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Hsp chemistry f4 (2)

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications CHEMISTRY Form 4 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2005
  2. 2. Copyright © 2005Ministry of Education MalaysiaFirst published 2005All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includingphotocopying, and recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Director of CurriculumDevelopment Centre, Level 4-8, Block E9, Government Complex Parcel E, 62604 Putrajaya, Malaysia.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS PageThe National Philosophy vNational Philosophy of Education viiNational Science Education Philosophy ixPreface xiIntroduction 1Aims 1Objectives 2Scientific Skills 2Thinking Skills 4Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 8Teaching and Learning Strategies 10Content Organisation 13THEME: INTRODUCING CHEMISTRYLearning Area: 1. Introduction to Chemistry 17
  4. 4. THEME: MATTER AROUND US Learning Area: 1. The Structure Of The Atom 18 Learning Area: 2. Chemical Formulae And Equations 22 Learning Area: 3. Periodic Tables Of Elements 27 Learning Area: 4. Chemical Bonds 34THEME: INTERACTION BETWEEN CHEMICALS Learning Area: 1. Electrochemistry 37 Learning Area: 2. Acids and Bases 43 Learning Area: 3. Salts 47THEME: PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF MANUFACTURED CHEMICALS Learning Area : 1. Manufactured Substances in Industry 51 56AcknowledgementsPanel of Writers 57
  5. 5. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her people; maintaining a democratic way of life;creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; ensuring a liberal approach to her rich anddiverse cultural traditions; building a progressive society which shall be oriented towards modern science and technology.We, the people of Malaysia, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles: ? BELIEF IN GOD ? LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY ? SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION ? RULE OF LAW ? GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
  6. 6. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integratedmanner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmoniousbased on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who areknowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a highlevel of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and thenation at large. vii
  7. 7. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and ableto master scientific knowledge and technological competency. ix
  8. 8. PREFACE In a recent development, the Government has made a decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction in the teaching andThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised society learning of science and mathematics. This measure will enabledepends on science and technology. It is envisaged that success in students to keep abreast of developments in science andproviding quality science education to Malaysians from an early age technology in contemporary society by enhancing their capabilitywill serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge and know-how to tap the diverse sources of information on sciencesociety and a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this written in the English language. At the same time, this move wouldend, the Malaysian education system is giving greater emphasis to also provide opportunities for students to use the English languagescience and mathematics education. and hence, increase their proficiency in the language. Thus, in implementing the science curriculum, attention is given toThe Chemistry curriculum has been designed not only to provide developing students’ ability to use English for study andopportunities for students to acquire science knowledge and skills, communication, especially in the early years of learning.develop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to apply thisknowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them The development of this curriculum and the preparation of thenoble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the work ofeducational process en route to achieving these aims would many individuals over a period of time. To all those who haveproduce well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf ofharmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. the Ministry of Education, express my sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended.The Chemistry curriculum aims at producing active learners. To thisend, students are given ample opportunities to engage in scientificinvestigations through hands-on activities and experimentations.The inquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinkingstrategies and thoughtful learning, should be emphasised (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR SMP, AMP)throughout the teaching-learning process. The content and contexts Directorsuggested are chosen based on their relevance and appeal to Curriculum Development Centrestudents so that their interest in the subject is enhanced. Ministry of Education Malaysia xi
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledge in decision- making and problem solving in everyday life. As articulated in the National Education Policy, education in The elective science subjects prepare students who are moreMalaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post-individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce secondary level. This group of students would take up careersindividuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and in the field of science and technology and play a leading role inphysically balanced and harmonious. The primary and secondary this field for national development.school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producingsuch individuals. For every science subject, the curriculum for the year is articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculum As a nation that is progressing towards a developed nation specifications. The syllabus presents the aims, objectives andstatus, Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically the outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years fororiented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a high capacity for elective science subjects and 5 years for core science subjects.change, forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to scientific The curriculum specifications provide the details of theand technological developments in the future. In line with this, there curriculum which includes the aims and objectives of theis a need to produce citizens who are creative, critical, inquisitive, curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinkingopen-minded and competent in science and technology. strategies, scientific skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. The The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three core curriculum content provides the learning objectives, suggestedscience subjects and four elective science subjects. The core learning activities, the intended learning outcomes, andsubjects are Science at primary school level, Science at lower vocabulary.secondary level and Science at upper secondary level. Electivescience subjects are offered at the upper secondary level andconsist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Additional Science. AIMS The core science subjects for the primary and lowersecondary levels are designed to provide students with basic The aims of the chemistry curriculum for secondary school arescience knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science, to provide students with the knowledge and skills in chemistryand and technology and enable them to solve problems and makeenable students to continue their science education at the upper decisions in everyday life based on scientific attitudes andsecondary level. Core Science at the upper secondary level is noble values.designed to produce students who are literate in science, 1
  10. 10. Students who have followed the secondary science curriculum will 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and goodhave the foundation in science to enable them to pursue formal and moral values.informal further education in chemistry and technology. 8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence amongThe curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and living things and the management of nature for survivalprogressive society with a science and technology culture that of mankind.values nature and works towards the preservation andconservation of the environment. 9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology towards national development and the well-being of mankind.OBJECTIVES 10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual andThe chemistry curriculum for secondary school enables students mental capabilities to understand natural phenomena forto: the betterment of mankind.1. Acquire knowledge in science and technology in the context 11. Create awareness on the need to love and care for the of natural phenomena and everyday life experiences. environment and play an active role in its preservation and conservation.2. Understand developments in the field of science and technology. SCIENTIFIC SKILLS3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills.4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical manner for problem solving and decision-making. Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are5. Face challenges in the scientific and technological world utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific and be willing to contribute towards the development of investigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out science and technology. projects.6. Evaluate science- and technology-related information wisely Scientific skills encompass science process skills and and effectively. manipulative skills. 2
  11. 11. Science Process Skills Defining Defining concepts by describing what must Operationally be done and what should be observed.Science process skills enable students to formulate their questionsand find out the answers systematically. Controlling Identifying the fixed variable, manipulated Variables variable, and responding variable in anDescriptions of the science process skills are as follows: investigation. The manipulated variable is changed to observe its relationship with theObserving Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell, responding variable. At the same time, the taste and sight to collect information about fixed variable is kept constant. an object or a phenomenon. Hypothesising Making a general statement about the relationship between a manipulatedClassifying Using observations to group objects or variable and a responding variable in order events according to similarities or to explain an event or observation. This differences. statement can be tested to determine itsMeasuring and Making quantitative observations using validity.Using numbers and tools with standardised Experimenting Planning and conducting activities to test aNumbers units. Measuring makes observation more certain hypothesis. These activities include accurate. collecting, analysing and interpreting data and making conclusions. Inferring Using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events. Manipulative Skills Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor on prior knowledge gained through skills that enable students to: experiences or collected data. ? use and handle science apparatus and laboratory Communicating Using words or graphic symbols such as substances correctly. tables, graphs, figures or models to ? handle specimens correctly and carefully. describe an action, object or event. ? draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances accurately. Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations about an ? clean science apparatus correctly, and object, event or pattern derived from ? store science apparatus and laboratory substances collected data. correctly and safely. 3
  12. 12. THINKING SKILLS Critical Thinking Skills A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows:Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to integrate Attributing Identifying criteria such as characteristics,knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand the features, qualities and elements of aenvironment. concept or an object.One of the objectives of the national education system is to Comparing and Finding similarities and differences basedenhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be Contrasting on criteria such as characteristics, features,achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful learning.Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is a qualities and elements of a concept or event.foundation for thoughtful learning. Grouping and Separating and grouping objects orThoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in Classifying phenomena into categories based onthe teaching and learning process. Activities should be organised certain criteria such as commonto provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills inconceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making. characteristics or features. Sequencing Arranging objects and information in orderThinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and based on the quality or quantity of commoncreative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always characteristics or features such as size,evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A time, shape or number.person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is ableto generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas andproducts. Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance or priority.Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that involvevarious steps. Each step involves various critical and creative Analysing Examining information in detail by breakingthinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the it down into smaller parts to find implicitultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and meaning and relationships.learning process. Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions that have the tendency to support or oppose something in an unfair or misleading way. 4
  13. 13. Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or value Synthesising Combining separate elements or parts to of something based on valid reasons or form a general picture in various forms evidence. such as writing, drawing or artefact. Making Making a statement about the outcome of Making Making a general statement on the Conclusions an investigation that is based on a Hypotheses relationship between manipulated variables hypothesis. and responding variables in order to explain a certain thing or happening. This statement is thought to be true and can be tested to determine its validity.Creative Thinking Skills Making Analogies Understanding a certain abstract orA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: complex concept by relating it to a simpler or concrete concept with similar Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a discussion. characteristics. Relating Making connections in a certain situation to Inventing Producing something new or adapting determine a structure or pattern of something already in existence to relationship. overcome problems in a systematic manner. Making Using past experiences or previously Inferences collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events. Thinking Strategy Predicting Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through Description of each thinking strategy is as follows: experiences or collected data. Conceptualising Making generalisations based on inter- Making Making a general conclusion about a group related and common characteristics in Generalisations based on observations made on, or some order to construct meaning, concept or information from, samples of the group. model. Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about a Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from various particular idea, concept, situation or vision. alternatives based on specific criteria to achieve a specific aim. 5
  14. 14. Figure 1 : TSTS Model in ScienceProblem Solving Finding solutions to challenging or unfamiliar situations or unanticipated difficulties in a systematic manner. Thinking SkillsBesides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies,another skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skillused in making logical, just and rational judgements. Critical CreativeMastering of critical and creative thinking skills and thinkingstrategies is made simpler if an individual is able to reason in ? Attributing ? Generating ideasan inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general ? Comparing and ? Relatingpicture of thinking skills and thinking strategies. contrasting ? Making inferences ? Grouping and ? PredictingMastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS) through classifying Reasoning ? Makingthe teaching and learning of science can be developed through the ? Sequencing hypothesesfollowing phases: ? Prioritising ? Synthesising ? Analysing ? Making 1. Introducing TSTS. ? Detecting bias generalisations ? Evaluating ? Visualising 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’ guidance. s ? Making ? Making analogies 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’ guidance. s conclusions ? Inventing 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’ guidance. s 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish Thinking thinking tasks. Strategies ? ConceptualisingFurther information about phases of implementing TSTS can be ? Making decisionsfound in the guidebook “ Buku Panduan Penerapan Kemahiran ? Problem solvingBerfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan PembelajaranSains”(Curriculum Development Centre, 1999). 6
  15. 15. Relationship between Thinking Skills and Science Process Skills Thinking SkillsScience Process Skills Using Space-Time SequencingScience process skills are skills that are required in the process of Relationship Prioritisingfinding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematicmanner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative, Interpreting data Comparing and contrastinganalytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process Analysingskills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge Detecting biasenable students to think effectively. Making conclusions Generalising The mastering of science process skills involves the Evaluatingmastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that arerelated to a particular science process skill are as follows: Defining operationally Relating Making analogy VisualisingScience Process Skills Thinking Skills AnalysingObserving Attributing Controlling variables Attributing Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting Relating Relating AnalysingClassifying Attributing Comparing and contrasting Grouping Making hypothesis Attributing and classifying Relating Comparing and contrastingMeasuring and Using Relating Generating ideasNumbers Comparing and contrasting Making hypothesis PredictingMaking Inferences Relating Synthesising Comparing and contrasting Analysing Experimenting All thinking skills Making inferences Communicating All thinking skillsPredicting Relating Visualising 7
  16. 16. Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUESand Scientific SkillsThis science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based on Science learning experiences can be used as a means tothinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skills and inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students.scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of knowledge in These attitudes and values encompass the following:the intended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching and learning,teachers need to emphasise the mastery of skills together with the ? Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment.acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of noble values and ? Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data.scientific attitudes. ? Being diligent and persevering.The following is an example and explanation of a learning outcome ? Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, andbased on thinking skills and scientific skills. the environment. ? Realising that science is a means to understand nature.Example: ? Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. ? Appreciating the balance of nature. Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast metallic elements and non-metallic elements. ? Being respectful and well-mannered. ? Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting ? Being thankful to God. ? Having critical and analytical thinking. Explanation: ? Being flexible and open-minded. To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge of the ? Being kind-hearted and caring. characteristics and uses of metals and non-metals in everyday ? Being objective. life are learned through comparing and contrasting. The mastery ? Being systematic. of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as the ? Being cooperative. knowledge about the elements of metal and the elements of non-metal. ? Being fair and just. ? Daring to try. ? Thinking rationally. ? Being confident and independent. 8
  17. 17. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally Learning Objective: 1.4 Practising scientific knowledgeoccurs through the following stages: to enhance quality of life? Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific Learning Outcome: A student is able to apply attitudes and noble values. knowledge on factors affecting the? Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. rate of reaction in everyday? Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble activities, and adopt problem values. solving approaches and make rational decisions based on When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers research.need to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure thecontinuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and Suggested Learning Carry out some daily activitiesvalues. For example, during science practical work, the teacher Activities related to factors affecting the rateshould remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in of reaction.a careful, cooperative and honest manner. Collect and interpret data on Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of scientists’contribution in enhancingscientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Before the quality of life.the first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers shouldexamine all related learning outcomes and suggested teaching- Carry out problem solving activitieslearning activities that provide opportunities for the inculcation of involving rate of reaction in the fieldscientific attitudes and noble values. of science and technology through experiment and research. The following is an example of a learning outcomepertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. Scientific attitudes and Appreciating the contribution of noble values science and technology. Example: Being thankful to God. Year: Form 5 Having critical and analytical thinking. Learning Area: 1. Rate of Reaction Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data 9
  18. 18. Inculcating Patriotism Teaching and Learning Approaches in ScienceThe science curriculum provides an opportunity for the Inquiry-Discoverydevelopment and strengthening of patriotism among students. Forexample, in learning about the earth’ resources, the richness and s Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences.variety of living things and the development of science and Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and totechnology in the country, students will appreciate the diversity of investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment.natural and human resources of the country and deepen their love Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. Learning throughfor the country. discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles of science are investigated and discovered by students themselves. Through activities such as experiments, students investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions byTEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES themselves. Teachers then lead students to understand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed furtherTeaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum during the inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach mayemphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process not be suitable for all teaching and learning situations.that helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that will Sometimes, it may be more appropriate for teachers to presenthelp them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful concepts and principles directly to students.learning can occur through various learning approaches such asinquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning.Learning activities should therefore be geared towards activating Constructivismstudents’critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined toroutine or rote learning. Students should be made aware of thethinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. Constructivism suggests that students learn about somethingThey should be challenged with higher order questions and when they construct their own understanding. The importantproblems and be required to solve problems utilising their creativity attributes of constructivism are as follows:and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process should ? Taking into account students’prior knowledge.enable students to acquire knowledge, master skills and develop ? Learning occurring as a result of students’own effort.scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated manner. ? Learning occurring when students restructure their existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones. ? Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas and experiences, and reflecting on their learning. 10
  19. 19. Science, Technology and Society to learn at their own pace, with the incorporation of remedial and enrichment activities as part of the teaching-learning process.Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning withtheir daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in learningapproaches such as contextual learning and Science, Technology Teaching and Learning Methodsand Society (STS). Teaching and learning approaches can be implementedLearning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of through various methods such as experiments, discussions,STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach suggests simulations, projects, and visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-that science learning takes place through investigation and learning methods suggested are stated under the columndiscussion based on science and technology issues in society. In “Suggested Learning Activities.” However, teachers can modifythe STS approach, knowledge in science and technology is to be the suggested activities when the need arises.learned with the application of the principles of science andtechnology and their impact on society. The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can enhance students’interest in science. Science lessons that areContextual Learning not interesting will not motivate students to learn and subsequently will affect their performance. The choice of teaching methods should be based on the curriculum content,Contextual learning is an approach that associates learning with students’abilities, students’repertoire of intelligences, and thedaily experiences of students. In this way, students are able to availability of resources and infrastructure. Besides playing theappreciate the relevance of science learning to their lives. In role of knowledge presenters and experts, teachers need to actcontextual learning, students learn through investigations as in the as facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. Teachersinquiry-discovery approach. need to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist among students. Different teaching and learning activities should beMastery Learning planned to cater for students with different learning styles and intelligences.Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are ableto acquire and master the intended learning objectives. This The following are brief descriptions of some teaching andapproach is based on the principle that students are able to learn if learning methods.they are given adequate opportunities. Students should be allowed 11
  20. 20. Experiment DiscussionAn experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. In A discussion is an activity in which students exchangeexperiments, students test hypotheses through investigations to questions and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussionsdiscover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting an can be conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachersexperiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and should play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion bymanipulative skills. asking questions that stimulate thinking and getting students to express themselves.Usually, an experiment involves the following steps: Simulation? Identifying a problem.? Making a hypothesis. In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is? Planning the experiment carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and - controlling variables. the use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular - determining the equipment and materials needed. role based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games - determining the procedure of the experiment and the require procedures that need to be followed. Students play method of data collection and analysis. games in order to learn a particular principle or to understand? Conducting the experiment. the process of decision-making. Models are used to represent? Collecting data. objects or actual situations so that students can visualise the? Analysing data. said objects or situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be learned.? Interpreting data.? Making conclusions. Project? Writing a report. A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding students individual or a group of students to achieve a certain learning to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers should provide objective. A project generally requires several lessons to students with the opportunities to design their own experiments. complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a This involves students drawing up plans as to how to conduct report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and how to the teacher and other students. Project work promotes the present the outcomes of their experiment. development of problem-solving skills, time management skills, and independent learning. 12
  21. 21. Visits and Use of External Resources CONTENT ORGANISATIONThe learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in theschool compound. Learning of science can be enhanced through The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each theme consists of various learning areas, each of whichthe use of external resources such as zoos, museums, sciencecentres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and factories. consists of a number of learning objectives. A learning objectiveVisits to these places make the learning of science more has one or more learning outcomes.interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learningopportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may be Learning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of theinvolved in the planning process and specific educational tasks cognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domainshould be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is are: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesiscomplete without a post-visit discussion. and evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware of, to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, to practise, and to internalise. Where possible, learning outcomesUse of Technology relating to the affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values should beTechnology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancing integrated into every learning activity. This ensures a morethe learning of science. Through the use of technology such as spontaneous and natural inculcation of attitudes and values.television, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and Learning areas in the psychomotor domain are implicit in thelearning of science can be made more interesting and effective. learning activities.Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for theteaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurableComputer simulation and animation can be presented through behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for acourseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word particular learning objective are organised in order ofprocessors, graphic presentation software and electronic complexity. However, in the process of teaching and learning,spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation learning activities should be planned in a holistic and integratedof data. manner that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomes according to needs and context. Teachers shouldThe use of other tools such as data loggers and computer avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve eachinterfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the learning outcome separately according to the order stated ineffectiveness of teaching and learning of science. the curriculum specifications. 13
  22. 22. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on thescope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activitiesstated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are givenwith the intention of providing some guidance as to how learningoutcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may cover one ormore learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one activitymay be suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers maymodify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learningof their students. Teachers are encouraged to design otherinnovative and effective learning activities to enhance the learningof science. 14
  23. 23. THEME : INTRODUCING CHEMISTRYLEARNING AREA : 1. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Chemistry - Form 4 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.1 Collect and interpret the meaning of the A student is able to: chemicals- bahan kimiaUnderstanding word ‘chemistry’ . ? explain the meaning ofchemistry and its chemistry, chemical-based industryimportance Discuss some examples of common ? list some common chemicals - industri berasaskan chemicals used in daily life such as used in daily life, kimia sodium chloride, calcium carbonate and ? state the uses of common acetic acid. chemicals in daily life, ? list examples of occupations Discuss the uses of these chemicals in that require the knowledge of daily life. chemistry, ? list chemical-based industries in View a video or computer courseware Malaysia, on the following: ? describe the contribution of a. careers that need the knowledge of chemical-based industries chemistry, towards the development of the b. chemical-based industries in country. Malaysia and its contribution to the development of the country. Attend talks on chemical-based industries in Malaysia and their contribution to the development of the country. 16
  24. 24. LEARNING AREA : 1. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Chemistry - Form 4 Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives1.2 Observe a situation and identify all A student is able to: solubility - keterlarutanSynthesising variables. Suggest a question suitable ? identify variables in a givenscientific method for a scientific investigation. situation, Students have ? identify the relationship knowledge of Carry out an activity to: between two variables to form a scientific method in a. observe a situation. hypothesis, Form 1, 2 and 3. b. identify all variables, ? design and carry out a simple c. suggest a question, experiment to test the Scientific skills are d. form a hypothesis, hypothesis, applied throughout. e. select suitable apparatus, ? record and present data in a f. list down work procedures. suitable form, ? interpret data to draw a Carry out an experiment and: conclusion, a. collect and tabulate data, ? write a report of the b. present data in a suitable form, investigation. c. interpret the data and draw conclusions, d. write a complete report.1.3 View videos or read passages about A student is able to:Incorporate scientific investigations. Students ? identify scientific attitudes and Throughout thescientific discuss and identify scientific attitudes values practised by scientists in course, attentionattitudes and and values practised by researchers carrying out investigations, should also bevalues in and scientists in the videos or ? practise scientific attitudes and given to identifyingconducting passages. values in conducting scientific and practisingscientific investigations. scientific attitudesinvestigations and values. Students discuss and justify the scientific attitudes and values that should be practised during scientific investigations. 17
  25. 25. THEME : MATTER AROUND USLEARNING AREA : 2. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives2.1 Discuss and explain the particulate A student is able to: collision-perlanggaranAnalysing matter nature of matter. ? describe the particulate nature of matter, Students have diffusion - peresapan Use models or view computer ? state the kinetic theory of acquired prior simulation to discuss the following: matter, knowledge of melting point-takat lebur ? define atoms, molecules and elements, a. the kinetic theory of matter, ions, compounds and freezing point- takat b. the meaning of atoms, molecules and ? relate the change in the state of mixtures in Form 2. beku ions. matter to the change in heat, ? relate the change in heat to the simulation-simulasi Conduct an activity to investigate change in kinetic energy of diffusion of particles in solid, liquid and particles, inter-conversion- gas. ? explain the inter-conversion of perubahan keadaan the states of matter in terms of Investigate the change in the state of kinetic theory of matter. matter based on the kinetic theory of matter through simulation or computer animation. Ethanamide is also Conduct an activity to determine the known as melting and freezing points of acetamide. ethanamide or naphthalene. Plot and interpret the heating and the cooling curves of ethanamide or naphthalene. 18
  26. 26. LEARNING AREA : 2. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives2.2 Discuss the development of A student is able to: make generalisation -Synthesising atomic models proposed by scientists ? describe the development of mengitlakatomic structure namely Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, atomic model, Dates and how Chadwick and Bohr. ? state the main subatomic models are particles of an atom, developed are not ? compare and contrast the needed. Use models or computer simulation to relative mass and the relative illustrate the structure of an atom as charge of the protons, electrons Proton number is containing protons and neutrons in the and neutrons, also known as nucleus and electrons arranged in ? define proton number, atomic number. shells. ? define nucleon number, ? determine the proton number, Nucleon number is Conduct activities to determine the ? determine the nucleon number, also known as proton number, nucleon number and ? relate the proton number to the mass number. the number of protons, electrons nucleon number, and neutrons of an atom. ? relate the proton number to the type of element, Use a table to compare and contrast the ? write the symbol of elements, relative mass and the relative charge of ? determine the number of the protons, electrons and neutrons. neutrons, protons and electrons from the proton number and the Investigate the proton and nucleon nucleon number and vice versa, numbers of different elements. ? construct the atomic structure. Discuss : a. the relationship between proton number and nucleon number, b. to make generalisation that each element has a different proton number. 19
  27. 27. LEARNING AREA : 2. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Carry out an activity to write: a. the symbols of elements, b. the standard representation for an atom of any element. A where: X X = element Z A = nucleon number Z = proton number Construct models or use computer simulation to show the atomic structure.2.3 Collect and interpret information on: A student is able to:Understanding a. the meaning of isotope, ? state the meaning of isotope,isotopes and b. isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, ? list examples of elements withassessing their carbon, chlorine and bromine. isotopes,importance ? determine the number of Conduct activities to determine the subatomic particles of isotopes, number of subatomic particles of ? justify the uses of isotope in isotopes from their proton numbers and daily life. their nucleon numbers. Gather information from the internet or from printed materials and discuss the uses of isotope. 20
  28. 28. LEARNING AREA : 2. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives2.4 Study electron arrangements of various A student is able to:Understanding atoms and identify their valence ? describe electron arrangementsthe electronic electrons. of elements with protonstructure of an numbers 1 to 20,atom Discuss the meaning of valence ? draw electron arrangement of electrons using illustrations. an atom in an element, ? state the meaning of valence Conduct activities to: electrons, a. illustrate electron arrangements of ? determine the number of elements with proton numbers 1 to valence electrons from the 20, electron arrangement of an b. write electron arrangements of atom. elements with proton numbers 1 to 20.2.5 Discuss the contributions of scientists A student is able to: Gratefulness –Appreciate the towards the development of ideas on ? describe the contributions of kesyukuranorderliness and the atomic structure. scientists towards theuniqueness of understanding of the atomicthe atomic Conduct a story-telling competition on structure,structure the historical development of the atomic ? describe the creative and structure with emphasis on the creativity conscientious efforts of of scientists. scientists to form a complete picture of matter. 21
  29. 29. THEME : MATTER AROUND USLEARNING AREA : 2. CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives3.1 Collect and interpret data concerning A student is able to: Relative formulaUnderstanding relative atomic mass and relative ? state the meaning of relative mass is introducedand applying the molecular mass based on carbon-12 atomic mass based on carbon- as the relativeconcepts of scale. 12 scale, mass for ionicrelative atomic ? state the meaning of relative substances.mass and Discuss the use of carbon-12 scale as a molecular mass based onrelative standard for determining relative atomic carbon-12 scale,molecular mass mass and relative molecular mass. ? state why carbon-12 is used as a standard for determining Investigate the concepts of relative relative atomic mass and atomic mass and relative molecular relative molecular mass, mass using analogy or computer ? calculate the relative molecular animation. mass of substances. Carry out a quiz to calculate the relative molecular mass of substances based on the given chemical formulae, for example HCl, CO2, Na2CO3, Al(NO3)3, CuSO4.5H2O3.2 Study the mole concept using analogy A student is able to: 12Analysing the or computer simulation. ? define a mole as the amount of C can also berelationship matter that contains as many represented as 12between the Collect and interpret data on Avogadro particles as the number of 6 C or C-12number of moles constant. atoms in 12 g of 12C,with the number ? state the meaning of Avogadro Avogadro constantof particles Discuss the relationship between the constant, is also known as number of particles in one mole of a ? relate the number of particles in Avogadro number. substance with the Avogadro constant. one mole of a substance with 22
  30. 30. LEARNING AREA : 2. CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives the Avogadro constant, Carry out problem solving activities to ? solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles to the convert the number of moles to number of particles for a given the number of particles of a substance and vice versa. given substance and vice versa.3.3 Discuss the meaning of molar mass. A student is able to:Analysing the ? state the meaning of molarrelationship Using analogy or computer simulation, mass, Chemical formulaebetween the discuss to relate: ? relate molar mass to the of substances arenumber of moles a. molar mass with the Avogadro Avogadro constant, given forof a substance constant, ? relate molar mass of a calculation.with its mass b. molar mass of a substance with its substance to its relative atomic relative atomic mass or relative mass or relative molecular molecular mass. mass, ? solve numerical problems to Carry out problem solving activities to convert the number of moles of convert the number of moles of a given a given substance to its mass substance to its mass and vice versa. and vice versa.3.4 Collect and interpret data on molar A student is able to:Analysing the volume of a gas. ? state the meaning of molarrelationship volume of a gas,between the Using computer simulation or graphic ? relate molar volume of a gas tonumber of moles representation, discuss: the Avogadro constant,of a gas with its a. the relationship between molar ? make generalization on thevolume volume and Avogadro constant, molar volume of a gas at a b. to make generalization on the molar given temperature and STP – Standard STP – volume of a gas at STP or room pressure, Temperature and suhu dan conditions. ? calculate the volume of gases Pressure tekanan piawai at STP or room conditions from 23
  31. 31. LEARNING AREA : 2. CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Carry out an activity to calculate the the number of moles and vice volume of gases at STP or room versa, conditions from the number of moles ? solve numerical problems and vice versa. involving number of particles, number of moles, mass of Construct a mind map to show the substances and volume of relationship between number of gases at STP or room particles, number of moles, mass of conditions. substances and volume of gases at STP and room conditions. Carry out problem solving activities involving number of particles, number of moles, mass of a substance and volume of gases at STP or room conditions.3.5 Collect and interpret data on chemical A student is able to:Synthesising formula, empirical formula and ? state the meaning of chemical The use of Ionic formula – formulachemical molecular formula. formula, symbols and ionformulae ? state the meaning of empirical chemical formulae Conduct an activity to: formula, should be widely a. determine the empirical formula of ? state the meaning of molecular encouraged and copper(II) oxide using computer formula, not restricted to simulation, ? determine empirical and writing chemical b. determine the empirical formula of molecular formulae of equations only. magnesium oxide, substances, ? compare and contrast empirical c. compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula, formula with molecular formula. ? solve numerical problems involving empirical and Carry out problem solving activities 24
  32. 32. LEARNING AREA : 2. CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives involving empirical and molecular molecular formulae, formulae. ? write ionic formulae of ions, ? construct chemical formulae of Carry out exercises and quizzes in ionic compounds, writing ionic formulae. ? state names of chemical compounds using IUPAC IUPAC – nomenclature. International Union Conduct activities to: of Pure and a. construct chemical formulae of Applied Chemistry. compounds from a given ionic formula, b. state names of chemical compounds using IUPAC nomenclature.3.6 Discuss: A student is able to:Interpreting a. the meaning of chemical equation, ? state the meaning of chemical A computer precipitation -chemical b. the reactants and products in a equation, spreadsheet can be pemendakanequations chemical equation. ? identify the reactants and used for products of a chemical balancing chemical equation, equation exercises. Construct balanced chemical equations ? write and balance chemical for the following reactions: equations a. heating of copper(II) carbonate, ? interpret chemical equations CuCO3, quantitatively and qualitatively, b. formation of ammonium chloride, ? solve numerical problems using NH4Cl, chemical equations. c. precipitation of lead(II) iodide, PbI2. 25
  33. 33. LEARNING AREA : 2. CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Carry out the following activities: a. write and balance chemical equations, b. interpret chemical equations quantitatively and qualitatively, c. solve numerical problems using chemical equations (stoichiometry).3.7 Discuss the contributions of scientists A student is able to:Practising for their research on relative atomic ? identify positive scientificscientific mass, relative molecular mass, mole attitudes and values practisedattitudes and concept, formulae and chemical by scientists in doing researchvalues in equations. on mole concept, chemicalinvestigating formulae and chemicalmatter Discuss to justify the need for scientists equations, to practise scientific attitudes and ? justify the need to practise positive values in doing their research positive scientific attitudes and on atomic structures, formulae and good values in doing research chemical equations. on atomic structures, chemical formulae and chemical Discuss the role of chemical symbols, equations, formulae and equations as tools of ? use symbols, chemical formulae communication in chemistry. and equations for easy and systematic communication in the field of chemistry. 26
  34. 34. THEME : MATTER AROUND USLEARNING AREA : 3. PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives4.1 Collect information on the contributions A student is able to:Analysing the of various scientists towards the ? describe the contributions of Include scientistsPeriodic Table of development of the Periodic Table. scientists in the historical likeElements development of the Periodic Lavoisier, Study the arrangement of elements in Table, Dobereiner, the Periodic Table from the following ? identify groups and periods in the Newlands, Meyer, aspects: Periodic Table, Mendeleev and a. group and period, ? state the basic principle of Mosely. b. proton number, arranging the elements in the c. electron arrangement. Periodic Table from their proton numbers, Carry out an activity to relate the ? relate the electron arrangement electron arrangement of an element to of an element to its group and its group and period. period, ? explain the advantages of Discuss the advantages of grouping grouping elements in the Periodic elements in the Periodic Table. Table, ? predict the group and the period Conduct activities to predict the group of an element based on its and period of an element based on its electron arrangement. electron arrangement. 27
  35. 35. LEARNING AREA : 3. PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives4.2 Use a table to list all the elements in A student is able to:Analysing Group Group 18. ? list all Group 18 elements, The elements in Inert –18 elements ? state in general the physical Group 18 can lengai properties of Group 18 elements, also be referred Describe the physical properties such ? describe the changes in the to as noble gases as the physical state, density and physical properties of Group 18 or inert gases. boiling point of Group 18 elements. elements, ? describe the inert nature of Discuss: elements of Group 18, a. changes in the physical ? relate the inert nature of Group properties of Group 18 18 elements to their electron arrangements, elements, ? relate the duplet and octet b. the inert nature of Group 18 electron arrangements of Group 18 elements to their stability, elements. ? describe uses of Group 18 elements in daily life. Discuss the relationship between the Students are electron arrangement and the inert encouraged to nature of Group 18 elements. use multimedia materials. Use diagrams or computer simulations to illustrate the duplet and octet electron arrangement of Group 18 elements to explain their stability. Gather information on the reasons for the uses of Group 18 elements. 28
  36. 36. LEARNING AREA : 3. PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS Chemistry - Form 4Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives4.3 Gather information and discuss: A student is able to:Analysing Group a. Group 1 elements, ? list all Group 1 elements. Teachers are1 elements b. general physical properties of lithium, ? state the general physical encouraged to sodium and potassium, properties of lithium, sodium and use c. changes in the physical properties potassium, demonstration for from lithium to potassium with ? describe changes in the physical activities involving respect to hardness, density and properties from lithium to sodium and melting point, potassium, potassium. d. chemical properties of lithium, ? list the chemical properties of sodium and potassium, lithium, sodium and potassium, e. the similarities in chemical properties ? describe the similarities in of lithium, sodium and potassium, chemical properties of lithium, f. the relationship between the sodium and potassium, chemical properties of Group 1 ? relate the chemical properties of elements and their electron Group 1 elements to their arrangements. electron arrangements, ? describe changes in reactivity of Carry out experiments to investigate the Group 1 elements down the reactions of lithium, sodium and group, potassium with water and oxygen. ? predict physical and chemical properties of other elements in Study the reactions of lithium, sodium Group 1, and potassium with chlorine and ? state the safety precautions when bromine through computer simulation. handling Group 1 elements. Discuss changes in the reactivity of Group 1 elements down the group. Predict physical and chemical properties of Group 1 elements other than lithium, sodium and potassium. 29