23 25 jan 2013 csisa kathmandu agro-advisory services surabhi
Agro-Advisory Services In India Surabhi Mittal Agricultural Economist CSISA Phase II- Obj 1 Work Plan meeting Jan 23-15, 2013 Kathmandu
Farmers and information networksSource: CIMMYTsurvey, 2011 Traditional mode Modern ICT Other farmers Face to Face • Television, Radio • Landline phone, • Farmers in the • KVKs, AG , Newspaper Mobile phones, same village or Univ, NGOs, Internet / neighbourhood Co-op, markets, Internet Kiosks Private i/p dealers etc.
Increasing penetration of mobile networks and subscribers • present an opportunity to deliver useful information widely, on time and to targeted groups 80 70 60 perr 100 inhabitants 50 40 30 20 10 0 Mobile Tele-density Fixed-Line Tele-density Internet teledensitySource: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database, October 2012
Major Agro-Advisory Models Tele centre based Kissan Call Centers, 2004 Internet based BSNL Help line Village Knowledge Centres, 1998 Mobile- Voice message based ITC e-chaupal, 1999 IFFCO Kisan Sanchar Limited E-sagu, 2004 (IKSL), 2007 Mobile -SMS based Reuters Market Light (RML) 2007Mobile based application Warna Unwired- Microsoft, 2007Fisher Friend- MSSRF, 2008 E agriculture- KVK’s- NAIP, 2009 Nokia- Life tools, 2009 Kisan Sanchar, 2010 Tata- M Krishi, 2009 Kisan Sanchar, 2012 Video based Digital Green, 2009 5
What Information farmer gets? • TemperatureInformation Farmer • Market Prices Receives • How to grow? Source: Mittal S, Gandhi S, Tripathi G (2010); Mittal (2012) • Plant protectionInformation Farmer • Seed information wants • Weather- probability of rainfall • cultivation best practices and crop choice
Fist Level-Perceived benefits of farmers getting information using Mobile phones Percent of farmers using mobile phone Get better for agricultural connected to Getting States information markets better prices Increasing Yield Bihar 51 99.2 65.9 21.1 Haryana 65 99.4 79.5 42.9 Punjab 26 77.8 82.5 49.2 Uttar Pradesh 45 69.7 69.7 29.4 West Bengal 17 65.9 48.8 34.1 Total 41 87.2 71.7 34.6Note: This percent of farmers is from the 41% of farmers, who are using mobile phoneto access agricultural information, Farmers have multiple responses
What hinders appropriate utilization of information? Percent of Constraint in accessing information farmers Poor extension facility 46.87 Inappropriate availability of quality inputs (seed, pesticides and fertilisers) 18.84 Poor access to electricity and irrigation facility 10.18 Shortage of labour 5.58 Poor or no access to soil and water testing facility 5.55Note: Farmers have multiple responses. Only selected constraints are reported.Source: CIMMYT Survey 2011
A multivariate probit model - Estimated effects of farmer’s attributes on adoption of different sources of agriculture information Independent Variable Face to Face Other Farmers Traditional Modern Age -0.014* -0.001 -0.010 * 0.004 (0.003) (0.003) (0.002) (0.002) Educational Level -2.36* -0.139* 0.005 0.256* (0.035) (0.043) (0.032) (0.032) Farm size 0.057* 0.044* 0.081* 0.039* (0.011) (0.013) (0.010) (0.007) Access to Radio/television -0.246** -0.051 # 0.302** (0.129) (0.147) - (0.127) Access to Mobile Phone -0.596 0.067 0.312 # (0.528) (0.490) (0.357) - Constant 2.482* 1.528** 0.198 -1.560* (0.563) (0.539) (0.385) (0.198) Log-likelihood -2304.78 Wald test χ2 (DF=18) 266.25* Likelihood ratio test of ρki 69.4636* Number of observation 1199Note: # Variable dropped in respective regression equation to avoid multi-colinearity; Figures in parenthesis are robust standard errors. *, **, and *** represent statistical significance at 1%, 5%, and 10% levels, respectively.Likelihood Ratio Test H0: ρ21 = ρ31 = ρ41 = ρ32=ρ42=ρ43=0, χ2(6 = 69.4636 , p-value = 0.0000.
Farmers use mobile phones for Does mobile support local languge? Dont agriculture? know 3%Facts on the ground No 21% Yes 41% No Yes 59% 76% Ability to read and type SMS ability to type sms ability to read sms IGP 28.6 51.3 West Bengal 23.3 35.4 Uttar Pradesh 23 47 Punjab 25.8 45.8 Haryana 25 56.7 Bihar 45.8 70.7 10
Farmers OpinionWill like to receive information through mobile phone? 0.7% 9.5% No response Preferred mode of receiving information No SMS Yes response 6.4% 11.8% No 89.8% Indifferen t between two 21.8% Voice Message 60%
The missing linkAgro-Advisory services are mostly supply driven and their islimited understanding of its usability in action• Choice of seed varieties • Inputs availability• Timing of sowing and harvesting • Type of inputs- package of it• Use of climate smart technologies • Availability of machinery/• Best farm Practices technology• Efficient resource Management • Market variability in prices• Timely decision on application of • Insurance inputs like • Credit fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides.• Organizing storageManaging Managing MarketProduction Risk Risk
IFFCO Kisan Sanchar Limited (IKSL)• IKSL is a joint venture promoted by IFFCO and Airtel in 2007.- Green Sim Card• IKSL VAS rural subscriber receives 5 voice messages at no charge. Access to helpline (at cost of the outgoing call), connected to ag graduates and experts at Universities.• Crop-specific communities of farmers with common interests and issues are also developed- supported by other partners and NGOs to facilitate the delivery of precise information• The proactive messages are predefined, based on the crop calendar, weather conditions, market rates and cropping pattern.• The reactive messages are generated based on helpline queries and feedback, which might lead to the development of content that can go out as alerts and warnings• Local partners, NGOs and private companies also partner with IKSL• The GSMA Foundation (Groupe Spéciale Mobile Association)helps in capacity- building at IKSL and in strengthening infrastructure for quality management and up-scaling of the service-delivery platform.
As of December 2010, IKSLhas more than 1.2 million activeusers of theirservices in 18 major statesof India,managed by 17 full timecontentmanagers and 59 experts-Andhra Pradesh, TamilNadu,Kerala, Karnataka, Bihar,Chhattisgarh, MadhyaPradesh,Jharkhand, Uttarakhand,Haryana,Himachal Pradesh,Punjab, Uttar Pradesh,Rajasthan, Gujarat,Maharashtra, West Bengaland Orissa.
Kissan Sanchar• Kisan Sanchar an enterprise-class communication platform to broadcast text and voice messages on agricultural to individual framers through KVKs• Received ‘Vodaphone –Mobile for Good 2011 award’ of One million rupees (approx. 18 thousand USD) for up-scaling their activities.• Registered as a NGO’ and transiting from SMS based system to mobile-based inbuilt applications- tied with mobile phone manufacturers like MAX and Spice for having an inbuilt application in the handsets- low cost smart phones.• School going children of farmers are being sensitised with these information’s through printed information bulletin on the last two pages of school notebooks.• At the village level e-panchayat- is being exposed to use of internet to gather and distribute information-6000 farmers in 419 villages of District Kurushetra of Haryana, India are now linked with government extension system under this venture.• Also 150 volunteers across 110 districts in 9 states of Northern India are trained as information networks to improve small farmers reach ability to information related to climate adaptation and mitigation.• Database of all input providers
Partners and Users of Kissan Sanchar• Kisan Sachar, Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs), Input dealers, Farmers, Extension department, Village Panchayats, National Bank for agriculture and rural development (NABARD)• Also 150 volunteers across 110 districts in 9 states of Northern India are trained as information networks to improve small farmers reach ability to information related to climate adaptation and mitigation.• Explore- Database of all input providers
Answers sought for There are anecdotal evidences on use of mobile phones to improve access to There is a need for inputs, markets, and cost methodological saving. assessment to quantify these impacts.• Do the farmers find the information useful and usable?• How are farmers using this information? If not, Why?• How does it vary across land size, states, type of mobile services, age, education level, gender etc?• How do other information sources complement the information provided through mobile phones?• How does the information affects decision making process, adoption of inputs and technologies etc?• Whats the magnitude of change/ benefit/ impact in cost, income, yield and other socio economic benefits?
Lessons from past• Mobile phones and mobile enabled information services can act as catalyst in removing existing information asymmetry• Bridge the gap between the availability and delivery of inputs and infrastructure• Magnitude of economic benefits depends on quality, timeliness and trustworthiness of the information• Need to improve the linkages between service providers and service users and also need to create a feedback loop• Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)- Not to forget how policies/ regulations can can hinder the whole component of the project