The Long Tail [Anderson 2004]
quot;We sold more books today that didn't sell at all yesterday than we sold today of all the books that did sell yesterday.quot; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Long_Tail
From Traditional Media to Social
Media • from consumers to producers (prosumers) • more democracy, less control • it‘s about the user • users are active, contribution is easy • everybody can reach a broad audience • networking, communication • open, public, sharing
“Metacrap” [Doctorow 2001] • People
lie • People are lazy • People are stupid • Mission: Impossible – know thyself • Schema’s aren’t neutral • Metrics influence results • There’s more than one way to describe something!
Metadata is context-dependent! • description
of a resource strongly depends on - the role of a reader - at what time the document is considered - in which terminology and language it is written - on which tasks he/she is currently working - what expertise and experience is available • valuable / bootless / annoyance?
Some philosophy… Wittgenstein ‘Die Bedeutung
eines Wortes ist sein Gebrauch in der Sprache’ (‘The meaning of a word is its use in the language’) Transferred into the world of (digital) resources: ‘The meaning of a resource is its use in the community’
How can metadata be generated?
• metadata generated by experts • metadata generated by users and user interactions - generated explicitly (e.g. tags, comments, ratings) - collected by tracking and observation components (sensors, log files, context information) • metadata generated automatically - content analysis • statistic-based methods • NLP • ontology based approaches • … - inference
Benefits, weaknesses of the approaches
• expert metadata (centralistic approaches) • expertise about respective domain, formats, standards • cope with complex, difficult, time-consuming tasks • expensive • static (lifecycle? context?) • often biased, subjective (motivations?) • user generated metadata (distributed approaches) • flat, simple ( cheap, fast) • different opinions, viewpoints (collective intelligence) • metadata generated automatically • scalable • restricted to the available knowledge • usually only works reasonably well with text [MemmelSchirruTomadakiWolpers2008]
[Downes 2004] Resource profiles A
‘multi-faceted, wide ranging description of a resource’ which is characterised by the following features: • not conform to a particular XML schema, but a patchwork of metadata formats which are assembled as needed in order to form a description that is most appropriate for the given resource • not authored by a particular author - it consists of a large set of information which is authored by many people • may be distributed, in pieces, across a multitude of locations • there is no single canonical or authoritative resource profile associated with a given resource
ALOE – a social resource
and metadata hub • possibility to integrate and aggregate any kind of existing resources and metadata - wherever they is located - via upload or reference (persistence?) - not “just” several repositories - not by a single authority! • possibility to contribute new resources and metadata • access, preview, (inline)player, editor… • integration of advanced functionalities
ALOE – some features •
upload and share arbitrary types of digital resources • share and organize bookmarks • tag, rate, and comment on resources and bookmarks • initiate groups and communicate with other users • publish as private, public, or only for certain groups • find resources with different types of search filters • rank search results according to different criteria • associate arbitrary metadata sets with resources • Web Service API (SOAP, REST)