Archival Technologies 2014


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UPDATED FOR 2014: Archives work is messy -- in many cases archivists have to organize and make accessible large amounts of mixed data in a variety of formats, both physical and digital. Thankfully, there are a variety of technology tools available to help solve the messiness problem and make collections more accessible. In this session, audience members will learn about current and emerging archival technology tools, the pros and cons of the major tools, and resources for further education.

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Archival Technologies 2014

  1. 1. Archival Technologies Cliff Landis Web Services Librarian Georgia State University 47th Annual Georgia Archives Institute June 9 – 20, 2014
  2. 2. "Good grief, what have we gotten ourselves into..."
  3. 3. Learning Objectives ● Identify existing and emerging areas of archival technology development. ● Learn about the capabilities, pros, and cons of major archival management tools, such as Archon and Archivists' Toolkit. ● Learn about the capabilities, pros, and cons of major digital collection management tools, such as CONTENTdm and Islandora. ● Discover resources for further professional development in archival technology areas such as digital preservation, linked open data, and data formats and standards.
  4. 4. Introductions EGO TIME! ● Library (and Archival) Technologist ● Author of A Social Networking Primer for Librarians (2010) ● Professional Geek ● I work as a translator between several library dialects including: Student, Techie, Librarian, Archivist and Administrator!
  5. 5. Two questions 1) What one thing do you hope to learn today? 2) What one thing do you hope to do with archival technology?
  6. 6. Why does this stuff matter?
  7. 7. We keep history and cultures alive
  8. 8. Two questions 1) What one thing do you hope to learn today? 2) What one thing do you hope to do with archival technology?
  9. 9. The problem of "hidden collections"
  10. 10. The problem of "hidden collections"
  11. 11. The problem of "hidden collections"
  12. 12.
  13. 13. It's all about using the right tool for the job...
  14. 14. Evaluating Technologies: Preliminary Considerations ● Free vs. paid ● Open source vs. closed source ● Local server vs. cloud hosted ● Few features vs. many features (vs. some features) ● Web-based vs. client-based (vs. both) ● Ease of setup, ease of use ● Degree of technical support ● Standards compliance
  15. 15. Archival management software aka, "What's all this old stuff, where did we put it, and what can we do with it?"
  16. 16. Archon
  17. 17. Archon
  18. 18. Archon ● Developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2006-2011). ● Free, Open-Source Software (FOSS), locally hosted, many features, limited exports. ● Has both a back-end (for managing records) and a front-end (for access). ● Full life-cycle management. Lacks some features (some metadata exports, deaccessioning, etc.). ● As of January 2014 it is unsupported software, but many archives still use it.
  19. 19. Archivists' Toolkit
  20. 20. Archivists' Toolkit
  21. 21. Archivists' Toolkit
  22. 22. Archivists' Toolkit ● Developed with a Mellon Foundation grant and continued by Five Colleges, Inc., New York University Libraries, and the UC San Diego Libraries (2006-2009). ● Free, Open-Source Software (FOSS), locally hosted, many features, exports in many standards/formats. ● Server and client software ● Has a back-end (for managing records). No web publishing available. ● Full life-cycle management. Lacks some features (backup/restore, publishing finding aids, etc.) ● AT support ended September 1, 2013.
  23. 23. ArchivesSpace
  24. 24. ArchivesSpace
  25. 25. ArchivesSpace
  26. 26. ArchivesSpace ● Funded by a Mellon Foundation grant, created by New York University, the University of California San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Hmmmm...those names look familiar... ● The best of both worlds? ● As of May 13, 2014 it is at version 1.0.9 ● Membership option, free option ● "Organizational home" at LYRASIS (including hosting)
  27. 27. AtoM;isad
  28. 28. AtoM
  29. 29. AtoM ● ICA-AtoM is web-based archival description software that is based on International Council on Archives ('ICA') standards. 'AtoM' is an acronym for 'Access to Memory' (2008-2014). ● Developed by Artefactual Systems in collaboration with the ICA Program Commission (PCOM) and a growing network of international partners. ● Free, Open-Source Software (FOSS). Web-based, so requires server or virtual appliance setup. Current version (2.0.1) released on December 16, 2013. ● Packaged with Archivematica (digital preservation software)
  30. 30. Others ● Adlib Archive ● Calm for Archives ● Cuadra STAR / Archives ● Eloquent Archives ● MINISIS M2A ● Collective Access ● PastPerfect ...and many more
  31. 31. Digital collections/asset management software aka, "Isn't all that old stuff online by now?"
  32. 32. Fedora
  33. 33. Fedora
  34. 34. Fedora ● NOT the Linux operating system.... ● aka: Fedora Repository / Fedora Commons ● Developed by Cornell University and the University of Virginia Library, currently supported by DuraSpace ● FOSS, server-side. ● Flexible architecture, allowing you to customize it (add on components) to meet local needs. Requires more work. ● Ingest, management, and basic delivery -- not a full- fledged system for managing digital assets. https://wiki.duraspace. org/display/FF/Fedora+Repository+Home
  35. 35. Islandora
  36. 36. Islandora
  37. 37. Islandora ● Fedora (asset management), Drupal (website functionality) and Solr (search). Additional "Solution Packs" of software to manage particular data types (books, PDFs, large images, etc.). ● Developed by Prince Edward Island University. ● FOSS, server-side. Has to be assembled by programmers / systems folks. Requires a LOT of work and maintenance at this point. Not a "download and double-click" software.
  38. 38. CONTENTdm
  39. 39. CONTENTdm
  40. 40. CONTENTdm (and a lot of work...)
  41. 41. CONTENTdm ● Closed source, OCLC, and paid (expensive!). ● A full system for managing digital collections. Can be hosted by OCLC or run on your own servers (hosted version limits customization). ● Has difficulty with larger collections. ● Server-side software, web interface and project client software. Lots of moving pieces to get to work together with limited documentation and slow technical support response time.
  42. 42. Greenstone 1l--1-en-Zz-1---50-home---001-001-1-0utfZz-8-0&a=d&cl=CL1.1&d=CHOP114.22
  43. 43. Greenstone
  44. 44. Greenstone ● Developed by New Zealand Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato, with support from UNESCO. ● FOSS, server-side. ● Multi-lingual and multi-national. ● Development community is small but work continues slowly on versions 2 & 3.
  45. 45. Dspace
  46. 46. Dspace
  47. 47. Dspace ● Developed by the MIT Libraries and Hewlett-Pckard Labs ● FOSS, server-side. Hosted option available (DSpaceDirect) ● Manakin add-on for improved user interface ● Not easy to set up or customize, but effective
  48. 48. Others ● Tripod2 (Duke University, in-house) ● Keystone (Index Data) ● EPrints (University of Southampton) ● and many more...
  49. 49. Display and Access aka, "All this old stuff can tell a story..."
  50. 50. Omeka
  51. 51. Omeka
  52. 52. Omeka ● Web publishing of narratives around digital collections. ● Center for History and New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University ● FOSS, server-side. Hosted versions also available. ● Designed to be relatively easy to use for non-technical folks. ● Has plugins available for additional functionality (OAI- PMH, CSV import, Dublin Core, etc.)
  53. 53. OHMS: Oral History Metadata Synchronizer
  54. 54. OHMS: Oral History Metadata Synchronizer ● OHMS was originally designed and created by the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, University of Kentucky Libraries in 2008. ● In 2011, the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History received a grant from IMLS to make the system open source and free to use with interoperability and sustainability as the primary goals. ● Sync is done server-side in XML files, playback is done server-side using the OHMS player ● The grant runs out soon, but the software will remain FOSS.
  55. 55. Others ● Collective Access ● Virtual Exhibit (for Past Perfect) ● Internet Archive ● Picasa/Flickr ● Blogs/Websites ● and many more...
  56. 56. GLOSSARY OF ARCHIVAL TECHY GOODNESS aka, "Alphabet Soup"
  57. 57. Formats & Protocols & Standards! (oh my!) ● MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (aka File Types) ● XML: eXtensible Markup Language ● DTD: Document Type Definition (aka Schema) ● EAD: Encoded Archival Description ● OAI-PMH: The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting ● OAI-ORE: The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Object Reuse and Exchange ● RSS: Really Simple Syndication ● DC: Dublin Core (also DCMI) ● RDF: Resource Description Framework ● SQL: Structured Query Language ● SPARQL: SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language ● MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema ● METS: Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard ● PREMIS: Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies ● AIP: Archival Info Package; SIP: Submission Info. Package; DIP: Distribution Info Package ● BIBFRAME: Bibliographic Framework Initiative
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
  61. 61. So let’s see an example of XML
  62. 62. PREMIS in METS/MODS (written in XML)
  63. 63. Digital Preservation aka, "What do you mean scanning isn’t preservation?!?"
  64. 64. The Basics ● Digitization is the act of capturing an analog signal in digital form. ○ This can help reduce wear on originals while providing broader access. ● Digital preservation is the active management of digital content over time to ensure ongoing access. ● Educate yourself about the standards for the items you are digitizing: file formats, bit depth, resolution, dimensions, storage, backup
  65. 65. Digital Preservation Hardware (for analog objects) ● A dedicated computer(s) with an emphasis on processing power, RAM, and graphics card ● Still (photos and text) ○ Flatbed, Open Book, Large Format, Slides, Cameras, 3D ● Video ○ VHS, Betamax, U-matic, DVCam and Mini-DVCam, Hi8 ● Audio ○ reel-to reel tape, turntable, cassette, Digital Audio
  66. 66. Digital Preservation Hardware (for born-digital objects) ● Media readers (drives, connections) ○ Floppy Discs (3.5” & 5.25”) ○ Zip ○ Jaz ○ CD / DVD / BluRay / Laserdisc ○ Cartridges ○ Microcards ● Write-blockers / Forensic Bridges ○ Tableau ○ Weibe Tech See: Webinar: “Intro to Digital Preservation #3 — “Management of Incoming Born-Digital Special Collections”
  67. 67. Digital Preservation Software ● Software suites to digitize and read ● FITS & JHOVE: used to identify file formats and extract metadata ● IdentityFinder: searches for Personally Identifiable Information (PII) ● Bagit: file transfers ● BitCurator & Archivematica: accessioning through access See: Intro to Digital Preservation websinar series
  68. 68. Linked Open Data aka, "Set your data free!"
  69. 69. Linked Open Data (2010-09)
  70. 70. Linked Open Data
  71. 71. But why should I care?
  72. 72. But what does this have to do with archives?
  73. 73.
  74. 74. Geez Cliff, this sounds pretty complicated. Do I have to be a computer programmer to do this stuff? NO!
  75. 75. Semantic Web for beginners ● browse to get a feel for the subject- predicate-object relationships. ● browse to get a feel for the use of LOD metadata standards. ● Microformats: a way of adding human- and machine- readable metadata into existing HTML webpages. ○ COinS: ContextObjects in Spans. Allows users to embed machine-readable bibliographic metadata in HTML webpages. ● RDFa Lite: Resource Description Framework in attributes - another way of adding human- and machine- readable metadata into existing HTML pages.
  76. 76. Why does this stuff matter?
  77. 77. Resources: ● Spiro, Lisa (2009). Archival Management Software: A Report for the Council on Library and Information Resources. http://www.clir. org/pubs/reports/spiro/spiro_Jan13.pdf and http: // ● Bean, Carol (2010). Comparing Digital Library Systems (BeanWorks). http://beanworks.clbean. com/2010/04/comparing-digital-library-systems/ ● Association of Southeastern Research Libraries. Archived Webinars / Materials. ● Digital Preservation - Tools Showcase. http://www. ● W3C Schools.
  78. 78. Not that it has to be said, but... Disclaimer! All images and excerpts included are being used under the auspices of Fair Use for the purposes of nonprofit education, criticism, and comment as outlined in 17 U.S.C. § 107.
  79. 79. Questions? Cliff Landis Web Services Librarian Georgia State University 47th Annual Georgia Archives Institute June 9 – 20, 2014