climate change urban flooding cost benefit analysis green infrastructure climate adaptation design standards benefit cost ratio flood damage extreme rainfall infrastructure flood control cba roi low impact development flood risk hydrology flood extreme weather return on investment cost effectiveness sanitary sewer idf curve grey infrastructure swmp bmp ontario resiliency lid urbanization gis rainfall intensity disaster mitigation adaptation fund dmaf capital cost storm sewer intensity-duration-frequency uncertainty dual drainage inflow and infiltration overland flooding floodplain gsi evidence-based water quality erosion mitigation insurance loss asset management o&m operation and maintenance cost lifecycle cost stormwater management safety factor wastewater gi prioritization riverine flooding basement flooding toronto lost rivers extraneous flow i&i intensification trends environment and climate change canada hydraulics environment canada national research council cost-effectiveness operating cost triple bottom line natural infrastructure wetlands strategy insured losses flood losses risk management best practices policy strategic planning water balance best management practice green infrastructure cost sewer back-up sewer surcharge stormwater stress test flood mitigation rainfall frequency hyetograph major drainage design geographic information system flash flood urban development flood plain pluvial flooding major drainage impervious global warming archydro risk assessment risk idf ibc storm intensity idf curves at-source source control cost guideline canada intangible losses tangible losses uninsured bca nrc budgeting financing backwater valve downspout disconnection made-in-ontario environment plan mecp eccc idf files engineering climate datasets ams annual maximum series municipal infrastructure resilience performance master plan holistic willingness to pay environment plan infrastructure canada lcc life cycle cost cost efficiency environmental assessment enhanced assets engineered assets ombudsman cbc bioswales row opwa right of way flow monitoring impervious surfaces development hydrologic cycle infiltration recharge water budget baseflow swm financial analysis special policy area intact centre on climate adaptation waterloo geographic information systems feasibility flood storage flood attenuation ecosystem services natural assets wetland summer flooding spring flooding temperature streamflow class ea class environmental assessment risk screening insurance rates flood density risk mapping programming asset management plan city of markham climate change adaptation erosion sustainable development tender cost long-term cost depreciation swp low impact development cost infoworks inflow & infiltration i/i sewer system collection system clearance freeboard downscaling climate projection design pipe bridge culvert future idf design method design approach flood prevention cost benefit remediation engineering design level of service rain gauge 100 year storm 100 year 100-year return period rain pattern sewer design pcswmm adapatation 2d 1d cwra mnrf civil engineering flood claim flood insurance overland flow 3d model arcscene arcgis fluvial flooding insurance sustainability insurance bureau of canada telling the weather story sewer backup urban watershed rural watershed runoff volume runoff coefficient snowmelt snowpack precipitation rainfall wet weather flow foundation drain lot grading riparian flooding surcharge floor drain sewer back up pluvial design standard adaptation intensity duration frequency i-d-f clausius-clapeyron ministry of the environment and climate change al gore inconvenient sequel inconvenient truth severe weather regulation basement vulnerable flash overland peril back-up drainage endoresement urban iclr
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