Bruinsma (1994) Genecorp (1994) Hungnong GreenLeaf Genetics Danisco Avesthagen ConradFafard LongReach AWB Swaghat CeeKay AustralianGrainTech DairylandSeed Mycogen BioPlantResearch RenzeHybrids Agromen MTI Sudwestsaat Brodbeck DuoMaize Triumph EmpresaBrasileira Hytest ABIAlfalfa SpecialtyGrains CooperativeBusinessIntl Agriliance CenexHarvest FarmlandIndustries Cenex HarvestStates SOYGENETICS FFRCoop NickersonVerneuil Morgan UnitedAgriseeds HibridosColorado BiogeneticaDeMilho DinamilhoCarol Phytogen JGBoswell IllinoisFoundation (divested 2017) AdvancedAgriTraits Seed Industry Structure 1996 - 2018 Phil Howard, Associate Professor, Michigan State University https://philhoward.net Chemical Companies Zimmerman Seed Companies Other Companies Partial Ownership Full Ownership Sunseeds CropDesign (1995) Roussel- Uclaf Dahlco joint research & development Becker Underwood Kenfeng- KWS Kenfeng Genective GreatLakes CerealGrains SunbeamExtract SemíliaGenética Melhoramento Riber DeltaPesquisa Devgen Sunfield Maribo (to DLF 2017) Pybas Synergene Monsanto's global hybrid sunflower seeds MayAgro's vegetable breeding Metabolon PasteuriaBioscienceCircleOne Global Doebler's Pennsylvania Hybrids Terral Nandi's cotton business Pannar SeedConsultants NuTech Nagarjuna's cotton germplasm AgVenture Hoegemeyer Hybrids Verdia Warner AgSource AnhuiHengji Link Eurodur Genetica Agricola BiscoBioSciences Brasmilho's corn & sorghum seed Anadolu Century Maïcentre Domagri ClovisMatton Atash LSL K&BDevpt's onion business SuTarim Mikado CampbellSoupCo's vegetable seed wheat joint venture DonMario Cal/West PrairieBrandSeeds Northwest PlantBreeding HRZWheats GrandValleyHybrids Hyland PfisterHybrids Floragenex Melhoramento Agropastoril's soy germplasm Wehrtec ProSoyGenetics' germplasm Abbot&Cobb's melon seed business SoyTech Hornbeck RapsGBR's canola business EUROSORT SORT Prophyta Agrauxine AgraQuest AgroGreen's BioNem Athenix Pannon InterGrain Seminium WestBred Semillas Cristiani Burkard Divergence Beeologics Precision Planting RaNA Therapeutics Grassroots Biotechnology Rosetta Green Synthetic Genomics Inc. EmergentGenetics Monsanto Syngenta DuPont Land O'Lakes KWS Limagrain/ Vilmorin- Mikado Bayer Dow BASF ChannelBio Corteva Chem- China Stoneville & Nunhems (from Bayer) Golden Acres Genetics Floranova Abbott & Cobb NIdera Armor Long- ping DLF Rijk Zwaan Sakata Size proportional to global seed market share Verwer Dahlia MRI SW winter wheat/ rape division ERDI SocietaProduttori Sementi Coodetec AdvantageWheats Momont MayFord VanEgmond LisianthusAlfChristianson SamuelYates FloraFeliz LDaehnfeldt flower division ChungWon GenetwisterHunanGolden Rice Hebei UniAgri Dow’s maize division (Brazil) SanruiAgritec Beijing Lantron HubeiHumin Guangxi Hengmao TianjinDerit Lianchuang maize/wheat joint venture Cebeco forage & turf grass joint venture Zaad Advanta’s forage & turf seed PGW Moore Lacrosse PIckseed Jensen Danespo GappSemillas X-Seed Maribo Jenks Estero Syngenta’s sugar beet division Eureka Geneze Sursem MesaMaize Trio Research UnicornGrain Specialties Graines Gondian SeedAsia Tropdicorp Canterra Genefresh Arcadia Biosciences BorealPlant Breeding KSP Geneseed DNAMelhoramento Vegetal Gansu Hengji SeedCo Shamrock Genica Research AdvanSeed Keygene Seedtech grass/forage joint venture Ceres UnitedSuppliers Winfield United SeedWorks CCGL Granar FNSemillas Dieckmann’s oilseed divisions HengjiLimagrain Florimond Desprez Xianlong Biotech InnovativeSeed Solutions Remington
  30. 30. Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds Petaluma, California
  31. 31. M&M Mars #11 Seeds of Change 1997 Foods #38 Sturm Foods December 2009 $660 M $25 M New Morning December 2012 Erewhon PowerBar Pria February 2014 (from Nestle) ulder ands Balance) Protenergy Natural Foods January 2015 $1.15 B MOM/Malt-O- Meal/Better Oats April 2014 $150 M illamette Egg September 2015 Udi’s June 2012 $125 M Evol December 2013 $48 M
  32. 32. “[General Mills marketing manager Alan Cunningham] explained that the company simply wanted to capitalize on the ancient-grains trend while also making the cereal taste good—hence the [added] sugar.” - Vauhini Vara, The New Yorker, 2014
  33. 33. Percentage of global breeding stock nearly 100% 94%
  34. 34. joint venture research & development
  35. 35. Power ResistanceCo-optation Alternatives
  36. 36. •Horizontal proliferation •Autonomy •Decentralization •Cooperation/Solidarity/Participation •Transparency •Diversity at multiple scales Scaling Up
  37. 37. ?
  38. 38. philhoward.net

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