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e-Research and the Demise
of the Scholarly Article
David De Roure
A revolutionary idea…
Open Science!
This is a Fourth Quadrant Talk
More machines

e-infrastructure

Big Data
Big Compute

The Fourth
The Future!

Conventional...
Christine Borgman
First
Research Councils UK
Notifications and automatic re-runs
Autonomic
Curation

Self-repair
New research?

Machines are users too
Image
Classification

Talk
Forum

Citizen Scientists
data reduction

Scientists
Edwards, P. N., et al. (2013) Knowledge Infrastructures: Intellectual Frameworks and
Research Challenges. Ann Arbor: Deep ...
http://www.scilogs.com/eresearch/pages-of-history/

David De Roure
http://www.scilogs.com/eresearch/pages-of-history/
David De Roure
1.

It was no longer possible to include the
evidence in the paper – container failure!

“A PDF exploded
today when a
scie...
2.

It was no longer possible to reconstruct a
scientific experiment based on a paper alone
3.

Writing for increasingly specialist audiences
restricted essential multidisciplinary re-use
Grand Challenge Areas:
• E...
4.

Research records needed to be readable by
computer to support automation and curation

A computationally-enabled
sense...
5.

Single authorship gave way to casts of
thousands
6.

Quality control models scaled poorly with
the increasing volume

Filter, Publish, Filter, Publish, …
Like big data, pu...
7.

Alternative reporting necessary for
compliance with regulations

One piece of research
may have multiple
reports and m...
8.

Research funders frustrated by inefficiencies
in scholarly communication

An investment is only worthwhile if
• Output...
Big data elephant versus sense-making network?

The challenge is to foster the co-constituted socio-technical
system on th...
method
script
protocol
program
workflow
model

data

…
Neil Chue Hong
http://www.myexperiment.org/
Evolving the myExperiment Social Machine
OAI
ORE

Workflows

Packs

Research Objects

W3C PROV

Computational
Research Obj...
The R dimensions
Reusable. The key tenet of Research Replayable. Studies might involve
Objects is to support the sharing a...
Jun Zhao

www.researchobject.org
The Order of Social Machines
Real life is and must be full of all kinds of social
constraint – the very processes from whi...
Some Social Machines
Scholarly
Machines
Ecosystem
Discussion points
1. Citation in tomorrow’s sense-making
network of humans and machines:
– What are the artefacts / social...
Thanks to Christine Borgman, Iain Buchan, Neil Chue
Hong, Jun Zhao, Carole
Goble, FORCE11, myExperiment, Software Sustaina...
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e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 1 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 2 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 3 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 4 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 5 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 6 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 7 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 8 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 9 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 10 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 11 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 12 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 13 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 14 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 15 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 16 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 17 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 18 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 19 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 20 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 21 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 22 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 23 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 24 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 25 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 26 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 27 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 28 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 29 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 30 e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article Slide 31
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Innovations 2013 - e-Science, we-Science and the latest evolutions in e-publishing. STM International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers. 4th December 2013, Congress Centre, Great Russell Street, London, UK.

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e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article

  1. 1. e-Research and the Demise of the Scholarly Article David De Roure
  2. 2. A revolutionary idea… Open Science!
  3. 3. This is a Fourth Quadrant Talk More machines e-infrastructure Big Data Big Compute The Fourth The Future! Conventional Computation Social Networking Quadrant More people David De Roure online R&D
  4. 4. Christine Borgman
  5. 5. First
  6. 6. Research Councils UK
  7. 7. Notifications and automatic re-runs Autonomic Curation Self-repair New research? Machines are users too
  8. 8. Image Classification Talk Forum Citizen Scientists data reduction Scientists
  9. 9. Edwards, P. N., et al. (2013) Knowledge Infrastructures: Intellectual Frameworks and Research Challenges. Ann Arbor: Deep Blue. http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/97552
  10. 10. http://www.scilogs.com/eresearch/pages-of-history/ David De Roure
  11. 11. http://www.scilogs.com/eresearch/pages-of-history/ David De Roure
  12. 12. 1. It was no longer possible to include the evidence in the paper – container failure! “A PDF exploded today when a scientist tried to paste in the twitter firehose…”
  13. 13. 2. It was no longer possible to reconstruct a scientific experiment based on a paper alone
  14. 14. 3. Writing for increasingly specialist audiences restricted essential multidisciplinary re-use Grand Challenge Areas: • Energy • Living with Environmental Change • Global Uncertainties • Lifelong Health and Wellbeing • Digital Economy • Nanoscience • Food Security • Connected Communities • Resilient Economy
  15. 15. 4. Research records needed to be readable by computer to support automation and curation A computationally-enabled sense-making network of expertise, data, models and narratives.
  16. 16. 5. Single authorship gave way to casts of thousands
  17. 17. 6. Quality control models scaled poorly with the increasing volume Filter, Publish, Filter, Publish, … Like big data, publishing has increasing volume, variety and velocity But what about veracity?
  18. 18. 7. Alternative reporting necessary for compliance with regulations One piece of research may have multiple reports and multiple narratives for multiple readerships, in multiple formats and languages (Computer are readers too!)
  19. 19. 8. Research funders frustrated by inefficiencies in scholarly communication An investment is only worthwhile if • Outputs are discoverable • Outputs are reusable …and preferably outputs accrue value through use Using an obsolete scholarly communication system impedes innovation and hence return on investment What are we doing about it? Trying to fix it using an obsolete scholarly communication system!
  20. 20. Big data elephant versus sense-making network? The challenge is to foster the co-constituted socio-technical system on the right i.e. a computationally-enabled sensemaking network of humans and machines sharing social objects… not just papers but data, models, software, narratives – new digital artefacts we call research objects.
  21. 21. method script protocol program workflow model data …
  22. 22. Neil Chue Hong
  23. 23. http://www.myexperiment.org/
  24. 24. Evolving the myExperiment Social Machine OAI ORE Workflows Packs Research Objects W3C PROV Computational Research Objects
  25. 25. The R dimensions Reusable. The key tenet of Research Replayable. Studies might involve Objects is to support the sharing and single investigations that happen in milliseconds or protracted processes reuse of data, methods and that take years. processes. Referenceable. If research objects Repurposeable. Reuse may also are to augment or replace traditional involve the reuse of constituent publication methods, then they must parts of the Research Object. be referenceable or citeable. Repeatable. There should be sufficient information in a Research Object to be able to repeat the study, perhaps years later. Reproducible. A third party can Revealable. Third parties must be able to audit the steps performed in the research in order to be convinced of the validity of results. Respectful. Explicit representations start with the same inputs and methods and see if a prior result can of the provenance, lineage and flow of intellectual property. be confirmed. http://www.scilogs.com/eresearch/replacing-the-paper-the-twelve-rs-of-the-e-research-record/
  26. 26. Jun Zhao www.researchobject.org
  27. 27. The Order of Social Machines Real life is and must be full of all kinds of social constraint – the very processes from which society arises. Computers can help if we use them to create abstract social machines on the Web: processes in which the people do the creative work and the machine does the administration… The stage is set for an evolutionary growth of new social engines. Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web, 1999
  28. 28. Some Social Machines
  29. 29. Scholarly Machines Ecosystem
  30. 30. Discussion points 1. Citation in tomorrow’s sense-making network of humans and machines: – What are the artefacts / social objects? – How and why are they cited? 2. Think about an ecosystem of interacting Scholarly Social Machines 3. Science as a Social Machine?
  31. 31. Thanks to Christine Borgman, Iain Buchan, Neil Chue Hong, Jun Zhao, Carole Goble, FORCE11, myExperiment, Software Sustainability Institute, wf4ever and SOCIAM david.deroure@oerc.ox.ac.uk www.oerc.ox.ac.uk/people/dder http://www.scilogs.com/eresearch @dder www.oerc.ox.ac.uk www.force11.org www.researchobject.org www.software.ac.uk sociam.org
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Innovations 2013 - e-Science, we-Science and the latest evolutions in e-publishing. STM International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers. 4th December 2013, Congress Centre, Great Russell Street, London, UK.

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