SlideShare a Scribd company logo
and the
Rise of Social Machines

         David De Roure
Workflow of Talk

  The experiment that is
     myExperiment


    Influences in the
   Research Ecosystem


The Rise of Social Machines
Trident                  Triana
Kepler

                        Pegasus
                                       BPEL

Meandre                            Taverna


                   Galaxy
“A biologist would rather
share their toothbrush than
     their gene name”



 “Data mining: my
  data’s mine and
 your data’s mine”
too passé!


Not Facebook for scientists!
     mySpace


         too open!
Researchers


  Social
Scientists
               Social                     Open
             Networkers                Repositories
                          Developers
 “Facebook for Scientists”        A provocation in scholarly
  ...but different to Facebook!     communication
 A repository of research         Open source (BSD) Ruby on
  methods                           Rails app
 A community social network       REST and SPARQL interfaces,
  of people and things              supports Linked Data
 A probe into researcher          Influenced BioCatalogue,
  behaviour                         MethodBox and SysMO-SEEK
 myExperiment has 300 groups, 2600 workflows and 260 packs
http://www.myexperiment.org/
Paul’s
Paul’s Pack                                     Workflow 16                                  QTL

 Research                    Results
  Object                                                   produces


                  Included
                  in

                                                                                     Published in
                                                       Included in
                              Feeds into


Logs   produces                        Included in                    Included in



Metadata                                             Slides                           Paper
                                            produces                  Published in



                  Common pathways

                   Workflow 13                                   Results
Linked Data support      rdf.myexperiment.org

1. Use URIs as names for things
2. Use HTTP URIs so that people
   can look up those names
3. When someone looks up
   a URI, provide useful
   information, using the
   standards (RDF*, SPARQL)
4. Include links to other URIs
   so that they can discover
   more things
Sean Bechhofer




                                  SELECT?wf ?uri
SELECT?pack ?contrib              WHERE {
WHERE {                            ?wf mebase:has-current-version ?v.
 ?pack rdf:type mepack:Pack.       ?v mecomp:executes-dataflow ?d.
 ?pack ore:aggregates ?contrib.    ?d mecomp:has-component ?c.
}                                  ?c rdf:type mecomp:WSDLProcessor.
                                   ?c mecomp:processor-uri ?uri.
                                  }
Research Objects
                             Reproducibility, Integrated Publishing

• Workflow                    Distributed   Third Party   Alien
  – Provenance                               Tenancy      Store

  – Conservation & Preservation
  – Executable Publication
• Human
  – Credit Tracking
  – Unit of Scholarship
  – Crowd management
• Semantics
  – Acquisition & Publishing                                Carole Goble
  – Encoding, Encapsulation
    & Annotation: OAI-ORE, AO…      Technical Objects Social Objects
Product Family                  www.mygrid.org.uk

 The BioCatalogue
  Life Science Web Service Registry
 www.biocatalogue.org
 MethodBox
  Browse datasets, shop for
  variables and share knowledge
 www.methodbox.org
 SysMO-Seek
  Find, share and exchange
  Data, Models and Processes
 www.sysmo-db.org
methods




 data
http://force11.org/
The R dimensions
Reusable. The key tenet of Research Replayable. Studies might involve
Objects is to support the sharing and single investigations that happen in
reuse of data, methods and            milliseconds or protracted processes
processes.                            that take years.
Repurposeable. Reuse may also         Referenceable. If research objects
involve the reuse of constituent      are to augment or replace traditional
parts of the Research Object.         publication methods, then they must
Repeatable. There should be           be referenceable or citeable.
sufficient information in a Research               Revealable. Third parties must be
Object to be able to repeat the                    able to audit the steps performed in
study, perhaps years later.                        the research in order to be convinced
Reproducible. A third party can                    of the validity of results.
start with the same inputs and        Respectful. Explicit representations
methods and see if a prior result can of the provenance, lineage and flow
be confirmed.                         of intellectual property.
  Replacing the Paper: The Twelve Rs of the e-Research Record” on http://blogs.nature.com/eresearch/
Research
 repeat     Record          repeat

Machine      paper          Machine

                          REPRODUCE




             paper
software                    software
Machine                     Machine
            Software
                          REPRODUCE OR REPEAT?



             paper
workflow                     workflow
               wf            software
software
Machine     Software         Machine

                       blogs.nature.com/eresearch/
The Executable Thesis


                        new data



                        executable
                          thesis
  PhD Student


                        new results
Notifications and automatic re-runs
          Autonomic        Self-repair
           Curation
                      New research?




Machines are users too
A Big Picture

                  cyberinfrastructure
  More machines



                  Big Data               The Future!
                  Big Compute

                  Conventional           Social
                                                       online
                  Computation            Networking    science




                                  More people
                                                  Dave Robertson
The Order of Social Machines

 Real life is and must be full of all kinds of
 social constraint – the very processes
 from which society arises. Computers
 can help if we use them to create
 abstract social machines on the Web:
 processes in which the people do the
 creative work and the machine does the
 administration… The stage is set for an
 evolutionary growth of new social
 engines.         Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web, 1999
An Example Social Machine
• The Kenyan election on the
  27th December 2007
• wave of riots, killings and
  turmoil
• African blogger Erik Hersman
  read a post by another blogger
  Ory Okolloh
• Resulted in Ushahidi…
• “Nobody Knows Everything,
  but Everyone Knows
  Something.”
• Local observers to submit
  reports using the Web or SMS
  messages from mobile phones
                                   Nigel Shadbolt
Ushahidi Variants
Washington Snowmageddon                    Port au Prince Haiti
                      Japan Fukashima




                                        Middle East Gaza
Some other machines?
Dimensions
• Number of people              • Empowering of individuals,
• Number of machines              groups, crowds
• Scale of data                 • Time criticality
• Varieties of data             • Extent of wide area
• Type of machine                 communication
  problem solving               • Need for urgent
• Type of human                   mobilization
  problem solving               • Specification of goal state

  SOCIAM – The Theory and Practice of Social Machines – commences
  October 2012, led by Nigel Shadbolt at University of Southampton.
Building a Social Machine
Virtual World
(Network of
 social interactions)



                        Model of social interaction




Design and                                Participation and
Composition                               Data supply

                    Physical World
                   (people and devices)
                                                       Dave Robertson
hubzero

• A platform for creating social machines
• A community of builders and users
• Machine assisted human problem solving
• Future quadrant and moving up
The users of a website, the website, and
the interactions between them, together
form our fundamental notion of a “machine”
Discussion

• myExperiment
  – Workflows as social objects
• Research Objects are emerging
  – Reproduce, Reconstruct
  – Curate, Preserve
• HUBzero is a Social Machine platform
  – Noshir Contractor has commenced analysis!
Links
• myExperiment project wiki
  http://wiki.myexperiment.org/
• Workflow Forever project (Wf4Ever)
  http://www.wf4ever-project.org/
• Future of Research Communication (FORCE11)
  http://force11.org/
• Web Science
  http://webscience.org/
• hubzero
  http://hubzero.org/
•   D. De Roure, C. Goble and R. Stevens. The Design and Realisation of the myExperiment
    Virtual Research Environment for Social Sharing of Workflows Future Generation
    Computer Systems 25, pp. 561-567.
•   S. Bechhofer, I. Buchan, D De Roure et al. Why linked data is not enough for scientists,
    Future Generation Computer Systems
•   D. De Roure, David and C. Goble, Anchors in Shifting Sand: the Primacy of Method in
    the Web of Data. WebSci10, April 26-27th, 2010, Raleigh, NC, US.
•   D. De Roure, S. Bechhofer, C. Goble and D. Newman, Scientific Social Objects, 1st
    International Workshop on Social Object Networks (SocialObjects 2011).
•   D. De Roure, K. Belhajjame, P. Missier, P. et al Towards the preservation of scientific
    workflows. 8th International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects (iPRES 2011).
•   Carole A. Goble, David De Roure and Sean Bechhofer Accelerating scientists’ knowledge
    turns. Will be available at www.springerlink.com
•   Khalid Belhajjame, Oscar Corcho, Daniel Garijo et al Workflow-Centric Research Objects:
    First Class Citizens in Scholarly Discourse, SePublica2012 at ESWC2012, Greece, May
    2012
•   Kevin R. Page, Ben Fields, David De Roure et al Reuse, Remix, Repeat: The Workflows of
    MIR, 13th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2012)
    Porto, Portugal, October 8th-12th, 2012
•   Jun Zhao, Jose Manuel Gomez-Perezy, Khalid Belhajjame et al, Why Workflows Break -
    Understanding and Combating Decay in Taverna Workflows, eScience 2012, Chicago,
    October 2012
david.deroure@oerc.ox.ac.uk
www.oerc.ox.ac.uk/people/dder
www.scilogs.com/eresearch
@dder


www.myexperiment.org/packs/335
www.slideshare.net/davidderoure/myexperiment-and-the-rise-of-social-machines

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myExperiment and the Rise of Social Machines

  • 1. and the Rise of Social Machines David De Roure
  • 2. Workflow of Talk The experiment that is myExperiment Influences in the Research Ecosystem The Rise of Social Machines
  • 3.
  • 4. Trident Triana Kepler Pegasus BPEL Meandre Taverna Galaxy
  • 5. “A biologist would rather share their toothbrush than their gene name” “Data mining: my data’s mine and your data’s mine”
  • 6.
  • 7. too passé! Not Facebook for scientists! mySpace too open!
  • 8. Researchers Social Scientists Social Open Networkers Repositories Developers
  • 9.  “Facebook for Scientists”  A provocation in scholarly ...but different to Facebook! communication  A repository of research  Open source (BSD) Ruby on methods Rails app  A community social network  REST and SPARQL interfaces, of people and things supports Linked Data  A probe into researcher  Influenced BioCatalogue, behaviour MethodBox and SysMO-SEEK myExperiment has 300 groups, 2600 workflows and 260 packs
  • 11. Paul’s Paul’s Pack Workflow 16 QTL Research Results Object produces Included in Published in Included in Feeds into Logs produces Included in Included in Metadata Slides Paper produces Published in Common pathways Workflow 13 Results
  • 12. Linked Data support rdf.myexperiment.org 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) 4. Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things
  • 13. Sean Bechhofer SELECT?wf ?uri SELECT?pack ?contrib WHERE { WHERE { ?wf mebase:has-current-version ?v. ?pack rdf:type mepack:Pack. ?v mecomp:executes-dataflow ?d. ?pack ore:aggregates ?contrib. ?d mecomp:has-component ?c. } ?c rdf:type mecomp:WSDLProcessor. ?c mecomp:processor-uri ?uri. }
  • 14. Research Objects Reproducibility, Integrated Publishing • Workflow Distributed Third Party Alien – Provenance Tenancy Store – Conservation & Preservation – Executable Publication • Human – Credit Tracking – Unit of Scholarship – Crowd management • Semantics – Acquisition & Publishing Carole Goble – Encoding, Encapsulation & Annotation: OAI-ORE, AO… Technical Objects Social Objects
  • 15. Product Family www.mygrid.org.uk  The BioCatalogue Life Science Web Service Registry www.biocatalogue.org  MethodBox Browse datasets, shop for variables and share knowledge www.methodbox.org  SysMO-Seek Find, share and exchange Data, Models and Processes www.sysmo-db.org
  • 16.
  • 19. The R dimensions Reusable. The key tenet of Research Replayable. Studies might involve Objects is to support the sharing and single investigations that happen in reuse of data, methods and milliseconds or protracted processes processes. that take years. Repurposeable. Reuse may also Referenceable. If research objects involve the reuse of constituent are to augment or replace traditional parts of the Research Object. publication methods, then they must Repeatable. There should be be referenceable or citeable. sufficient information in a Research Revealable. Third parties must be Object to be able to repeat the able to audit the steps performed in study, perhaps years later. the research in order to be convinced Reproducible. A third party can of the validity of results. start with the same inputs and Respectful. Explicit representations methods and see if a prior result can of the provenance, lineage and flow be confirmed. of intellectual property. Replacing the Paper: The Twelve Rs of the e-Research Record” on http://blogs.nature.com/eresearch/
  • 20. Research repeat Record repeat Machine paper Machine REPRODUCE paper software software Machine Machine Software REPRODUCE OR REPEAT? paper workflow workflow wf software software Machine Software Machine blogs.nature.com/eresearch/
  • 21. The Executable Thesis new data executable thesis PhD Student new results
  • 22. Notifications and automatic re-runs Autonomic Self-repair Curation New research? Machines are users too
  • 23. A Big Picture cyberinfrastructure More machines Big Data The Future! Big Compute Conventional Social online Computation Networking science More people Dave Robertson
  • 24. The Order of Social Machines Real life is and must be full of all kinds of social constraint – the very processes from which society arises. Computers can help if we use them to create abstract social machines on the Web: processes in which the people do the creative work and the machine does the administration… The stage is set for an evolutionary growth of new social engines. Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web, 1999
  • 25. An Example Social Machine • The Kenyan election on the 27th December 2007 • wave of riots, killings and turmoil • African blogger Erik Hersman read a post by another blogger Ory Okolloh • Resulted in Ushahidi… • “Nobody Knows Everything, but Everyone Knows Something.” • Local observers to submit reports using the Web or SMS messages from mobile phones Nigel Shadbolt
  • 26. Ushahidi Variants Washington Snowmageddon Port au Prince Haiti Japan Fukashima Middle East Gaza
  • 27.
  • 29. Dimensions • Number of people • Empowering of individuals, • Number of machines groups, crowds • Scale of data • Time criticality • Varieties of data • Extent of wide area • Type of machine communication problem solving • Need for urgent • Type of human mobilization problem solving • Specification of goal state SOCIAM – The Theory and Practice of Social Machines – commences October 2012, led by Nigel Shadbolt at University of Southampton.
  • 30. Building a Social Machine Virtual World (Network of social interactions) Model of social interaction Design and Participation and Composition Data supply Physical World (people and devices) Dave Robertson
  • 31. hubzero • A platform for creating social machines • A community of builders and users • Machine assisted human problem solving • Future quadrant and moving up
  • 32.
  • 33. The users of a website, the website, and the interactions between them, together form our fundamental notion of a “machine”
  • 34. Discussion • myExperiment – Workflows as social objects • Research Objects are emerging – Reproduce, Reconstruct – Curate, Preserve • HUBzero is a Social Machine platform – Noshir Contractor has commenced analysis!
  • 35.
  • 36. Links • myExperiment project wiki http://wiki.myexperiment.org/ • Workflow Forever project (Wf4Ever) http://www.wf4ever-project.org/ • Future of Research Communication (FORCE11) http://force11.org/ • Web Science http://webscience.org/ • hubzero http://hubzero.org/
  • 37. D. De Roure, C. Goble and R. Stevens. The Design and Realisation of the myExperiment Virtual Research Environment for Social Sharing of Workflows Future Generation Computer Systems 25, pp. 561-567. • S. Bechhofer, I. Buchan, D De Roure et al. Why linked data is not enough for scientists, Future Generation Computer Systems • D. De Roure, David and C. Goble, Anchors in Shifting Sand: the Primacy of Method in the Web of Data. WebSci10, April 26-27th, 2010, Raleigh, NC, US. • D. De Roure, S. Bechhofer, C. Goble and D. Newman, Scientific Social Objects, 1st International Workshop on Social Object Networks (SocialObjects 2011). • D. De Roure, K. Belhajjame, P. Missier, P. et al Towards the preservation of scientific workflows. 8th International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects (iPRES 2011). • Carole A. Goble, David De Roure and Sean Bechhofer Accelerating scientists’ knowledge turns. Will be available at www.springerlink.com • Khalid Belhajjame, Oscar Corcho, Daniel Garijo et al Workflow-Centric Research Objects: First Class Citizens in Scholarly Discourse, SePublica2012 at ESWC2012, Greece, May 2012 • Kevin R. Page, Ben Fields, David De Roure et al Reuse, Remix, Repeat: The Workflows of MIR, 13th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2012) Porto, Portugal, October 8th-12th, 2012 • Jun Zhao, Jose Manuel Gomez-Perezy, Khalid Belhajjame et al, Why Workflows Break - Understanding and Combating Decay in Taverna Workflows, eScience 2012, Chicago, October 2012