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  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum For Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications SCIENCE Year Four Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2005
  2. 2. Copyright © 2005 Curriculum Development CentreMinistry of Education MalaysiaKompleks Kerajaan Parcel E62604 PutrajayaFirst published 2005Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or othermeans, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the written permission from the Director ofthe Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
  3. 3. PageThe National Philosophy vNational Philosophy of Education viiNational Science Education Philosophy ixPreface xiIntroduction 1Aims and Objectives 1Scientific Skills 2Thinking Skills 3Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 9Teaching and Learning Strategies 10Content Organisation 12Investigating Living Things Learning Area: Living things have basic needs 13 Living things undergo life processes 16 Animals and plants protect themselves 25Investigating The Earth and The Universe Learning Area: The Solar System 30
  4. 4. Investigating Materials Learning Area: Properties of materials 32Investigating The Force abd Energy Learning Area: Measurement 39Investigating Technology Learning Area: Technology 47Acknowledgements 51Panel of Writers 52
  5. 5. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; maintaining a democratic way of life;creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; ensuring a liberal approach to her rich anddiverse cultural traditions; building a progressive society which shall be orientated towards modern science and technology;The people of Malaysia pledge their united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles: • BELIEF IN GOD • LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY • SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION • RULE OF LAW • GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
  6. 6. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integratedmanner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmoniousbased on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who areknowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a highlevel of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and thenation at large. vii
  7. 7. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and ableto master scientific knowledge and technological competency. ix
  8. 8. PREFACE In a recent development, the Government has made aThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised society decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction independs on science and technology. It is envisaged that success the teaching and learning of science and mathematics. Thisin providing quality science education to Malaysians from an early measure will enable pupils to keep abreast of developments inage will serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge science and technology in contemporary society by enhancingsociety and a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this their capability and know-how to tap the diverse sources ofend, the Malaysian education system is giving greater emphasis information on science written in the English language. At theto science and mathematics education. same time, this move would also provide opportunities for pupils to use the English language and hence, increase theirThe Science curriculum has been designed not only to provide proficiency in the language. Thus, in implementing the scienceopportunities for pupils to acquire science knowledge and skills, curriculum, attention is given to developing pupils’ ability todevelop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to apply this use English for study and communication, especially in theknowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them early years of learning.noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that theeducational process en route to achieving these aims would The development of this curriculum and the preparation of theproduce well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the workharmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, onThe Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. To this behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my sincereend, pupils are given ample opportunities to engage in scientific gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended.investigations through hands-on activities and experimentations.The inquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinkingstrategies and thoughtful learning, should be emphasisedthroughout the teaching-learning process. The content andcontexts suggested are chosen based on their relevance and (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR AMP)appeal to pupils so that their interest in the subject is enhanced. Director Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia ix
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION AIMSAs articulated in the National Education Policy, education in The aim of the primary school science curriculum is to developMalaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential pupils’ interest and creativity through everyday experiencesof individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce and investigations that promote the acquisition of scientific andindividuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and thinking skills as well as the inculcation of scientific attitudesphysically balanced and harmonious. The primary and and values.secondary school science curriculum is developed with theaim of producing such individuals. OBJECTIVES The Level Two Primary School Science curriculum isdesigned to stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop theirinterest as well to enable pupils to learn more about The Level Two Primary School Science Curriculum aims to:themselves and the world around them through pupil-centered 1. Stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest aboutactivities. the world around them. 2. Provide pupils with opportunities to develop science The curriculum is articulated in two documents: the process skills and thinking skills.syllabus and the curriculum specifications. The syllabus 3. Develop pupils’ creativity.presents the aims, objectives and the outline of the curriculum 4. Provide pupils with basic science knowledge and concepts.content for a period of 3 years for Level Two Primary School 5. To provide learning opportunities for pupils to applyScience. The curriculum specifications provides the details of knowledge and skills in a creative, critical and analyticalthe curriculum, which includes the aims and objectives of the manner for problem solving and decision-making.curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinking 6. Inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values.strategies, scientific skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, 7. Foster the appreciation on the contributions of science andteaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. The technology towards national development and well-beingcurriculum content covers the learning objectives, suggested of mankind.learning activities, learning outcomes, notes and vocabulary. 8. Be aware of the need to love and care for the environment. 1
  10. 10. SCIENTIFIC SKILLS Making Using past experiences orScience emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry Inferences previously collected data to drawand problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills conclusions and explain events.are utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientificinvestigation such as conducting experiments and carrying outprojects. Making a forecast about what Predicting will happen in the future basedScientific skills encompass science process skills and on prior knowledge gainedmanipulative skills. through experiences or collected data.Science Process Skills Communicating Using words or graphic symbolsScience process skills enable pupils to formulate their such as tables, graphs, figuresquestions and find out the answers systematically. or models to describe an action, object or event.Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: Using space-time Describing changes inObserving Using the sense of hearing, relationship parameter with time. Examples touch, smell, taste and sight to of parameters are location, find out about objects or events. direction, shape, size, volume, weight and mass.Classifying Using observations to group objects or events according to Interpreting data Giving rational explanations similarities or differences. about an object, event or pattern derived from collected data.Measuring and Making quantitativeUsing Numbers observations by comparing to a Defining Defining concepts by describing conventional or non- operationally what must be done and what conventional standard. should be observed. 2
  11. 11. Controlling Naming the fixed variables, • Clean science apparatus. variables manipulated variable and • Store science apparatus. responding variable in an investigation. The manipulated THINKING SKILLS variable is changed to observe its relationship with the responding variable. At the same time, the fixed variables Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to are kept constant. integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand the environment. Making Making a general statement Hypotheses about the relationship between a One of the objectives of the national education system manipulated variable and a is to enhance the thinking ability of pupils. This objective can responding variable to explain be achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful an observation or event. The learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills statement can be tested to is a foundation for thoughtful learning. determine its validity. Thoughtful learning is achieved if pupils are activelyExperimenting Planning and conducting involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should(design a fair test) activities to test a hypothesis. be organised to provide opportunities for pupils to apply These activities include thinking skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and collecting, analysing and decision-making. interpreting data and making conclusions. Thinking skills can be categorised into critical and creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination,Manipulative Skills is able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas and products.Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotorskills that enable pupils to: Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that involve various steps. Each step involves various critical• Use and handle science apparatus and substances. and creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking• Handle specimens correctly and carefully. strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities• Draw specimens and apparatus. in the teaching and learning process. 3
  12. 12. Critical Thinking SkillsA brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: Attributing Identifying characteristics, Analysing Examining information in detail features, qualities and by breaking it down into elements of a concept or an smaller parts to find implicit object. meanings and relationships. Comparing and Finding similarities and Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions Contrasting differences based on criteria that have the tendency to such as characteristics, support or oppose something features, qualities and in an unfair or misleading way. elements of a concept or event. Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or value of something Grouping and Separating objects or based on valid reasons or Classifying phenomena into categories evidence. based on certain criteria such as common characteristics or Making Making a statement about the features. Conclusions outcome of an investigation that is based on a hypothesis. Sequencing Arranging objects and information in order based on the quality or quantity of common characteristics or features such as size, time, shape or number. Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance or priority. 4
  13. 13. Creative Thinking SkillsA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a Synthesising Combining separate elements discussion. or parts to form a general picture in various forms such Relating Making connections in a as writing, drawing or artefact. certain situation to determine a structure or pattern of Making Making general statements relationship. Hypotheses about the relationship between manipulated variable and Making Using past experiences or responding variable to explain Inferences previously collected data to an observation or event. The draw conclusions and explain statements can be tested to events. determine their validity. Predicting Making a forecast about what Making Analogies Understanding an abstract or will happen in the future based complex concepts by relating it on prior knowledge gained to simpler or concrete through experiences or concepts with similar collected data. characteristics. Making Making a general conclusion Inventing Producing something new or Generalisations about a group based on adapting something already in observations on, or existence to overcome information from, samples of problems in a systematic the group. manner. Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about a particular idea, concept, situation or vision. 5
  14. 14. Thinking Strategy Figure 1: TSTS Model in ScienceDescription of each thinking strategy is as follows:Conceptualising Making generalisations based on inter- Thinking Skills related and common characteristics in order to construct meaning, concept or model. Critical CreativeMaking Decisions Selecting the best solution from various alternatives based on specific criteria to • Attributing • Generating ideas achieve a specific aim. • Comparing and • Relating contrasting • Making inferencesProblem Solving Finding solutions to challenging or • Grouping and • Predicting unfamiliar situations or unanticipated classifying Reasoning • Making difficulties in a systematic manner. • Sequencing hypotheses • Prioritising • Synthesising • Analysing • MakingBesides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies, • Detecting bias generalisations • Evaluating • Visualisinganother skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill • Making • Making analogiesused in making logical, just and rational judgements. conclusions • InventingMastering of critical and creative thinking skills and thinkingstrategies is made simpler if an individual is able to reasonin an inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1 gives ageneral picture of thinking skills and thinking strategies. Thinking Strategies • Conceptualising • Making decisions • Problem solving 6
  15. 15. Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS)through the teaching and learning of science can be Science Process Thinking Skillsdeveloped through the following phases: Skills1. Introducing TSTS.2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance. Observing Attributing3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance. Comparing and contrasting4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’s Relating guidance.5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish Classifying Attributing thinking tasks. Comparing and contrasting Grouping and classifyingFurther information about phases of implementing TSTScan be found in the guidebook “Buku Panduan Penerapan Measuring and Using RelatingKemahiran Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran Numbers Comparing and contrastingdan Pembelajaran Sains” (Curriculum DevelopmentCentre, 1999). Making Inferences Relating Comparing and contrasting AnalysingRelationship between Thinking Skills and Making inferencesScience Process Skills Predicting RelatingScience process skills are skills that are required in the Visualisingprocess of finding solutions to a problem or making decisionsin a systematic manner. It is a mental process that promotes Using Space-Time Sequencingcritical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering Relationship Prioritisingof science process skills and the possession of suitableattitudes and knowledge enable pupils to think effectively. Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting Analysing The mastering of science process skills involves the Detecting biasmastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that Making conclusionsare related to a particular science process skill are as follows: Generalising Evaluating 7
  16. 16. acquisition of knowledge in the intended learning outcomes. Science Process Thinking Skills Thus, in teaching and learning, teachers need to emphasise Skills the mastery of skills together with the acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of noble values and scientific attitudes. Defining operationally Relating The following is an example and explanation of a learning Making analogy outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Visualising Analysing Example: Controlling variables Attributing Level Year 4 Comparing and contrasting Relating Learning Outcome: Differentiate the air that we inhale and Analysing the air that we exhale. Making hypotheses Attributing Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting Relating Comparing and contrasting Generating ideas Explanation: Making hypotheses Predicting To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge on the Synthesising composition of the air that we inhale and exhale is needed. The mastery of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important Experimenting All thinking skills as the acquisition of knowledge on humans and animal breathing. This would enable pupils to understand that breathing Communicating All thinking skills process in humans and animalsTeaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills andScientific SkillsThis Level II Science curriculum emphasises thoughtfullearning based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Masteryof thinking skills and scientific skills are integrated with the 8
  17. 17. Example: • Appreciating the balance of nature. • Being respectful and well-mannered. Level Year 5 • Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. • Being thankful to God. Learning Outcome: Design a fair test to find out what • Having critical and analytical thinking. cause the size of a shadow to change • Being flexible and open-minded. by deciding what to keep the same, • Being kind-hearted and caring. what to change and what to observe. • Being objective. • Being systematic. Scientific Skills: Experimenting Explanation: • Being cooperative. • Being fair and just. To achieve the above learning outcome, pupils plan and • Dare to try. conduct investigation to test the hypothesis. This investigation • Thinking rationally. should include collecting, analysing and interpreting data and • Being confident and independent. making conclusion. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally occurs through the following stages:SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES • Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. • Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values.Science learning experiences can be used as a means to • Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes andinculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in pupils. These noble values.attitudes and values encompass the following: When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers need• Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the• Being honest and accurate in recording and validating continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and data. values. For example, during science practical work, the• Being diligent and persevering. teacher should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in a careful, cooperative and honest manner.• Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the environment. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of scientific• Realising that science is a means to understand nature. attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Before the• Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers should 9
  18. 18. examine all related learning outcomes and suggested Inculcating Patriotismteaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for theinculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the development and strengthening of patriotism among pupils.The following is an example of a learning outcome pertaining For example, in learning about the earth’s resources, theto the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. richness and variety of living things and the development of science and technology in the country, pupils will appreciate Example: the diversity of natural and human resources of the country and deepen their love for the country. Level: Year 4 TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Learning Area: Properties of Materials Learning Objective: Knowing the importance of reuse, Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum reduce and recycle of materials. emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process that helps pupils acquire knowledge and master skills Learning Outcome: Practise reusing, reducing and that will help them develop their minds to the optimum level. recycling to conserve materials. Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning approaches such as inquiry, constructivism, contextual Suggested Learning Pupils carry out activities about learning, and mastery learning. Learning activities should Activities reusing, reducing and recycling of therefore be geared towards activating pupils’ critical and materials throughout the year. creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or rote learning. Pupils should be made aware of the thinking skills Scientific attitudes and Being responsible about the safety and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. They noble values of oneself, others and the should be challenged with higher order questions and environment. problems and be required to solve problems utilising their creativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning Having an intrest and curiosity process should enable pupils to acquire knowledge, master towards the environment. skills and develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated manner. Appreciating the balance of nature. Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through Being cooperative. experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. 10
  19. 19. Learning through discovery occurs when the main concepts their own experiments. This involves pupils drawing up plansand principles of science are investigated and discovered by as to how to conduct experiments, how to measure andpupils themselves. Through activities such as experiments, analyse data, and how to present the results of theirpupils investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by experiment.themselves. Teachers then lead pupils to understand thescience concepts through the results of the inquiry. Thinking Discussionskills and scientific skills are thus developed further during theinquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not be A discussion is an activity in which pupils exchange questionssuitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can bemay be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers shouldprinciples directly to pupils. play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions that stimulate thinking and getting pupils to express The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods themselves.can enhance pupils’ interest in science. Science lessons thatare not interesting will not motivate pupils to learn and Simulationsubsequently will affect their performances. The choice ofteaching methods should be based on the curriculum content, In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation ispupils’ abilities, pupils’ repertoire of intelligences, and the carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games andavailability of resources and infrastructure. Different teaching the use of models. In role-play, pupils play out a particular roleand learning activities should be planned to cater for pupils based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games requirewith different learning styles and intelligences. procedures that need to be followed. Pupils play games inThe following are brief descriptions of some teaching and order to learn a particular principle or to understand thelearning methods. process of decision-making. Models are used to represent objects or actual situations so that pupils can visualise the saidExperiment objects or situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be learned.An experiment is a method commonly used in sciencelessons. In experiments, pupils test hypotheses throughinvestigations to discover specific science concepts and Projectprinciples. Conducting an experiment involves thinking skills,scientific skills, and manipulative skills. A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an individual or a group of pupils to achieve a particular In the implementation of this curriculum, besides learning objective. A project generally requires several lessonsguiding pupils to carry out experiments, where appropriate, to complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of ateachers should provide pupils with the opportunities to design 11
  20. 20. report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to CONTENT ORGANISATIONthe teacher and other pupils. Project work promotes thedevelopment of problem-solving skills, time managementskills, and independent learning. The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each theme consists of various learning areas, each of which consists of a number of learning objectives. A learningVisits and Use of External Resources objective has one or more learning outcomes.The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in Learning outcomes are written in the form ofthe school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced measurable behavioural terms. In general, the learningthrough the use of external resources such as zoos, outcomes for a particular learning objective are organised inmuseums, science centres, research institutes, mangrove order of complexity. However, in the process of teaching andswamps, and factories. Visits to these places make the learning, learning activities should be planned in a holistic andlearning of science more interesting, meaningful and effective. integrated manner that enables the achievement of multipleTo optimise learning opportunities, visits need to be carefully learning outcomes according to needs and context. Teachersplanned. Pupils may be involved in the planning process and should avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries tospecific educational tasks should be assigned during the visit. achieve each learning outcome separately according to theNo educational visit is complete without a post-visit discussion. order stated in the curriculum specifications.Use of Technology The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. TheTechnology is a powerful tool that has great potential in learning activities stated under the column Suggestedenhancing the learning of science. Through the use of Learning Activities are given with the intention of providingtechnology such as television, radio, video, computer, and some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved.Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be made A suggested activity may cover one or more learningmore interesting and effective. Computer simulation and outcomes. At the same time, more than one activity may beanimation are effective tools for the teaching and learning of suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers mayabstract or difficult science concepts. Computer simulation and modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style ofanimation can be presented through courseware or Web page. learning of their pupils. Teachers are encouraged to designApplication tools such, as word processors, graphic other innovative and effective learning activities to enhancepresentation software and electronic spreadsheets are the learning of science.valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of data. 12
  21. 21. INVESTIGATING LIVING THINGS Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1. Living Things Have Basic Needs1.1 Understanding Pupils view video that Pupils Teacher guides pupils to basic needs- keperluan asas that humans shows various footage conclude that the basic breath- nafas have basic related to the basic needs of • identify the basic needs of needs of humans are breathe- bernafas needs humans i.e. humans. food, water, air and bungalow- banglo a) a child/family taking shelter. flat- rumah pangsa drinks and a balanced hut – pondok diet, long house – rumah panjang b) movement of the chest of movement – pergerakan a sleeping baby, terrace house- rumah teres c) different types of houses. shelter – tempat perlindungan balanced diet – makanan Based on the video pupils seimbang discuss the basic needs of humans i.e. food, water,air and shelter. Pupils discuss that: • give reasons why a) humans need to humans need food, water, eat/drink to help them air and shelter. grow and to stay healthy, b) humans need air to breathe, c) humans need to protect themselves from danger, sun and rain. Pupils discuss and explain what will happen to humans if there is no food, water, air and shelter. 13
  22. 22. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1.2 Understanding Pupils keep pets such as Pupils Remind pupils to handle holes- lubang that animals hamsters or chicks. animals with care. cage - sangkar have basic • identify the basic needs of container- bekas needs Pupils observe and record animals. Guide pupils to conclude reference – rujukan what they do to keep their that animals’ basic air tight – kedap udara pets alive and healthy. needs are food, water, alive- hidup air and shelter. nest- sarang Pupils discuss why hamsters or chicks are kept in a cage and not in an airtight, covered container. Based on their records pupils discuss the basic needs of animals. Pupils discuss that: • give reasons why a) animals need to animals need food, water, eat/drink to help them air and shelter. grow and to stay healthy, b) animals need air to breathe, c) animals need to protect themselves from danger, sun and rain. Pupils study pictures or • describe types of video and describe different shelters for animals. types of shelters for animals such as nests, caves and holes. 14
  23. 23. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1.3 Understanding Pupils carry out activities to Pupils These activities will take condition- keadaan that plants have show the basic needs of about two weeks. similar - serupa basic needs plants by comparing similar • identify the basic needs of watered - disiram balsam plants kept in plants. sunlight - cahaya matahari different conditions: outdoor-di luar a) 1 watered, 1 without water, b) 1 kept outdoor, 1 kept in a tight plastic bag, c) 1 kept outdoor and 1 kept in a dark cupboard. Pupils observe and record their daily observations. Based on their records pupils discuss to conclude that the basic needs of plants are water, air and sunlight. 15
  24. 24. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities2. Living Things Undergo Life Processes2.1 Analysing life Pupils use their hands to Pupils exhale – hembus nafas processes in feel the movement of their faeces- najis/tinja humans chests as they breathe. • explain that humans inhale – tarik nafas breathe. rate – kadar Pupils discuss to conclude undergo – menjalani that the movement of the • describe what inhale is. excretion – perkumuhan chest is due to breathing. defecate – nyahtinja • describe what exhale is. offspring – anak Pupils discuss that when chest- dada they inhale they take in air reaction – gerak balas and when they exhale they reproduce – membiak give out air. windpipe- salur pernafasan lung- peparu Pupils gather information • differentiate the air that sweat – peluh and discuss that: we inhale and the air that Pupils just need to know stimuli – rangsangan a) inhaled air has more we exhale. the main organs survival - kemandirian oxygen than exhaled air, involved in breathing i.e. urine – air kencing b) exhaled air has more nose, mouth, wind pipe waste product – bahan carbon dioxyde than and lungs. buangan inhaled air. Pupils observe model or • state that humans use The rate of breathing view video of human body to lungs to breathe. means the number of see that the lung is a chest movements in a breathing organ for human • identify the passage of air period of time. and to identify the passage during breathing. of air movement when human breathes. 16
  25. 25. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Activities Pupils carry out activity to • conclude that not all count the number of chest individuals have the same movements in a minute rate of breathing. when they are breathing and record their findings. Pupils compare their group findings and conclude that not everyone has the same rate of breathing. Pupils discuss to conclude • state that humans excrete that humans excrete and and defecate. defecate. Pupils discuss that when • state the products of humans: human excretion. a) excrete they get rid of • state the products of urine, carbon dioxyde human defecation. and sweat. b) defecate they get rid of faeces. Pupils discuss that humans excrete and defecate to get rid of waste materials from their bodies. Pupils discuss to infer the • give reasons why humans Do not use boiling effect on health if humans need to excrete and water. do not excrete or defecate. defecate. 17
  26. 26. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Activities Pupils view video or carry • state that humans out activities to show how respond to stimuli. human responds to stimuli e.g. by touching a glass of hot water. Pupils discuss to infer that • give reasons why humans humans respond to stimuli respond to stimuli. to protect themselves from danger or for survival. Pupils draw family trees of • state that humans their families for three reproduce. generations. Pupils compare each other’s diagram and conclude that humans produce offspring from one generation to another. Pupils discuss what will • predict what will happen if happen if humans do not humans do not reproduce. reproduce. 18
  27. 27. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities2.2 Being aware that Pupils discuss to identify Pupils smoker-perokok certain bad habits in humans e.g. affect – memberi kesan behaviour can smoking, drinking alcohol, • give examples of habits effect – kesan/akibat disturb life taking drugs. that bring harm to human drunken – mabuk processes life processes. delay- melambatkan Pupils look at pictures or cause- menyebabkan video of a smoker’s and • state the effects of drug- dadah non-smoker’s lungs and smoking on lungs. alcohol- minuman keras discuss the effects of peers – rakan sebaya smoking on lungs. harmful – merbahaya substances – bahan Pupils watch demonstration cigarette – rokok by teacher to observe the harmful substances produced when a cigarette is being burned. Suggested topics for the talk: Pupils listen to a talk on a) Smoking and Health. smoking and health given b) How Smoking Affects by a health officer. Health. Pupils draw posters about the effects of smoking on health. Pupils view video to see the • explain that taking drugs effects of drugs and alcohol and alcohol can delay a on humans in terms of the person’s response to effects of delaying a stimuli. person’s response to stimuli e.g. 19
  28. 28. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities a) ability to walk in straight line. b) delayed reaction of a drunken driver or a driver high on drug can • participate in a campaign cause accident. to discourage smoking, drugs taking and alcohol Pupils carry out activities to drinking among their discourage smoking, drugs peers. taking and alcohol drinking among their peers.2.3 Analysing the Pupils observe animals in Pupils give birth – beranak life processes in science garden to conclude grasshopper- belalang animals that animals defecate and • state that animals hatch- menetas excrete. excrete. lay eggs – bertelur life cycle – kitar hidup Pupils discuss that animals • state that animals occur- berlaku excrete and defecate to get defecate. stage- peringkat rid of waste products from their bodies. Pupils discuss to infer the • give reasons why animals effects on health if animals need to excrete and do not excrete and defecate. defecate. Pupils look at models or live • state that animals The breathing organs specimens to see the breathe. involved are lungs breathing organs of: (monkey and bird), spiracles (grasshopper), books- lung (crab), gills (fish) and moist skin (frog). 20
  29. 29. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Activities a) bird, • identify the breathing Pupils do not have to b) fish, organs for certain know the name of these c) grasshopper, animals. breathing organs. d) crab, e) frog, f) monkey. Based on the viewing of • state that breathing video/models/live organs for different types specimens pupils conclude of animals may be that breathing organs for different. animals may be different. Pupils view video showing • state that animals animals giving birth and reproduce. chicks hatching from eggs. Pupils discuss to conclude that animals reproduce. Pupils discuss to conclude • state that some animals Records can be in the that some animals give birth give birth and some lay form of drawings, and some lay eggs. eggs. measurements or descriptions etc. Pupils discuss to classify • classify animals animals into those that lay according to the way they eggs and those that give reproduce. birth to their young. 21
  30. 30. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Activities Pupils observe animals such • describe the life cycles of as butterfly, frog, hamster different animals. or chicken from birth/eggs to adult. Pupils record the changes in size/form at the different stages of the life cycles. Based on their observations • state that animals may This scrap book project and records pupils discuss have different life cycles. can be introduced at the to state that animals may beginning of the topic. have different life cycles. Pupils may add their findings into their scrap Pupils make a scrap book books as they learn on real animals as about animals.This imaginary pets e.g. tiger, activity is to help pupils whale, lizard, pangolin, bat, understand the life worm, snake etc. Pupils may processes and the write, draw or paste pictures survival of animals. It on their scrap books to tell also encourages pupils about their pets e.g. to find out more about a) what pupils have to do to animals that interest keep their pets alive and them. healthy, b) suitable home for their pets, c) food for their pets, d) how their pets protect themselves from enemies, 22
  31. 31. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities e) how their pets take care of their young, f) life processes of their pets.2.4 Understanding Pupils carry out activities to Pupils water lettuce – kiambang the life study how plants respond to bryophyllum- setawar processes in stimuli i.e. water, sunlight, • state that plants respond extinct- pupus plants touch and gravity. to stimuli. shoot – pucuk young plant – anak pokok Pupils observe and record • identify the part of plant spores – spora their findings. that responds to water. sucker –sulur/anak pokok stem cutting – keratan batang Based on the above • identify the part of plant underground stem – batang activities pupils discuss to that responds to gravity. bawah tanah identify the parts of plants tapioca plant- pokok ubi kayu that respond to stimuli: • identify the part of plant fern- paku-pakis that responds to sunlight. various – pelbagai a) roots respond to water corn – jagung and gravity, • identify the part of plant b) shoots and leaves that responds to touch. respond to sunlight, c) certain leaflets respond to touch. • state that plants Pupils observe: reproduce. a) begonia plants/ bryophyllum that have young plants growing from the leaves, 23
  32. 32. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Activities b) banana trees that have young plants growing around the parent plants, c) water lettuce that have young plants attached to parent plants. • explain why plants need to reproduce. Pupils carry out discussion based on their observations that plants reproduce. • predict what will happen Pupils watch pictures /view to the world if plants do video and discuss that not reproduce. plants reproduce to ensure the survival of their species. Pupils discuss and predict what will happen to the • explain various ways world if plants do not plants reproduce. reproduce e.g. no food supply for man and certain animals. Pupils study live specimens/ view video to find out the various ways plants reproduce i.e. a) through seeds e.g. balsam, corn and durian, b) through spores e.g. fern c) through suckers e.g. banana and pineapple, 24
  33. 33. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities d) through stem cutting e.g. hibiscus, rose and tapioca, e) through leaves e.g. bryophyllum and begonia, f) through underground stem e.g. potato, onion, ginger and lily.3. Animals and plants protect themselves3.1 Understanding Pupils touch animals such Pupils Remind pupils not to curl up- menggulung that animals as garden snails or hurt animals and to put millipede- ulat gonggok have specific millipedes and observe how • identify specific them back to where they centipede-lipan characteristics they react to danger. characteristics of animals were taken. behaviour – perlakuan and behaviour to that protect them from hurt- cedera protect Pupils describe what they danger. pangolin- tenggiling themselves from observe and give reasons scale- sisik danger for the animal’s behaviour • identify specific behaviour bed bug- pijat e.g. millipede curls up to of animals that protect chameleon- sesumpah protect itself from danger. them from danger. sting – sengat Pupils look at live specimen • describe how the specific or collect information by characteristics and looking at pictures or behaviour of animals help viewing video of various to protect them from animals to identify the danger. characteristics and behaviour of animals that protect them from danger. e.g : 25
  34. 34. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities a) pangolins have hard scales to protect themselves from enemies, b) bed bugs have bad smell to repel enemies, c) chameleons have the ability to change skin colour according to the surrounding, d) scorpions have stings to protect themselves from enemies. Pupils discuss and explain how the characteristics and behaviour of these animals protect them from danger. Pupils present their findings to the class.3.2 Understanding Pupils view video of Pupils rhinocerous- badak sumbu that animals animals that live in very hot extereme weather- cuaca have specific or cold weather. • identify specific melampau characteristics characteristics and thick fur- bulu tebal and behaviour to Pupils list the special behaviour of animals that specific characteristic – ciri protect characteristics and protect them from very khas themselves from behaviour of animals and hot or cold weather. humps- bonggol extreme weather describe how these wallowing-berkubang characteristics and excessive- berlebihan behaviour help to protect them from very hot or cold weather e.g. 26
  35. 35. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities a) rhinoceros keep their • describe how specific bodies cool by wallowing characteristics and in mud holes, behaviour of animals help b) polar bears have thick fur to protect them from very to enable them to live in hot or cold weather. very cold weather, c) camels have humps on their backs to store food and water to enable them to survive in deserts. Pupils present their findings to the class.3.3 Understanding Pupils discuss that animals Pupils Teacher encourage that animals need to protect themselves pupils to use recycled have specific from enemies and extreme • recognise the need for materials/objects. characteristics weather conditions to animals to protect and behaviour to enable them to survive. themselves from enemies enable them to and extreme weather. survive Pupils design a model of an imaginary animal that can • make a model of an protect itself from its enemy imaginary animal that can and extreme weather survive both extreme conditions. weather and enemies. Pupils build their models • give reasons why models and justify why models are are built in such ways. built with certain characteristics. 27
  36. 36. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities3.4 Understanding Pupils look at pictures/ view Pupils mimosa- semalu that plants have video of various plants to latex -susu getah specific identify special • identify the specific fine hair – bulu halus characteristics to characteristics that protect characteristics of plants itchiness-kegatalan protect these plants from their that protect them from thorn-duri themselves from enemies. enemies. leaflets-dedaun enemies Pupils list the specific • describe how the specific characteristics of plants. characteristics of plants help to protect them from Pupils describe how these enemies. characteristics of plants help to protect them from enemies. e.g. a) papaya leaves produce latex to prevent them from being eaten, b) pineapple plants have thorns to protect themselves, c) bamboos have very fine hairs that can cause itchiness. Pupils present their findings to the class. 28
  37. 37. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities3.5 Understanding Pupils view video to identify Pupils that plants have plants that can be found in: specific • give examples of plants characteristics to a) dry region, found in very dry region. protect b) area with strong winds. themselves • identify specific from dry region Pupils collect and interpret characteristics of plants and strong wind data to show how specific that protect them from characteristics of plants help excessive loss of water. to protect them from: • describe how specific a) excessive loss of water, characteristics of plants b) strong winds. help them to survive in dry region. Pupils carry out an activity to show which plant can • give examples of plants survive in dry region. found in strong wind area. E.g. the following plants are kept without water for a • identify specific week: characteristics of plants that protect them from a) a potted balsam plant, strong winds. b) a potted chilly plant, c) a potted cactus plant. • describe how specific characteristics of plants Based on their findings help them to survive in pupils make conclusion strong winds. which plant can survive in dry region. 29
  38. 38. INVESTIGATING THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1. The Solar System1.1 Understanding Pupils study a model or Pupils The constituents of the Solar System – Sistem Suria the Solar view simulation of the Solar Solar System are Mercury – Utarid System System. • list the constituents of the Mercury, Venus, Earth, Venus – Zuhrah Solar System. Mars, Saturn, Earth – Bumi Pupils discuss the Neptune, Uranus. Mars – Marikh constituents of the Solar Jupiter, Pluto, natural Jupiter – Musytari System. satellites, meteors, Saturn – Zuhal comets and asteroids, Uranus – Uranus Pupils simulate to • list the planets in the Neptune – Neptun demonstrate the relative Solar System in a Pluto – Pluto distance of the planets in sequence. constituent- ahli the Solar System. Pupils discuss that all the • state that planets move planets in the Solar System around the Sun. move around the Sun.1.2 Understanding Pupils compare the size of a Pupils The ratio of size: sago – sagu the relative size sago, a glass marble and a support lives – menyokong and distance basket ball to show the • state the size of the Sun Moon Earth Sun hidupan between the relative size of the Moon, relative to the size of the 1 : 4 : 400 absence of water – ketiadaan air Earth, the Moon Earth and Sun. Earth. absence of air – ketiadaan and the Sun udara Pupils discuss to estimate how many times the Sun is • state the size of the Earth bigger than the Earth and relative to the size of the how many times the Earth is Moon. bigger than the Moon. Pupils gather information to • state the relative . estimate how far the Sun is distance from the Earth to from the Earth relative to the the Sun compared to the distance of the Moon from relative distance from the the Earth. Earth to the Moon. 30
  39. 39. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils discuss and conclude that the distance from the Earth to the Sun is 400 time the distance from the Earth to the Moon. Pupils simulate/build model to show the relative size and distance of the Sun and the Moon from the Earth.1.3 Appreciating the Pupils gather information Pupils conducive-sesuai perfect about planets in the Solar placement-kedudukan placement of the System. • state why certain planets planet Earth in are not conducive for the Solar Pupils discuss how the living things. System distance of a planet from the Sun affects how hot or cold it is. Pupils discuss to relate how hot or cold a planet is to its ability to support life. Pupils discuss to predict • predict what will happen what will happen if the Earth if the Earth is placed is placed much nearer or much nearer or farther farther fom the Sun. from the Sun. Pupils discuss other factors • conclude that the Earth that affect a planet’s ability is the only planet in the to support lives e.g. Solar System that has absence of water and living things. absence of air. 31
  40. 40. INVESTIGATING MATERIALS Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities1. Properties of materials1.1 Understanding Pupils are given various Pupils Teacher provides various objects material – bahan the properties objects made of wood, such as wooden ruler, metal conductor – pengalir of materials plastic, metal, glass or • classify objects into spoon, cloth, paper, coin, piece of insulator- penebat rubber and group them groups according to leather, rubber band, glass plate, metal – logam according to the the materials they are cork and marble. heat – haba materials they are made made of. float – terapung of. Activities can be carried out using absorb – menyerap • identify materials that station method. stretch – regang Pupils test objects made conduct electricity. transparent- lutsinar of wood, plastic, metal, Graphic organiser in the form of a translucent- lutcahaya glass or rubber to find • identify materials that table is as shown below : opaque- legap out if they: conduct heat. wood metal …. a) conduct electricity, • identify materials that Conduct b) conduct heat, float on water. electricity c) float on water, Conduct d) absorb water, • identify materials that heat e) can be stretched, absorb water. Float on f) allow light to pass water through. • identify materials that Absorb can be stretched. water Pupils record their Can be findings in a graphic • identify materials that stretched organiser. allow light to pass Allow through. light to pass • state what a through conductor is. • state what an insulator is. 32
  41. 41. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes VocabularyObjectives Activities Discuss what conductor • make a generalisation and insulator are. that a good conductor of heat is also a good Based on the graphic conductor of organiser, pupils make a electricity. generalisation that a good heat conductor is • classify materials also a good electric based on their conductor. abilities to allow light to pass through. Pupils carry out • state what a activities to test different transparent material materials such as glass, is. wood, rubber, metal and plastic to find out their • state what a abilities to allow light to translucent material Suggested objects are : glass, pass through. is. book, paper, window pane, towel, handkerchief, tissue paper, Based on the above • state what an opaque transparency sheet, tracing paper activities, pupils classify material is. etc. materials into 3 categories i.e. a) transparent material that allows most light to pass through, b) translucent material • list uses of that allows some transparent, light to pass through, translucent and c) opaque material that opaque materials. does not allow any light to pass through. 33
  42. 42. Learning Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Objectives Activities Pupils study and discuss the uses of transparent, translucent and opaque materials.1.2 Applying the Pupils observe models Pupils Teacher encourage pupils to use cold – sejuk knowledge of or view video to see the recycled materials/objects. effective- berkesan properties of structure of a • suggest ways to keep materials in polystyrene container or things cold. everyday life thermos flask to understand how they • suggest ways to keep work. things hot. Pupils discuss and • design an effective suggest ways to keep way to keep things things cold. e.g. keeping hot or to keep things cold drinks for picnic. cold. Pupils discuss and suggest ways to keep things hot e.g. keeping hot drinks or food for picnic. Pupils carry out activities to test their suggestions. Pupils discuss to conclude the best way to keep things hot or to keep things cool. 34