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Information security for dummies


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Presentation 2011

Published in: Education, Technology
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Information security for dummies

  1. 1. Ivo Depoorter
  2. 2. Whois I Functions  Sysadmin, DBA, CIO, ADP instructor, SSO, Security consultant Career (20 y)  NATO – Local government – Youth care Training  Lots of Microsoft, Linux, networking, programming…  Security: Site Security Officer, CISSP, BCM, Ethical Hacking, network scanning,…
  3. 3. Course outline Information security? Security Why? Security approach Vocabulary The weakest link Real life security sample
  4. 4. Information security?According to Wikipedia, ISO2700x, CISSP,SANS,…. Confidentiality: Classified information must, be protected from unauthorized disclosure. Integrity: Information must be protected against unauthorized changes and modification. Availability: the information processed, and the services provided must be protected from deliberate or accidental loss, destruction, or interruption of services.
  5. 5. Information security?Security attributes according to the Belgianprivacycommission Confidentiality Integrity Availability + Accountability Non-repudiation Authenticity Reliability
  6. 6. CIA ExerciseDefacing of Belgian Army website
  7. 7. CIA Exercise Confidentiality  ??  Webserver only hosting public information?  Webserver separated from LAN? Integrity  Unauthorized changes! Availability  Information is no longer available
  8. 8. Security Why? Compliance with law Protect (valuable) assets Prevent production breakdowns Protect reputation, (non-)commercial image Meet customer & shareholder requirements Keep personnel happy
  9. 9. Security approach Both technical and non-technical countermeasures. Top-management approval and support! Communicate! Information security needs a layered approach!!! Best practices  COBIT Control Objectives for Information and related Technology  ISO 27002 (ISO 17799) Code of practice for information security management  …..
  10. 10. ISO 27002 Section 0 Introduction Section 1 Scope Section 2 Terms and Definitions Section 3 Structure of the Standard Section 4 Risk Assessment and Treatment Section 5 Security Policy Section 6 Organizing Information Security Section 7 Asset Management Section 8 Human Resources Security Section 9 Physical and Environmental Security Section 10 Communications and Operations Management Section 11 Access Control Section 12 Information Systems Acquisition, Development and Maintenance Section 13 Information Security Incident Management Section 14 Business Continuity Management Section 15 Compliance
  11. 11. ISO 27002 - ExampleSecurity audit local government > 500 employeesTechnique: Social Engineering 10 Procedures 9 Physical access 11 Logical access 15 Internal audit
  12. 12. Security vocabulary - Threat A potential cause of an unwanted incident, which may result in harm to individuals, assets, a system or organization, the environment, or the community. (BCI) Samples:  Fire  Death of a key person (SPOK or Single Point of Knowledge)  Crash of a critical network component e.g. core switch (SPOF: single point of failure)  …
  13. 13. Security vocabulary - Damage Harm or injury to property or a person, resulting in loss of value or the impairment of usefulness Damage in information security:  Operational  Financial  Legal  Reputational Damage defaced Belgian Army website?  Operational: probably (temporary frontpage, patch management,….)  Financial: probably (training personnel, hiring consultancy,….)  Legal: probably (lawsuit against external responsible?)  Reputational: certainly!
  14. 14. Security vocabulary - Risk Combination of the probability of an event and its consequence. Risk components  Threat (probability)  Damage (amount) Example: Damage Process Threat O F L R Max impact Probability Risk Food freezing Electricity Failure > 24 h 4 3 2 2 4 2 8
  15. 15. The Zen of Risk What is just the right amount of security? Seeking Balance between Security (Yin) and Business (Yang) Potential Loss Cost Countermeasures Productivity
  16. 16. Security vocabulary - AAA  Authentication: technologies used to determine the authenticity of users, network nodes, and documents  Authorization: who is allowed to do what?  Accountability: is it possible to find out who has made any operations?• Strong authentication (two-factor or multifactor)• Something you know (password, PIN,…)• Something you have (token,…)• Something you are (fingerprint, …)
  17. 17. The weakest link Countermeasures: • Force password policy on server • Train personnel • Use strong authentication • …SEC_RITY is not complete without U!
  18. 18. The weakest link Countermeasures: • Implement security & access policies • Job rotation • Encryption • Employee awareness training • Audit trail of all accesses to documents • ….Amateurs hack systems, professionals hack people!
  19. 19. Hacking stepsStep Countermeasures (short list)1. Reconnaissance Be careful with information2. Network mapping Network IDS – block ICMP3. Exploiting System hardening4. Keeping access IDS – Antivirus – rootkit scanners5. Covering Tracks Reconnaissance (information gathering): Searching interesting information on discussion groups/forum, social networks, customer reference lists, Google hacks…
  20. 20. Real life security sample High security (war)zone Illiterate (local) cleaning personnel (Use opportunities!!!) LAN WWWPhysical security:• Personnel clearance >2m• Physical control• Pc placement (shoulder surfing)• Clean desk policy• Shredder Tempest!!!• Lock screen policy Logical security• Fiber to pc • VLAN’s • Password policy • …
  21. 21. We learned…. Security is CIA(+) Why: law, reputation, production continuity,… Approach: layered, technical & non-technical, support from CEO, lots of communication Vocabulary: threat, damage, risk, (strong)authentication, authorization, accountability Risk = threat * damage Security balance: loss vs. cost & countermeasures vs. productivity The weakest link is personnel! A hacker starts with information gathering