WEF Stormwater Trends Webinar


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New Municipal Roles for Stormwater Management

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WEF Stormwater Trends Webinar

  1. 1. Christopher S. Crockett, Ph.D., P.E. Director – Planning & Research Philadelphia Water Department Philadelphia, USA
  2. 2. Overview  Evolution of Stormwater Management Roles In Philadelphia  Evaluation of Changing Approaches Nationally  Future Trends in Municipal Stormwater Roles  Conclusions & Recommendations
  3. 3. Philadelphia’s Regional Watersheds  Philly is 130 mi2(35 mi2 Parkland)  About 60% combined, 40% separate sewers  164 CSO outfalls that discharge to 5 waterbodies  Largest CSO discharges approx 1.7 BG/year  Total volume of CSO is approx 14 BG/year  434 separate stormwater outfalls discharge approx. 11 BG/year  7 watersheds (5 CSO) whose area > 400 mi2  3 WWTPs will an average combined daily flow of 500 MG/day
  4. 4. Tributaries were buried and sewers were built. Historic Creeks
  5. 5. Tributaries were buried and sewers were built. Present Day
  6. 6. 20th Century Approach Collect it and pipe it away quickly!
  7. 7. Impaired Streams in Philadelphia
  8. 8. Evolution of Stormwater In Philadelphia  1800s - Collection system encapsulated historical streams to protect public health from disease  1900s – System built to improve drainage for development of lands  1950s – System enhanced to reduce flooding  1968 – Started billing customers for stormwater based on meter size  1970s – Initial ordinances and Clean Water Act efforts  1978 – PA ACT 167 Stormwater Management Law
  9. 9. Evolution of Stormwater In Philadelphia  1990s – First Phase I MS4 permit, CSO Program, Defective Lateral Program  1996 – First City wide Stormwater Ordinance for Flood Control  2000+ - Office of Watersheds, Upgraded Regulations/Ordinances, Parcel based billing
  10. 10. City of Philadelphia – Expanding Its Role in Environmental Stewardship  Creating an ecologically sustainable city  Reconnecting the City with Its waterways  Focusing on redevelopment, not greenfield development  Preserving & Restoring the urban forest and street tree canopy  Daylight / restore streams, provide for fish passage  Restore and Stabilize stream channels, banks, & riparian corridors  Restore and create wetlands
  11. 11. Clean Water … Green City • Unite the City with its water environment • Create a green legacy for future generations • Incorporate a balance between ecology, economics and equity • New 21st Century Approach
  12. 12. The Evolving Municipal Role In Stormwater Management  Protect & Steward – water resources  Regulate – private development  Educate – public and officials  Demonstrate – new approaches and technologies  Operate – levels of service and extent of service  Evaluate & Assess – infrastructure & programs  Plan – infrastructure replacement  Administer – programs and permits of above
  13. 13. Municipal Stormwater Crossroads  Build massive infrastructure  Meet percent removal/discharge reduction requirements  Achieve water quality standards  BUT ……….  Streambanks are eroded  Habitat is missing  Aquatic life is impaired  Natural resource is not meaningfully improved
  14. 14. A New Paradigm for Urban Areas  Old urban areas can reduce their effective impervious cover and recover habitat and aquatic life through a watershed & green infrastructure approach  Implement approaches that mimic nature  A dollar spent on stormwater/CSOs should be dollar that improves the natural resource and enhance the community (economic development)  Does the current business model need to change to meet the new roles for municipalities?
  15. 15. Urban Areas Taking New Approaches  Portland – Green infrastructure & incentives  Seattle – Green infrastructure & incentives  Chicago – Green alleys, green roof goals  Philadelphia – Watershed approach, development regulation, parcel based billing, green infrastructure  Wilmington (DE) – parcel based billing  Kansas City – 10,000 rain gardens
  16. 16. Similarities In Approach  Source control of all stormwater on public and private lands is a key role in all programs  Piloting green infrastructure  The approach to source controls differs and varies including:  financial incentives (billing or purchases)  regulation (voluntary or involuntary, stringency, and level of enforcement)  depth of community integration (inclusion in all city codes)  All included extensive integrated stakeholder involvement  Extent of activity depends upon political officials and community acceptance or desire for new roles
  17. 17. Various Management Targets For A Municipality  Target A – Dry Weather Water Quality and Aesthetics  Streams need to look good, be accessible, and become an amenity to the community  Stream water quality during dry weather (about 60-65% of the time) should improve  Target B – Healthy Living Resources  Focus on improved aquatic habitat and healthy fish populations  Stream restoration (bank, channel, riparian)  Fish passage (fish ladders, dam modification)  Target C – Wet Weather Water Quality and Quantity  Meet overflow criteria  Prevent streambank erosion  Meet water quality standards
  18. 18. Adaptive Watershed-Based Control Planning & Management River Conservation Plans Hydrologic & Outfall Monitoring Watershed Information Water Quality Sampling & Monitoring Center Biological Monitoring Integrated Water Use Status Habitat Assessments Networks Watershed Fluvial Geomorphologic (FGM) Interpretive Signage Monitoring & Stakeholder Assessments Assessment Interpretive Centers Process & Tidal Assessments Partnerships Infrastructure Assessments Successful Watershed Wetlands Assessments Control Program Alternative Integrated Watershed Evaluation & Management Plans Prioritization Basin Specific Stormwater Management Plans (Act 167) Sewerage Facility Planning CSO Long Term Control Plan Ordinance & Regulations Modifications
  19. 19. Drivers Behind The New Approach  Regulatory compliance and flooding is a major driver  Protection of a key natural resource is a less common driver  Habitat and aquatic life restoration is not always a key role for a municipality  Funding limitations – need for new sources of funding to meet new roles  Concerns about sustainability, global climate change, carbon footprint (i.e. the triple bottom line)
  20. 20. Critical Elements For Municipalities Considering New Roles  Communication with stakeholders  Education and support of public officials  Education and support of public  Changing the institutional and administrative processes of a municipality (policies, codes, etc.)  Examining new levels and extents of service  Evaluating new business and financial models
  21. 21. www.phillyrivercast.org Real-Time Water Quality Forecast
  22. 22. Stormwater Plan Review Created The Potential To Reduce The City’s Runoff by 1 Billion Gallons Annually • That’s a volume equal to the block of City Hall 370 feet Deep. (drawn to scale) • A 3% reduction in citywide runoff • Up to $425 Million in infrastructure capital costs saved • Up to $80 Million in additional future operation and maintenance costs saved
  23. 23. STE S IN 0 320 Parcel Based Billing ! ( ( 70 0 0 HO LS ! ( TEI - N ! ( ! ( ! ( TH 70 S 0 0 32 6800 ESSINGTON 7000 ESSINGTON Existing Charge = $ 377.23 Gross Area = 599,744 Top 500 Parcels in the Combined New Charge = $ 2,496.42 Imperv Area = 491,035 Sewered Area make up 12.3% Typical property with increased of total stormwater fee – large site, small meter impervious area ! (
  24. 24. New Trends In Roles & Drivers Downstream End of Pipe Restoration Source Controls Numerical Habitat TMDLs Cost/Sustainability TMDLs Stream restoration Private Treatment development Fish passage regulation Channel protection Public land controls Baseflow recharge Parcel based billing
  25. 25. Conclusions  Meeting water quality standard requirements will drive municipalities to consider new and widely varying roles in stormwater management  No longer can employ the “end of pipe” approach to stormwater management  Programs are moving towards roles in source control and to address environmental restoration  Everything is moving towards impervious cover based management  Most “advanced” programs today took 5 to 10 years to gain momentum and institutionalize  Integration of extensive stakeholder involvement and outreach into stormwater programs will become the norm
  26. 26. Recommendations  Examine which approach has the greatest overall benefit (triple bottom line) to your municipality in the long run  Identify key barriers (financial, political, social, institutional) to any new roles or approaches  Be patient and expect 5 to 10 years for new roles to be fully incorporated into any municipality  Examine how prepared your utility is for new roles beyond “end of pipe” management, especially source controls and environmental restoration
  27. 27. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Philadelphia Water Department Marc Cammarata Glen Abrams Howard Neukrug Lance Butler Christine Marjoram
  28. 28. Presenter contact information Christopher Crockett, Ph.D., P.E. Philadelphia Water Department Planning & Research 1101 Market St., 2nd Floor Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA Chris.crockett@phila.gov www.phila.gov/water www.phillyriverinfo.org