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Cs physics f4

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications PHYSICS Form 4 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2005
  2. 2. First Edition 2005© Ministry of Education MalaysiaAll Rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or byany means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any informationor storage retrieval system without permission in writing from the Director of the CurriculumDevelopment Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia, Level 4-8, Block E9, GovernmentComplex Parcel E, 62604 Putrajaya.Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Data Pengkatalogan-dalam-PenerbitanMalaysia. Pusat Perkembangan KurikulumPhysics Form 4: Integrated Kurikulum for secondary school:curriculum specification / Pusat Perkembangan KurikulumISBN
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS PageThe National Philosophy vThe National Philosophy of Education viiNational Science Education Philosophy ixPreface xiIntroduction 1Aims and Objectives 2Scientific Skills 3Thinking Skills 4Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 9Teaching and Learning Strategies 11Content Organisation 14 Introduction to Physics 15 Forces and Motion 18 Forces and Pressure 27 Heat 32 Light 36 Acknowledgements 41 Panel of Writers 42
  4. 4. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOUR NATION, MALAYSIA, being dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her people; to maintaining a democratic way of life; to creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; to building a progressive society which shall be oriented toward modern science and technology;We, her people, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles: BELIEF IN GOD LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY UPHOLDING THE CONSTITUTION RULE OF LAW GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
  5. 5. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individualsin a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion toGod. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable andcompetent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable ofachieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the bettermentof the family, society and the nation at large. vii
  6. 6. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able tomaster scientific knowledge and technological competency ix
  7. 7. PREFACEThe aspiration of the nation to become an In a recent development, the Government has made aindustrialised society depends on science and decision to introduce English as the medium oftechnology. It is envisaged that success in providing instruction in the teaching and learning of science andquality science education to Malaysians from an early mathematics. This measure will enable students toage will serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a keep abreast of developments in science andknowledge society and a competitive player in the technology in contemporary society by enhancing theirglobal arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian capability and know-how to tap the diverse sources ofeducation system is giving greater emphasis to science information on science written in the English language.and mathematics education. At the same time, this move would also provide opportunities for students to use the English languageThe Physics curriculum has been designed not only to and hence, increase their proficiency in the language.provide opportunities for students to acquire science Thus, in implementing the science curriculum, attentionknowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and is given to developing students’ ability to use Englishthinking strategies, and to apply this knowledge and for study and communication, especially in the earlyskills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them years of learning.noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped thatthe educational process en route to achieving these The development of this curriculum and the preparationaims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of of the corresponding Curriculum Specifications havecontributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation been the work of many individuals over a period ofand its people. time. To all those who have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry ofThe Physics curriculum aims at producing active Education, express my sincere gratitude and thanks forlearners. To this end, students are given ample the time and labour expended.opportunities to engage in scientific investigationsthrough hands-on activities and experimentations. Theinquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinkingstrategies and thoughtful learning, should beemphasised throughout the teaching-learning process. (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR SMP, AMP)The content and contexts suggested are chosen based Directoron their relevance and appeal to students so that their Curriculum Development Centreinterest in the subject is enhanced. Ministry of Education Malaysia xi
  8. 8. students to continue their science education at theINTRODUCTION upper As articulated in the National EducationPolicy, education in Malaysia is an on-going effort secondary level. Core Science at the upper secondarytowards developing the potential of individuals in a level is designed to produce students who are literate inholistic and integrated manner to produce individuals science, innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledgewho are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and in decision-making and problem solving in everyday life.physically balanced and harmonious. The primaryand secondary school science curriculum is The elective science subjects prepare students whodeveloped with the aim of producing such individuals. are more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post-secondary level. This group of students As a nation that is progressing towards a would take up careers in the field of science anddeveloped nation status, Malaysia needs to create a technology and play a leading role in this field for nationalsociety that is scientifically oriented, progressive, development.knowledgeable, having a high capacity for change,forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to For every science subject, the curriculum for thescientific and technological developments in the year is articulated in two documents: the syllabus and thefuture. In line with this, there is a need to produce curriculum specifications. The syllabus presents the aims,citizens who are creative, critical, inquisitive, open- objectives and the outline of the curriculum content for aminded and competent in science and technology. period of 2 years for elective science subjects and 5 years for core science subjects. The curriculum specifications The Malaysian science curriculum comprises provide the details of the curriculum which includes thethree core science subjects and four elective science aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions onsubjects. The core subjects are Science at primary thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific skills,school level, Science at lower secondary level and scientific attitudes and noble values, teaching and learningScience at upper secondary level. Elective science strategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum contentsubjects are offered at the upper secondary level and provides the learning objectives, suggested learningconsist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and activities, the intended learning outcomes, and vocabulary.Additional Science. The core science subjects for the primary andlower secondary levels are designed to providestudents with basic science knowledge, preparestudents to be literate in science, and enable 1
  9. 9. AIMSThe aims of the physics curriculum for secondary 4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and criticalschool are to provide students with the knowledge manner for problem solving and decision making.and skills in science and technology and enable themto solve problems and make decisions in everyday 5. Face challenges in the scientific and technologicallife based on scientific attitudes and noble values. world and be willing to contribute towards the development of science and technology.Students who have followed the physics curriculumwill have a foundation in physics to enable them to 6. Evaluate science and technology relatedpursue formal and informal further education in information wisely and effectively.science and technology. 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes andThe curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, good moral values.dynamic and progressive society with a science andtechnology culture that values nature and works 8. Appreciate the contributions of science andtowards the preservation and conservation of the technology towards national development and theenvironment. well-being of mankind. 9. Realise that scientific discoveries are the resultOBJECTIVES of human endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental capabilities to understand natural phenomena for theThe physics curriculum for secondary school enables betterment of mankind.students to: 10. Be aware of the need to love and care for the1. Acquire knowledge in physics and technology environment and play an active role in its in the context of natural phenomena and preservation and conservation. everyday life experiences.2. Understand developments in the field of physics and technology.3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills. 2
  10. 10. SCIENTIFIC SKILLS Inferring Using past experiences orScience emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In previously collected data to drawinquiry and problem solving processes, scientific and conclusions and explain events.thinking skills are utilised. Scientific skills areimportant in any scientific investigation such as Predicting Stating the outcome of a futureconducting experiments and carrying out projects. event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences orScientific skills encompass science process skills and collected data.manipulative skills. Communicating Using words or graphic symbolsScience Process Skills such as tables, graphs, figures or models to describe an action, objectScience process skills enable students to formulate or event.their questions and find out the answerssystematically. Using Space- Describing changes in parameter Time with time. Examples of parametersDescriptions of the science process skills are as Relationship are location, direction, shape, size,follows: volume, weight and mass. Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations aboutObserving Using the sense of hearing, touch, an object, event or pattern derived smell, taste and sight to collect from collected data. information about an object or a phenomenon. Defining Defining concepts by describing Operationally what must be done and what shouldClassifying Using observations to group be observed. objects or events according to similarities or differences. Controlling Identifying the fixed variables, Variables manipulated variable, andMeasuring and Making quantitative observations responding variable in anUsing using numbers and tools with investigation. The manipulatedNumbers standardised units. Measuring variable is changed to observe its makes observation more accurate. relationship with the responding variable. At the same time, the 3
  11. 11. fixed variables are kept constant. THINKING SKILLSHypothesising Making a general statement about the relationship between a manipulated variable and a Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to responding variable in order to integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to explain an event or observation. understand the environment. This statement can be tested to One of the objectives of the national education system is to determine its validity. enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be achieved through a curriculum that emphasisesExperimenting Planning and conducting activities thoughtful learning. Teaching and learning that to test a certain hypothesis. These emphasises thinking skills is a foundation for thoughtful activities include collecting, learning. analysing and interpreting data and making conclusions. Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be organised to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in conceptualisation, problemManipulative Skills solving and decision-making.Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skillspsychomotor skills that enable students to: and creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before? use and handle science apparatus and laboratory accepting it. A person who thinks creatively has a high substances correctly. level of imagination, is able to generate original and? handle specimens correctly and carefully. innovative ideas, and modify ideas and products.? draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes substances accurately. that involve various steps. Each step involves various? clean science apparatus correctly, and critical and creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing? store science apparatus and laboratory thinking activities in the teaching and learning process. substances correctly and safely. 4
  12. 12. Critical Thinking Skills Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions that have the tendency to support orA brief description of each critical thinking skill is as oppose something in an unfair orfollows: misleading way. Attributing Identifying characteristics, Evaluating Making judgements on the quality features, qualities and elements of or value of something based on a concept or an object. valid reasons or evidence. Comparing and Finding similarities and Making Making a statement about the Contrasting differences based on criteria such Conclusions outcome of an investigation that is as characteristics, features, based on a hypothesis. qualities and elements of a concept or event. Grouping and Separating objects or phenomena Creative Thinking Skills Classifying into categories based on certain criteria such as common A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as characteristics or features. follows: Sequencing Arranging objects and information Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a in order based on the quality or discussion. quantity of common characteristics or features such as Relating Making connections in a situation size, time, shape or number. to determine a structure or pattern of relationship. Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance Making Using past experiences or or priority. Inferences previously collected data to draw conclusions and explain events. Analysing Examining information in detail by breaking it down into smaller parts Predicting Stating the outcome of a future to find implicit meaning and event based on prior knowledge relationships. gained through experiences or collected data. 5
  13. 13. Making Making a general conclusion Thinking StrategyGeneralisations about a group based on observations on, or information Description of each thinking strategy is as follows: from, samples of the group.Visualising Recalling or forming mental Conceptualising Making generalisations based images about a particular idea, on inter-related and common concept, situation or vision. characteristics in order toSynthesising construct meaning, concept or Combining separate elements or model. parts to form a general picture in various forms such as writing, Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from drawing or artefact. various alternatives based onMaking specific criteria to achieve a Making a general statementsHypotheses specific aim. about the relationship between manipulated variables and Problem Solving Finding solutions to challenging responding variables to explain an or unfamiliar situations or observation or event. The unanticipated difficulties in a statements can be tested to systematic manner. determine validity.Making Analogies Understanding abstract or a complex concepts by relating Besides the above thinking skills and thinking them to a simpler or concrete strategies, another skill emphasised is reasoning. concepts with similar Reasoning is a skill used in making logical, just and characteristics. rational judgements. Mastering of critical and creativeInventing thinking skills and thinking strategies is made simpler Producing something new or if an individual is able to reason in an inductive and adapting something already in deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general picture of existence to overcome problems thinking skills and thinking strategies. in a systematic manner. 6
  14. 14. Mastering of thinking skills and thinking Figure 1 : TSTS Model in Sciencestrategies (TSTS) through the teaching and learningof science can be developed through the followingphases: Thinking Skills 1. Introducing TSTS. 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’ guidance. s Critical Creative 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’ guidance. s ? Attributing ? Generating ideas 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with ? Comparing and ? Relating teacher’ guidance. s contrasting ? Making inferences 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to ? Grouping and ? Predicting accomplish thinking tasks. classifying Reasoning ? Making ? Sequencing hypothesesFurther information about phases of implementing ? Prioritising ? SynthesisingTSTS can be found in the guidebook “Buku Panduan ? Analysing ? MakingPenerapan Kemahiran Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir ? Detecting bias generalisationsdalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sains” ? Evaluating ? Visualising(Curriculum Development Centre, 1999). ? Making ? Making analogies conclusions ? Inventing Thinking Strategies ? Conceptualising ? Making decisions ? Problem solving 7
  15. 15. Relationship between Thinking Skills and Science Process Skills Thinking SkillsScience Process SkillsScience process skills are skills that are required in Predicting Relatingthe process of finding solutions to a problem or Visualisingmaking decisions in a systematic manner. It is amental process that promotes critical, creative, Using Space-Time Sequencinganalytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of Relationship Prioritisingscience process skills and the possession of suitableattitudes and knowledge enable students to think Interpreting data Comparing and contrastingeffectively. Analysing Detecting bias The mastering of science process skills Making conclusionsinvolves the mastering of the relevant thinking skills. GeneralisingThe thinking skills that are related to a particular Evaluatingscience process skill are as follows: Defining operationally Relating Making analogy VisualisingScience Process Skills Thinking Skills AnalysingObserving Attributing Controlling variables Attributing Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting Relating Relating AnalysingClassifying Attributing Comparing and contrasting Making hypotheses Attributing Grouping and classifying Relating Comparing and contrastingMeasuring and Using Relating Generating ideasNumbers Comparing and contrasting Making hypotheses PredictingMaking Inferences Relating Synthesising Comparing and contrasting Analysing Experimenting All thinking skills Making inferences Communicating All thinking skills 8
  16. 16. Teaching and Learning based on Thinking SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUESSkills and Scientific SkillsThis science curriculum emphasises thoughtful Science learning experiences can be used as a means tolearning based on thinking skills and scientific skills. inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students.Mastery of thinking skills and scientific skills are These attitudes and values encompass the following:integrated with the acquisition of knowledge in theintended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching and ? having an interest and curiosity towards thelearning, teachers need to emphasise the mastery of environment.skills together with the acquisition of knowledge and ? being honest and accurate in recording and validatingthe inculcation of noble values and scientific data.attitudes. ? being diligent and persevering.The following is an example and explanation of a ? being responsible about the safety of oneself, others,learning outcome based on thinking skills and and the environment.scientific skills. ? realising that science is a means to understand nature. ? appreciating and practising clean and healthy living.Example: ? appreciating the balance of nature. Learning Outcome: Deduce from the shape of a ? being respectful and well-mannered. velocity-time graph when a ? appreciating the contribution of science and body is: technology. i. at rest ? being thankful to god. ii. moving with uniform ? having critical and analytical thinking. velocity ? being flexible and open-minded. iii. moving with uniform acceleration. ? being kind-hearted and caring. ? being objective. Thinking Skills: analysing, relating ? being systematic. Explanation: ? being cooperative. ? being fair and just. To achieve the above learning outcome, students must ? dare to try. first analyse graphs to relate the shape of the graph to the motion of an object. ? thinking rationally. ? being confident and independent. 9
  17. 17. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble Example:values generally occurs through the following stages: Year: Form Four? being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. Learning Area: 2. Forces and Motion? giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. Learning Objective: 2.7 Being aware of the need for? practising and internalising these scientific safety features in vehicles attitudes and noble values. Learning Outcome: describe the importance of safety When planning teaching and learning features in vehicles.activities, teachers need to give due consideration tothe above stages to ensure the continuous and Suggested Learning Research and report on the physicseffective inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. Activities of vehicle collisions and safetyFor example, during science practical work, the features in vehicles in terms ofteacher should remind pupils and ensure that they physics concepts.carry out experiments in a careful, cooperative andhonest manner. Discuss the importance of safety features in vehicles. Proper planning is required for effectiveinculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values Scientific attitudes and Appreciating the contribution ofduring science lessons. Before the first lesson related noble values science and technology.to a learning objective, teachers should examine allrelated learning outcomes and suggested teaching- Having critical and analyticallearning activities that provide opportunities for the thinking.inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. The following is an example of a learning Inculcating Patriotismoutcome pertaining to the inculcation of scientificattitudes and values. The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the development and strengthening of patriotism among students. For example, in learning about the earth’ s resources, the richness and variety of living things and the development of science and technology in the country, students will appreciate the diversity of natural and human resources of the country and deepen their love for the country. 10
  18. 18. TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES and discovered by students themselves. Through activities such as experiments, students investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. Teachers then leadTeaching and learning strategies in the science students to understand the science concepts through thecurriculum emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientific skills arelearning is a process that helps students acquire thus developed further during the inquiry process.knowledge and master skills that will help them However, the inquiry approach may not be suitable for alldevelop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it may belearning can occur through various learning more appropriate for teachers to present concepts andapproaches such as inquiry, constructivism, principles directly to students.contextual learning, and mastery learning. Learningactivities should therefore be geared towards Constructivismactivating students’critical and creative thinking skillsand not be confined to routine or rote learning. Constructivism suggests that students learn aboutStudents should be made aware of the thinking skills something when they construct their own understanding.and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. The important attributes of constructivism are as follows:They should be challenged with higher orderquestions and problems and be required to solve ? taking into account students’prior knowledge.problems utilising their creativity and critical thinking. ? learning occurring as a result of students’ ownThe teaching and learning process should enable effort.students to acquire knowledge, master skills and ? learning occurring when students restructure theirdevelop scientific attitudes and noble values in an existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones.integrated manner. ? providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas and experiences, and reflecting on their learning.Teaching and Learning Approaches in Science Science, Technology and SocietyInquiry-Discovery Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning with their daily experiences. Meaningful learningInquiry-discovery emphasises learning through occurs in learning approaches such as contextual learning,experiences. Inquiry generally means to find and Science, Technology and Society (STS).information, to question and to investigate a Learning themes and learning objectives that carryphenomenon that occurs in the environment. elements of STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STSDiscovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. approach suggests that science learning takes placeLearning through discovery occurs when the main through investigation and discussion based on science andconcepts and principles of science are investigated technology issues in society. In the STS approach, 11
  19. 19. knowledge in science and technology is to be learned The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods canwith the application of the principles of science and enhance students’ interest in science. Science lessonstechnology and their impact on society. that are not interesting will not motivate students to learn and subsequently will affect their performance. The choice of teaching methods should be based on the curriculumContextual Learning content, students’ abilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and the availability of resources andContextual learning is an approach that associates infrastructure. Besides playing the role of knowledgelearning with daily experiences of students. In this presenters and experts, teachers need to act as facilitatorsway, students are able to appreciate the relevance of in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers need toscience learning to their lives. In contextual learning, be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist amongstudents learn through investigations as in the students. Different teaching and learning activities shouldinquiry-discovery approach. be planned to cater for students with different learning styles and intelligences.Mastery Learning The following are brief descriptions of some teaching andMastery learning is an approach that ensures all learning methods.students are able to acquire and master the intendedlearning objectives. This approach is based on the Experimentprinciple that students are able to learn if they aregiven adequate opportunities. Students should be An experiment is a method commonly used in scienceallowed to learn at their own pace, with the lessons. In experiments, students test hypotheses throughincorporation of remedial and enrichment activities as investigations to discover specific science concepts andpart of the teaching-learning process. principles. Conducting an experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and manipulative skills.Teaching and Learning Methods Usually, an experiment involves the following steps:Teaching and learning approaches can beimplemented through various methods such as ? identifying a problem.experiments, discussions, simulations, projects, and ? making a hypothesis.visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-learning ? planning the experimentmethods suggested are stated under the column - controlling variables.“Suggested Learning Activities.” However, teachers - determining the equipment and materialscan modify the suggested activities when the need needed.arises. - determining the procedure of the experiment and the method of data collection and analysis. 12
  20. 20. ? conducting the experiment. understand the process of decision-making. Models are ? collecting data. used to represent objects or actual situations so that ? analysing data. students can visualise the said objects or situations and ? interpreting data. thus understand the concepts and principles to be learned. ? making conclusions. ? writing a report. Project In the implementation of this curriculum, besides A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken guiding students to do an experiment, where by an individual or a group of students to achieve a certain appropriate, teachers should provide students with learning objective. A project generally requires several the opportunities to design their own experiments. lessons to complete. The outcome of the project either in This involves students drawing up plans as to how the form of a report, an artefact or in other forms needs to to conduct experiments, how to measure and be presented to the teacher and other students. Project analyse data, and how to present the outcomes of work promotes the development of problem-solving skills, their experiment. time management skills, and independent learning. Visits and Use of External ResourcesDiscussion The learning of science is not limited to activities carriedA discussion is an activity in which studentsexchange questions and opinions based on valid out in the school compound. Learning of science can bereasons. Discussions can be conducted before, enhanced through the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, science centres, research institutes,during or after an activity. Teachers should play the mangrove swamps, and factories. Visits to these placesrole of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking make the learning of science more interesting, meaningfulquestions that stimulate thinking and getting students and effective. To optimise learning opportunities, visitsto express themselves. need to be carefully planned. Students may be involved in the planning process and specific educational tasks shouldSimulation be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is complete without a post-visit discussion.In simulation, an activity that resembles the actualsituation is carried out. Examples of simulation arerole-play, games and the use of models. In role-play,students play out a particular role based on certain Use of Technologypre-determined conditions. Games require Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential inprocedures that need to be followed. Students play enhancing the learning of science. Through the use ofgames in order to learn a particular principle or to technology such as television, radio, video, computer, and 13
  21. 21. Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation ofmade more interesting and effective. scientific attitudes and noble values should be integratedComputer simulation and animation are effective into every learning activity. This ensures a moretools for the teaching and learning of abstract or spontaneous and natural inculcation of attitudes anddifficult science concepts. values. Learning areas in the psychomotor domain areComputer simulation and animation can be implicit in the learning activities.presented through courseware or Web page.Application tools such, as word processors, graphic Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurablepresentation software and electronic spreadsheets behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for aare valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of particular learning objective are organised in order ofdata. complexity. However, in the process of teaching andThe use of other tools such as data loggers and learning, learning activities should be planned in a holisticcomputer interfacing in experiments and projects also and integrated manner that enables the achievement ofenhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning of multiple learning outcomes according to needs andscience. context. Teachers should avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcome separately according to the order stated in the curriculum specifications.CONTENT ORGANISATION The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given with the intention of providingThe science curriculum is organised around themes. some guidance as to how learning outcomes can beEach theme consists of various learning areas, each achieved. A suggested activity may cover one or moreof which consists of a number of learning objectives. learning outcomes. At the same time, more than oneA learning objective has one or more learning activity may be suggested for a particular learningoutcomes. outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learning of their students.Learning outcomes are written based on the Teachers are encouraged to design other innovative andhierarchy of the cognitive and affective domains. effective learning activities to enhance the learning ofLevels in the cognitive domain are: knowledge, science.understanding, application, analysis, synthesis andevaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to beaware of, to be in awe, to be appreciative, to bethankful, to love, to practise, and to internalise.Where possible, learning outcomes relating to the 14
  22. 22. LEARNING AREA: 1. INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICSLearning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:1.1Understanding Observe everyday objects such as ? explain what physics is.Physics a table, a pencil, a mirror etc and discuss how they are related to physics concepts. View a video on natural ? recognize the physics in phenomena and discuss how everyday objects and natural they are related to physics phenomena. concepts. Discuss fields of study in physics such as forces, motion, heat, light etc.1.2 A student is able to:Understanding Discuss base quantities and ? explain what base quantities Base quantities are: base quantities –base quantities derived quantities. and derived quantities are. length (l), mass (m), kuantiti asasand derived ? list base quantities and their time (t), temperaturequantities From a text passage, identify units. (T) and current (I). derived quantities – physical quantities then classify ? list some derived quantities kuantiti terbitan them into base quantities and and their units. Suggested derived derived quantities. ? express quantities using quantities: force (F), length – panjang prefixes. density (? ) volume List the value of prefixes and their ? express quantities using (V) and velocity (v). mass – jisim abbreviations from nano to giga, scientific notation. e.g. nano (10-9), nm (nanometer). ? express derived quantities as time – masa well as their units in terms of Discuss the use of scientific base quantities and base temperature – suhu notation to express large and units. small numbers. current – arus 15
  23. 23. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective Determine the base quantities ? solve problems involving More complex force – daya (and units) in a given derived conversion of units. derived quantities quantity (and unit) from the related may be discussed density – ketumpatan formula. when these quantities are volume – isipadu Solve problems that involve the introduced in their conversion of units. related learning velocity – halaju areas. scientific notation – bentuk piawai prefix - imbuhan1.3 A student is able to:Understanding Carry out activities to show that ? define scalar and vectorscalar and vector some quantities can be defined by quantities.quantities magnitude only whereas other quantities need to be defined by magnitude as well as direction. Compile a list of scalar and vector ? give examples of scalar and quantities. vector quantities.1.4 A student is able to:Understanding Choose the appropriate ? measure physical quantities accuracy – kejituanmeasurements instrument for a given using appropriate instruments. measurement. consistency – kepersisan Discuss consistency and accuracy ? explain accuracy and using the distribution of gunshots consistency. sensitivity – on a target as an example. kepekaan Discuss the sensitivity of various ? explain sensitivity. error – ralat instruments. random - rawak 16
  24. 24. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective Demonstrate through examples ? explain types of experimental systematic errors and random error. errors. Discuss what systematic and random errors are. Use appropriate techniques to ? use appropriate techniques to reduce error in measurements reduce errors. such as repeating measurements to find the average and compensating for zero error.1.5 A student is able to:Analysing scientific Observe a situation and suggest ? identify variables in a given Scientific skills areinvestigations questions suitable for a scientific situation. applied throughout. investigation. Discuss to: ? identify a question suitable for a) identify a question suitable for scientific investigation. scientific investigation ? form a hypothesis. b) identify all the variables ? design and carry out a simple c) form a hypothesis experiment to test the d) plan the method of hypothesis. investigation including selection of apparatus and work procedures Carry out an experiment and: ? record and present data in a a) collect and tabulate data suitable form. b) present data in a suitable form ? interpret data to draw a c) interpret the data and draw conclusion. conclusions ? write a report of the d) write a complete report investigation. 17
  25. 25. LEARNING AREA: 2. FORCES AND MOTIONLearning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:2.1Analysing linear Carry out activities to gain an idea ? define distance and distance – jarakmotion of: displacement average speed = total a) distance and displacement. ? define speed and velocity and distance displacement – b) speed and velocity state that average time taken sesaran c) acceleration and deceleration s velocity, v ? . speed – laju t Carry out activities using a data ? define acceleration and velocity – halaju logger/graphing calculator/ ticker deceleration and state that timer to: v? u acceleration – a? . a) identify when a body is at t pecutan rest, moving with uniform velocity or non-uniform ? calculate speed and velocity. deceleration – velocity ? calculate acceleration/ nyahpecutan b) determine displacement, deceleration. velocity and acceleration. Solve problems using the following equations of motion: a) v = u + at b) s = ut + ½ at2 ? solve problems on linear c) v2 = u2 + 2as motion with uniform acceleration using i. v = u + at. ii. s = ut + ½ at2. iii. v2 = u2 + 2as. 18
  26. 26. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:2.2Analysing motion Carry out activities using a data ? plot and interpret Reminder:graphs logger/graphing calculator/ticker displacement-time and Velocity is timer to plot velocity-time graphs. determined from the a) displacement-time graphs gradient of b) velocity-time graphs displacement-time graph. Describe and interpret: ? deduce from the shape of a a) displacement-time and displacement-time graph Acceleration is b) velocity-time graphs when a body is: determined from the i. at rest. gradient of velocity- ii. moving with uniform time graph. velocity. iii. moving with non-uniform Distance is velocity. determined from the Determine distance, displacement, ? determine distance, area under a velocity and acceleration from displacement and velocity velocity-time graph. displacement-time and velocity- from a displacement-time time graphs. graph. ? deduce from the shape of a velocity-time graph when a body is: i. at rest. ii. moving with uniform velocity. iii. moving with uniform acceleration. ? determine distance, Solve problems on linear displacement, velocity and motion with uniform acceleration from a velocity- acceleration involving graphs. time graph. ? solve problems on linear motion with uniform acceleration. 19
  27. 27. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:2.3Understanding Carry out activities/view computer ? explain what inertia is. Newton’ First Law of s inertia - inersiainertia simulations /situations to gain an Motion may be idea on inertia. introduced here. Carry out activities to find out the ? relate mass to inertia. relationship between inertia and mass. Research and report on ? give examples of situations a) the positive effects of inertia involving inertia. b) ways to reduce the negative ? suggest ways to reduce the effects of inertia negative effects of inertia. A student is able to:2.4Analysing Carry out activities/view computer ? define the momentum of an momentum –momentum simulations to gain an idea of object. momentum momentum by comparing the effect of stopping two objects: collision – a) of the same mass moving at pelanggaran different speeds b) of different masses moving at explosion – letupan the same speed. conservation of linear Discuss momentum as the ? define momentum (p) as the momentum – product of mass and velocity. product of mass (m) and keabadian velocity (v) i.e. p = mv. momentum linear View computer simulations on collisions and explosions to gain ? state the principle of an idea on the conservation of conservation of momentum. momentum. 20
  28. 28. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective Conduct an experiment to show Reminder: that the total momentum of a Momentum as a closed system is a constant. vector quantity needs to be emphasised in Carry out activities that ? describe applications of problem solving. demonstrate the conservation of conservation of momentum. momentum e.g. water rockets. Research and report on ? solve problems involving the applications of conservation of momentum. momentum such as in rockets or jet engines. Solve problems involving linear momentum. A student is able to:2.5Understanding the With the aid of diagrams, describe ? describe the effects of When the forces balanced – seimbangeffects of a force the forces acting on an object: balanced forces acting on an acting on an object a) at rest object. are balanced they unbalanced – tidak b) moving at constant velocity ? describe the effects of cancel each other out seimbang c) accelerating. unbalanced forces acting on (nett force = 0). The an object. object then behaves nett force – daya as if there is no force bersih acting on it. Conduct experiments to find the ? determine the relationship resultant – daya relationship between: between force, mass and Newton’ Second s paduan a) acceleration and mass of an acceleration i.e. F = ma. Law of Motion may object under constant force be introduced here. b) acceleration and force for a constant mass. Solve problems using F = ma. ? solve problems using F = ma. 21
  29. 29. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:2.6Analysing impulse View computer simulations of ? explain what an impulsive impulse – impulsand impulsive collisions and explosions to gain force is.force an idea on impulsive forces. ? give examples of situations impulsive forces – involving impulsive forces. daya impuls Discuss ? define impulse as a change in a) impulse as change in momentum, i.e. momentum Ft = mv – mu . b) an impulsive force as the rate of ? define impulsive force as the change of momentum in a rate of change of momentum collision or explosion, in a collision or explosion, i.e. c) how increasing or decreasing mv ? mu time of impact affects the F ? . magnitude of the impulsive t force. Research and report situations ? explain the effect of increasing where: or decreasing time of impact a) an impulsive force needs to be on the magnitude of the reduced and how it can be done impulsive force. b) an impulsive force is beneficial ? describe situations where an impulsive force needs to be Solve problems involving reduced and suggest ways to impulsive forces. reduce it. ? describe situations where an impulsive force is beneficial. ? solve problems involving impulsive forces. 22
  30. 30. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:2.7Being aware of the Research and report on the ? describe the importance ofneed for safety physics of vehicle collisions and safety features in vehicles.features in safety features in vehicles in termsvehicles of physics concepts. Discuss the importance of safety features in vehicles. A student is able to:2.8Understanding Carry out an activity or view ? explain acceleration due to When considering a gavitational field –gravity computer simulations to gain an gravity. body falling freely, g medan graviti idea of acceleration due to gravity. (= 9.8 m s-2) is its Discuss acceleration but weight - berat a) acceleration due to gravity. ? state what a gravitational field when it is at rest, g (= b) a gravitational field as a region is. 9.8 N kg-1) is the in which an object experiences ? define gravitational field Earth’ gravitational s a force due to gravitational strength. field strength acting attraction on it. c) gravitational field strength (g) as gravitational force per unit mass. Carry out an activity to determine ? determine the value of The weight of an the value of acceleration due to acceleration due to gravity. object of fixed mass gravity. is dependent on the g ? define weight (W) as the exerted on it. Discuss weight as the Earth’ s product of mass (m) and gravitational force on an object. acceleration due to gravity (g) i.e. W = mg. Solve problems involving acceleration due to gravity. ? solve problems involving acceleration due to gravity. 23
  31. 31. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:2.9Analysing forces in With the aid of diagrams, describe ? describe situations where resultant force – dayaequilibrium situations where forces are in forces are in equilibrium. paduan equilibrium, e.g. a book at rest on a table, an object at rest on an resolve - lerai inclined plane. With the aid of diagrams, discuss ? state what a resultant force is. the resolution and addition of ? add two forces to determine forces to determine the resultant the resultant force. force. ? resolve a force into the effective component forces. Solve problems involving forces in ? solve problems involving equilibrium (limited to 3 forces). forces in equilibrium. A student is able to:2.10Understanding Observe and discuss situations ? define work (W) as the work – kerjawork, energy, where work is done. product of an applied force (F)power and Discuss that no work is done and displacement (s) of an kinetic energy –efficiency when: object in the direction of the tenaga kinetik a) a force is applied but no applied force i.e. W = Fs. displacement occurs gravitational potential b) an object undergoes a energy – tenaga displacement with no applied keupayaan graviti force acting on it. conservation of Give examples to illustrate how ? state that when work is done Have students recall energy – keabadian energy is transferred from one energy is transferred from one the different forms of tenaga object to another when work is object to another. energy. done. 24
  32. 32. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective Discuss the relationship between work done to accelerate a body and the change in kinetic energy. Discuss the relationship between work done against gravity and gravitational potential energy. Carry out an activity to show the ? define kinetic energy and state principle of conservation of that Ek = ½mv2 energy. State that power is the rate at which work is done, P = W/t. ? define gravitational potential energy and state that Ep = Carry out activities to measure mgh. power. Discuss efficiency as: useful energy output ? state the principle of x100% conservation of energy. energy input ? define power and state that P = W/t. Evaluate and report the efficiencies of various devices such as a diesel engine, a petrol engine and an electric engine. Solve problems involving work, ? explain what efficiency of a energy, power and efficiency. device is. solve problems involving work, energy, power and efficiency. 25
  33. 33. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:2.11Appreciating the Discuss that when an energy ? recognise the importance ofimportance of transformation takes place, not all maximising efficiency ofmaximising the of the energy is used to do useful devices in conservingefficiency of work. Some is converted into heat resources.devices or other types of energy. Maximising efficiency during energy transformations makes the best use of the available energy. This helps to conserve resources.2.12 A student is able to:Understanding Carry out activities to gain an idea ? define elasticity. elasticity –elasticity on elasticity. kekenyalan Plan and conduct an experiment ? define Hooke’ law. s intra-molecular force to find the relationship between – daya antara force and extension of a spring. molekul Relate work done to elastic ? define elastic potential energy extension – potential energy to obtain Ep=½ and state that Ep= ½ kx2. pemanjangan kx2. elastic potential Describe and interpret force- energy- tenaga extension graphs. keupayaan kenyal Investigate the factors that affect ? determine the factors that elasticity. affect elasticity. Research and report on ? describe applications of applications of elasticity. elasticity. Solve problems involving ? solve problems involving elasticity. elasticity. 26
  34. 34. LEARNING AREA: 3. FORCES AND PRESSURELearning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:3.1Understanding Observe and describe the effect of ? define pressure and state that Introduce the unit of pressure - tekananpressure a force acting over a large area F pressure pascal (Pa). compared to a small area, e.g. P? . (Pa = N m-2) A school shoes versus high heeled shoes. Discuss pressure as force per unit area. ? describe applications of Research and report on pressure. applications of pressure. Solve problems involving pressure. ? solve problems involving pressure. A student is able to:3.2Understanding Observe situations to form ideas ? relate depth to pressure in a depth – kedalamanpressure in liquids that pressure in liquids: liquid. a) acts in all directions density – ketumpatan b) increases with depth liquid - cecair Observe situations to form the ? relate density to pressure in a idea that pressure in liquids liquid. increases with density. Relate depth (h), density (? ) and ? explain pressure in a liquid gravitational field strength (g) to and state that P=h? g. pressure in liquids to obtain P=h? g. 27
  35. 35. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective Research and report on ? describe applications of a) the applications of pressure in pressure in liquids. liquids b) ways to reduce the negative effects of pressure in liquids. Solve problems involving pressure ? solve problems involving in liquids. pressure in liquids.3.3 A student is able to:Understanding gas Carry out activities to gain an idea ? explain gas pressure. Students need to bepressure and of gas pressure and atmospheric introduced toatmospheric pressure. instruments used topressure measure gas Discuss gas pressure in terms of pressure (Bourdon the behaviour of gas molecules Gauge) and based on the kinetic theory. atmospheric pressure (Fortin barometer, Discuss atmospheric pressure in aneroid barometer). terms of the weight of the ? explain atmospheric pressure. Working principle of atmosphere acting on the Earth’ s the instrument is not surface. required. Introduce other units Discuss the effect of altitude on of atmospheric the magnitude of atmospheric pressure: pressure. Research and report on the ? describe applications of 1 atmosphere = 760 applications of atmospheric atmospheric pressure. mm Hg = 10.3 m pressure. water = 101 300 Pa Solve problems involving ? solve problems involving 1milibar= 100 Pa atmospheric and gas pressure atmospheric pressure and gas including barometer and pressure. manometer readings. 28
  36. 36. Learning Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjective A student is able to:3.4Applying Pascal’ s Observe situations to form the ? state Pascal’ principle. s enclosed – tertutupprinciple idea that pressure exerted on an enclosed liquid is transmitted force multiplier – equally to every part of the liquid. pembesar daya Discuss hydraulic systems as a hydraulic systems – force multiplier to obtain: ? explain hydraulic systems. sistem hidraulik output force = output piston area input force input piston area transmitted - tersebar Research and report on the applications of Pascal’ principle s ? describe applications of (hydraulic systems). Pascal’ principle. s Solve problems involving ? solve problems involving Pascal’ principle. s Pascal’ principle. s A student is able to:3.5Applying Carry out an activity to measure ? explain buoyant force. Recall density and buoyancy –Archimedes’ the weight of an object in air and buoyancy. keapunganprinciple the weight of the same object in water to gain an idea on buoyant Apparent weight buoyant force – daya force. equals actual weight apung minus buoyant force. Conduct an experiment to ? relate buoyant force to the submerged – investigate the relationship weight of the liquid displaced. tenggelam between the weight of water displaced and the buoyant fluid – bendalir force. ? state Archimedes’principle. apparent weight – ? berat ketara 29