Purpose of the Study The main purpose of the Stormwater Impacts Assessment Study was; • To Identify stormwater related impacts on McVicar Creek • To characterize these impacts through a Unified Stream Assessment • To identify the 3 most representative stormwater subwatersheds along the creek • To pursue further research on these 3 sites and; • To develop remediation recommendations for the 3 identified sites and McVicar Creek as a whole
How to achieve the purpose of the studyAn initial assessment was completedalong the entirety of the creek, fromthat assessment, the 3 sites wereidentified. Further research wascompleted to;• Develop a feasibility criteria of site- specific stormwater remediation options for each site• Implement a decision-support criterion to identify the most effective stormwater remedial options based on; Low Impact Development (LID), education, policy/regulation and maintenance• Produce a remediation option plan using expert feedback along with data collection
Initial Unified Stream AssessmentResultsThe initial Unified Stream Assessment (USA) confirmed thesuspected theory of stormwater pollution being contributed toMcVicar Creek, and proved the need for continued research.• Stormwater outfalls are in fact contributing to degraded water quality such as elevated levels of nutrients and metals• Effects of pollution found to degrade infrastructure integrity, cause declined aesthetics and cause impairments to aquatic habitats• Future research is recommended to assess localized and detailed stormwater impacts along the creek (RAP, 2010)
Detailed Unified Subwatershed and SiteReconnaissance studyUSSR Site Assessment Results• The results of the USA determined the 3 most representative sites along the creek for future study; Court Street, Castlegreen and County Fair• The USSR study assessed the impacts of stormwater from a subwatershed perspective based on behaviours within the terrestrial environment• The results and recommendations drawn from USSR were used to complete the final recommendations for remediation options along the creek.
Court Street Site Characterization: Residential, 22 hectares, 39% impervious Concerning Urban Activity: Home vehicle repair shops, disconnected rainbarrels and excess sediment Water Quality Exceedance: Chloride, ammonia, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, vanadium and lead
Castlegreen Site Characterization: Residential, 7 hectares, 45% impervious Concerning Urban Activity: Private gardens, pet waste and buckling of street Water Quality Exceedance: Chloride, ammonia, nitrate, aluminum, copper, iron, lead and zinc
County Fair Site Characterization: Commercial/Residential, 20 hectares, 62% impervious Concerning Urban Activity: Use of parking lot, presence of gas station, outdoor garden center and drive-through Water Quality Exceedance: Chloride, ammonia, nitrite, copper, iron and zinc
Initial USSR Study ResultingRecommendationsRecommendations:• Court Street: • A focus on community education in properly connected rainbarrels, effects of auto fluids from home vehicle repair shops on the aquatic environment, and alternative snow removal• Castlegreen: • Focus on community education in the effects of gardening chemicals and pet waste on aquatic systems. Also landscaping of the 100% impervious parking lots• County Fair: • Possible end-of-pipe LID design and policy enforcement and maintenance on the back mall parking lot
Development of Remediation Option PlanResearch was aimed at finalizing a remediation option planbased on the initial recommendations produced from USSR• Continued Quantitative data collection on all three sites: • Water quality testing based on seasonal collection to monitor water quality discharge into the Creek• Development of a case study plan based on a possible end-of- pipe LID on County Fair • Further water quality testing done upstream and downstream of outfall, soil nutrient, organic and composition testing and infiltration rate testing • This additional testing was to determine if County Fair was a suitable LID site and aide in final remediation recommendations.
Why County Fair as an LID Case StudyReasons why the County Fair site was selected as a casestudy through USSR assessment• Ownership of the land• Overall end cost• Feasibility based on Thunder Bay’s current stormwater management practices• Location for optimal community education and outreach and;• Localized stormwater inputs
Results of the Quantitative data • Court street: • Continued, concerning elevated levels of ammonia, nitrate and chloride • Castlgreen: • Continued, concerning elevated levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate
Quantitative Results of County Fair(LID Case Study) • Concerning water quality parameters (all locations sampled): ammonia, nitrate and phosphate • Soil: Soil testing results showed relatively suitable soil conditions (with some engineering alterations) for a vegetated infiltration LID at the current wetland, not downstream. • Infiltration: Infiltration rates at the current wetland showed suitable levels for infiltration LID, again, not downstream
Quantitative data not the final sayThe quantitative data used throughout this project does nothave the final say in the recommendations, the qualitativedata does….• The quantitative data used in this research project included the involvement of a multi-stakeholder group throughout the process.• This multi-stakeholder group included representatives from; The City of Thunder Bay, EcoSuperior, Lakehead University, Earthwise®, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, The Northshore Steelhead Association and the Lakehead Region Conservation Authority.
Stakeholder InvolvementThere were 3 main stages of Stakeholder involvement indecision-making.• Stage 1: Introduction • This included the introduction to the project and background information.• Stage 2: Site Visit • This included a group visit to all three sites with information provided.• Stage 3: Workshop • This included a Multi-Stakeholder Decision Making (MSDM) workshop structured to produce final remediation recommendations for this project.
Results of the WorkshopThe Stakeholders were provided with all known informationon the three sites and asked to complete specific tasks• Final agreed upon Stormwater Management Objectives for Thunder Bay • Social: • Context specific plans • Ensure community safety • Economic: • To internalize the cost of new stormwater management • Integration of stormwater into asset management plan • Environmental: • Reduce surface volume runoff • Improve quality of runoff • Increase and enhance integrity • Political • Creation and adoption of the stormwater management plan • Ensure balance between short and long-term planning• Most of all à CREATE PARTNERSHIPS
Final site specific Recommendations fromStakeholders• Court Street possible remediation options: • 1) Increase by-law enforcement • 2)Community Stewardship initiative • 3)Adopt LRCA’s previous education strategy • Most valued recommendation for meeting objectives • Community education campaign• Castlegreen possible remediation options • 1) further investigate pipe system • 2) Work with the co-op to educate community • 3) Maintenance on heaving and buckling road • Most valued recommendation for meeting objectives: • Partnership with the co-op• County Fair possible remediation options: • 1) remove section of pipe, or create end-of-pipe LID • 2) Educate and partner with land owner to remediate up-land • 3) Leave alone • Most valued recommendation for meeting objectives: • Educate and partner with land owner
Final Remediation Recommendations forMcVicar Creek Resulting from this Project1) First and foremost that the defined objectives for Thunder Bay stormwater management be considered in all further stromwater management2) Before further stormwater remediation plans are pursued on McVicar Creek that the final recommendations proposed by Stakeholders are completed; An education and outreach plan on McVicar Creek watershed hotspots and in the watershed as a whole3) That the process used in this research project be referenced to determine further stormwater remediation options within Thunder Bay4) That the baseline data collected in this project be used for any further LID proposal on the County Fair site