Lymphatic and immune system


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Lymphatic and immune system

  1. 1. Lymphatic and Immune System <br />
  2. 2. Hodgkin's Disease <br />Also known as Hodgkin’s Lymphoma<br />It is cancer of lymph cells found in the lymph nodes <br />People between the ages of 15 to 40 are risk for Hodgkin's disease. Individuals older than 55 are at a higher risk <br />Originates in white blood cells<br />Discovered by Thomas Hodgkins in 1832 <br />
  3. 3. Types of Hodgkin's Disease <br />Non Hodgkin's Disease<br />Far more common type of Hodgkin's Disease<br />It is characterized by swelling of the lymphatic tissues <br />There is the classical Hodgkin's disease<br /> It is cancer of lymph cells found in the lymph nodes <br />Has 4 subtypes <br />Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma <br />Mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma <br />Lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin's lymphoma <br />Lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin's lymphoma <br />
  4. 4. Risk Factors <br />Sex<br />Males are more at risk than females to contract Lymphoma <br />Family <br />If brothers or sisters have had lymphoma, you may be at risk <br />Age <br />Individuals between the ages of 15 to 40 and individuals 55 and over are at a higher risk <br />Past Epstein Barr Infection <br />People who have had mononucleosis , a virus caused by the Past-Epstein Barr Infection have a high risk <br />Compromised Immune Disease<br />Individuals with aids can contract lymphoma easier <br />Geography <br />Common in the Unite States, Canada, and Northern Europe<br />Socioeconomic Status <br />People with higher socioeconomic background seem to contract Lymphoma <br />
  5. 5. Symptoms and Complications <br />Symptoms <br />Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin <br />Persistent fatigue <br />Fever and chills <br />Night sweats <br />Unexplained weight loss — as much as 10 percent or more of your body weight <br />Coughing, trouble breathing or chest pain<br />Loss of appetite <br />Itching <br />Increased sensitivity to the effects of alcohol or pain in your lymph nodes after drinking alcohol<br />Complications <br />Cardiovascular disease<br />Second malignancy, such as leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and tumors in the lungs, breasts or gastrointestinal system<br />Vascular disease, including stroke<br />Thyroid dysfunction<br />Sterility<br />
  6. 6. Treatment <br />Patients can undergo either chemotherapy or radiation therapy <br />Patients who are diagnosed earlier are either given radiation therapy or chemotherapy <br />Patients in later stages are given only chemotherapy <br />
  7. 7. Hives <br />Itchy red welts on the surface of the skin<br />These red welts are commonly referred to as wheals<br />Usually caused by an allergic reaction to food or medication <br />Also referred to as Urticaria <br />Not these Guys <br />
  8. 8. Different types of Hives <br />Chronic urticaria and angioedema<br />This type of hives last more than 6 weeks<br />The cause for this type of hives is sometimes unknown and hard to find <br />Physical urticaria<br />Hives caused by direct stimulation to the skin <br />Appear within an hour of exposure <br />Dermatographism<br />Hives that occur after firmly scratching<br />
  9. 9. Causes of Hives <br />Animal dander (especially cats)<br />Insect bites<br />Medications<br />Pollen<br />Shellfish, fish, nuts, eggs, milk, and other foods<br />
  10. 10. Causes of Hives <br />Emotional stress<br />Extreme cold or sun exposure<br />Excessive perspiration<br />Illness (including lupus, other autoimmune diseases, and leukemia<br />Infections such as mononucleosis<br />
  11. 11. Complications and Treatment<br />Complications <br />Hives can turn into Anaphylaxis<br />Anaphylaxis is a whole body allergic reaction that causes difficulty breathing <br />Swelling in the throat can lead to trouble breathing <br />Treatment <br />It is recommended that patients avoid hot baths and showers <br />Avoid tight wearing clothing around infected area <br />Antihistamines are given and Diphenhydramine is the most commonly administered <br />
  12. 12. Sarcoidosis <br />Inflammation of the lymph nodes, liver, eyes, skin, lungs, and other tissues<br />Sarcoidosis in some case has been known to reach the small bones of the feet and hands <br />
  13. 13. Causes of Sarcoidosis<br />Causes are unknown <br />Clumps usually form in certain parts of the body <br />Sarcoidosis can basically attack any organ but usually infects the lungs <br />Some causes for Sarcoidosis have been suggested <br />Genetics <br />Extreme immune response to infection <br />Sensitivity to certain environmental factors <br />
  14. 14. Symptoms <br />Lung and Chest <br />Dry cough<br />Shortness of breath<br />Uneasiness behind your breast bone<br />Abnormal breath sounds <br />Skin Symptoms <br />Skin rashes<br />Old scars become more visible <br />Visible, red, firm skin sores, almost always on the front part of the lower legs<br />Skin lesions<br />Hair loss<br />
  15. 15. Symptoms <br />Nervous system <br />Headache<br />Seizures<br />Weakness or paralysis (palsy) on one side of the face<br />Eye burning, itching, and discharge<br />Decreased tearing<br />Other Symptoms <br />Enlarged lymph glands (armpit lump)<br />Enlarged liver<br />Enlarged spleen<br />Dry mouth<br />Nosebleed<br />
  16. 16. Treatment <br />Patients are given Corticosteroids <br />prednisone or methylprednisolone<br />Immunosupressive drugs are administered in combination with Corticosteroids <br />methotrexate, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide<br />
  17. 17. Complications <br />Osteoporosis and other complications of taking corticosteroids for longer periods of time.<br />Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis<br />Pulmonary hypertension<br />Fungal lung infection<br />Glaucoma and blindness (rare)<br />Cardiac arrhythmias<br />Cranial or peripheral nerve palsies<br />High calcium levels <br />Kidney stones<br />Organ failure, leading to the need for a transplant<br />