Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Sains Tahun 5


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Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Sains Tahun 5

  1. 1. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIAIntegrated Curriculum For Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications SCIENCE Year 5 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2006
  2. 2. Copyright © 2006 Curriculum Development CentreMinistry of Education MalaysiaPusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan62604 PutrajayaFirst published 2006Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or othermeans, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the written permission from the Director ofthe Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS PageThe National Philosophy vNational Philosophy of Education viiNational Science Education Philosophy ixPreface xiIntroduction 1Aims and Objectives 1Scientific Skills 2Thinking Skills 3Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 7Teaching and Learning Strategies 7Content Organisation 9Investigating Living Things Learning Area: Microorganisms 13 Survival of the species 17Investigating Force and Energy Learning Area: Energy 23 Electricity 26 Light 29 Heat 32 iii
  4. 4. Investigating Materials Learning Area: States of matter 36 Acid and alkali 41Investigating The Earth and The Universe Learning Area: Constellation 42 The Earth, The Moon and The Sun 43Investigating Technology Learning Area: Strength and Stability 46Acknowledgements 49Panel of Writers 50 iv
  5. 5. THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHYOur nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; to maintaining a democratic way of life; tocreating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; to ensuring a liberal approach to her richand diverse cultural traditions; to building a progressive society which shall be oriented towards modern science andtechnology;We, the people of Malaysia, pledge our united efforts to attain these ends guided by these principles:BELIEF IN GODLOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRYSUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTIONRULE OF LAWGOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY v
  6. 6. NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATIONEducation in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integratedmanner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmoniousbased on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who areknowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a highlevel of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, society and the nation at large. vii
  7. 7. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHYIn consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a science and technology culture by focusingon the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency. ix
  8. 8. PREFACE In a recent development, the Government has made a decision toThe aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised society introduce English as the medium of instruction in the teaching anddepends on science and technology. It is envisaged that success in learning of science and mathematics. This measure will enableproviding quality science education to Malaysians from an early age pupils to keep abreast of developments in science and technologywill serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge in contemporary society by enhancing their capability and know-society and a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this how to tap the diverse sources of information on science written inend, the Malaysian education system is giving greater emphasis to the English language. At the same time, this move would alsoscience and mathematics education. provide opportunities for pupils to use the English language and hence, increase their proficiency in the language. Thus, inThe Science curriculum has been designed not only to provide implementing the science curriculum, attention is given toopportunities for pupils to acquire science knowledge and skills, developing pupils’ ability to use English for study anddevelop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to apply this communication, especially in the early years of learning.knowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in themnoble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the The development of this curriculum and the preparation of theeducational process en route to achieving these aims would corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the work ofproduce well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the many individuals over a period of time. To all those who haveharmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my sincere gratitude and thanksThe Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. To this for the time and labour expended.end, pupils are given ample opportunities to engage in scientificinvestigations through hands-on activities and experimentations.The inquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinkingstrategies and thoughtful learning, should be emphasisedthroughout the teaching-learning process. The content and contexts (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR SMP, AMP)suggested are chosen based on their relevance and appeal to Directorpupils so that their interest in the subject is enhanced. Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia xi
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION AIMS The aim of the primary school science curriculum is to developAs articulated in the National Education Policy, education in pupils’ interest and creativity through everyday experiences andMalaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of investigations that promote the acquisition of scientific and thinkingindividuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce skills as well as the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values.individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally andphysically balanced and harmonious. The primary and secondaryschool science curriculum is developed with the aim of producing OBJECTIVESsuch individuals. The Level Two Primary School Science curriculum isdesigned to stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest as The Level Two Primary School Science Curriculum aims to:well to enable pupils to learn more about themselves and the world 1. Stimulate pupils’ curiosity and develop their interest aboutaround them through pupil-centered activities. the world around them. 2. Provide pupils with opportunities to develop science process The curriculum is articulated in two documents: the syllabus skills and thinking skills.and the curriculum specifications. The syllabus presents the aims,objectives and the outline of the curriculum content for a period of 3 3. Develop pupils’ creativity.years for Level Two Primary School Science. The curriculum 4. Provide pupils with basic science knowledge and concepts.specifications provides the details of the curriculum, which includes 5. To provide learning opportunities for pupils to applythe aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions onthinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific skills, scientific knowledge and skills in a creative, critical and analyticalattitudes and noble values, teaching and learning strategies, and manner for problem solving and decision-making.curriculum content. The curriculum content covers the learning 6. Inculcate scientific attitudes and positive values.objectives, suggested learning activities, learning outcomes, notes 7. Foster the appreciation on the contributions of science andand vocabulary. technology towards national development and well-being of mankind. 8. Be aware of the need to love and care for the environment. 1
  10. 10. SCIENTIFIC SKILLSScience emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and Predicting Making a forecast about what will happen inproblem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are utilised. the future based on prior knowledge gainedScientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as through experiences or collected data.conducting experiments and carrying out projects. Communicating Using words or graphic symbols such as Scientific skills encompass science process skills and tables, graphs, figures or models to describemanipulative skills. an action, object or event.Science Process Skills Using space-time Describing changes in parameter with time. relationship Examples of parameters are location,Science process skills enable pupils to formulate their questions direction, shape, size, volume, weight andand find out the answers systematically. mass.Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: Interpreting data Giving rational explanations about an object, event or pattern derived from collected data.Observing Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell, taste and sight to find out about objects or Defining Defining concepts by describing what must events. operationally be done and what should be observed.Classifying Using observations to group objects or Controlling Naming the fixed variables, manipulated events according to similarities or differences. variables variable and responding variable in an investigation. The manipulated variable isMeasuring and Making quantitative observations by changed to observe its relationship with theUsing Numbers comparing to a conventional or non- responding variable. At the same time, the conventional standard. fixed variables are kept constant.Making Using past experiences or previouslyInferences collected data to draw conclusions and explain events. 2
  11. 11. Making Making a general statement about the Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to integrate Hypotheses relationship between a manipulated variable knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand the and a responding variable to explain an environment. observation or event. The statement can be tested to determine its validity. One of the objectives of the national education system is to enhance the thinking ability of pupils. This objective can beExperimenting Planning and conducting activities to test a achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful learning.(design a fair test) hypothesis. These activities include Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is a collecting, analysing and interpreting data foundation for thoughtful learning. and making conclusions. Thoughtful learning is achieved if pupils are actively involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be organisedManipulative Skills to provide opportunities for pupils to apply thinking skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making.Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skillsthat enable pupils to: Thinking skills can be categorised into critical and creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always evaluates an• Use and handle science apparatus and substances. idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A person who• Handle specimens correctly and carefully. thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is able to generate• Draw specimens and apparatus. original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas and products.• Clean science apparatus. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that• Store science apparatus. involve various steps. Each step involves various critical and creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and learning process.THINKING SKILLS 3
  12. 12. Critical Thinking SkillsA brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: Attributing Identifying characteristics, features, Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions that have qualities and elements of a concept or the tendency to support or oppose an object. something in an unfair or misleading way. Comparing and Finding similarities and differences Contrasting based on criteria such as characteristics, Evaluating Making judgements on the quality or features, qualities and elements of a value of something based on valid concept or event. reasons or evidence. Grouping and Separating objects or phenomena into Making Making a statement about the outcome Classifying categories based on certain criteria such Conclusions of an investigation that is based on a as common characteristics or features. hypothesis. Sequencing Arranging objects and information in order based on the quality or quantity of common characteristics or features such as size, time, shape or number. Prioritising Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance or priority. Analysing Examining information in detail by breaking it down into smaller parts to find implicit meanings and relationships. 4
  13. 13. Creative Thinking SkillsA brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a discussion. Synthesising Combining separate elements or parts to form a general picture in various forms such as writing, drawing or artefact. Relating Making connections in a certain situation to determine a structure or pattern of Making Making general statements about the relationship. Hypotheses relationship between manipulated variable and responding variable to Making Using past experiences or previously explain an observation or event. The Inferences collected data to draw conclusions and statements can be tested to determine explain events. their validity. Predicting Making a forecast about what will happen Making Analogies Understanding an abstract or complex in the future based on prior knowledge concepts by relating it to simpler or gained through experiences or collected concrete concepts with similar data. characteristics. Making Making a general conclusion about a Inventing Producing something new or adapting Generalisations group based on observations on, or something already in existence to information from, samples of the group. overcome problems in a systematic manner. Visualising Recalling or forming mental images about a particular idea, concept, situation or vision. Thinking Strategy 5
  14. 14. Description of each thinking strategy is as follows: Thinking SkillsConceptualising Making generalisations based on inter- related and common characteristics in order to construct meaning, concept or model. Critical CreativeMaking Decisions Selecting the best solution from various • Attributing • Generating ideas alternatives based on specific criteria to • Comparing and • Relating achieve a specific aim. contrasting • Making inferences • Grouping and • PredictingProblem Solving Finding solutions to challenging or classifying Reasoning • Making unfamiliar situations or unanticipated • Sequencing hypotheses difficulties in a systematic manner. • Prioritising • Synthesising • Analysing • Making • Detecting bias generalisationsBesides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies, another • Evaluating • Visualisingskill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill used in • Making • Making analogies conclusions • Inventingmaking logical, just and rational judgements. Mastering of criticaland creative thinking skills and thinking strategies is madesimpler if an individual is able to reason in an inductive anddeductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general picture of thinking Thinkingskills and thinking strategies. Strategies • Conceptualising • Making decisions • Problem solvingFigure 1: TSTS Model in Science 6
  15. 15. Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS) Science Process Skills Thinking Skillsthrough the teaching and learning of science can be developedthrough the following phases: Observing Attributing 1. Introducing TSTS. Comparing and contrasting 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance. Relating 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance. 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’s Classifying Attributing guidance. Comparing and contrasting Grouping 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish and classifying thinking tasks. Measuring and Using RelatingFurther information about phases of implementing TSTS can be Numbers Comparing and contrastingfound in the guidebook “Buku Panduan Penerapan KemahiranBerfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan Making Inferences RelatingPembelajaran Sains” (Curriculum Development Centre, 1999). Comparing and contrasting Analysing Making inferencesRelationship between Thinking Skills andScience Process Skills Predicting RelatingScience process skills are skills that are required in the process of Visualisingfinding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematicmanner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative, Using Space-Time Sequencinganalytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process Relationship Prioritisingskills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledgeenable pupils to think effectively. Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting Analysing Detecting bias The mastering of science process skills involves the Making conclusionsmastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are Generalisingrelated to a particular science process skill are as follows: Evaluating 7
  16. 16. Science Process Skills Thinking Skills The following is an example and explanation of a learning outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills.Defining operationally Relating Example: Making analogy Visualising Level Year 4 AnalysingControlling variables Attributing Learning Outcome: Differentiate the air that we inhale and Comparing and contrasting the air that we exhale. Relating Analysing Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrastingMaking hypotheses Attributing Explanation: Relating Comparing and contrasting Generating To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge on the ideas composition of the air that we inhale and exhale is needed. The Making hypotheses mastery of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important Predicting as the acquisition of knowledge on humans and animal Synthesising breathing. This would enable pupils to understand that breathing process in humans and animalsExperimenting All thinking skills Example:Communicating All thinking skills Level Year 5Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills andScientific Skills Learning Outcome: Design a fair test to find out what cause the size of a shadow to changeThis Level II Science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning by deciding what to keep the same,based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking what to change and what to observe.skills and scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition ofknowledge in the intended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching Scientific Skills: Experimentingand learning, teachers need to emphasise the mastery of skillstogether with the acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation ofnoble values and scientific attitudes. 8
  17. 17. Explanation: • Dare to try. • Thinking rationally. To achieve the above learning outcome, pupils plan and • Being confident and independent. conduct investigation to test the hypothesis. This investigation should include collecting, analysing and interpreting data and The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally making conclusion. occurs through the following stages: • Being aware of the importance and the need for scientificSCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES attitudes and noble values. • Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. • Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and nobleScience learning experiences can be used as a means to inculcate values.scientific attitudes and noble values in pupils. These attitudes andvalues encompass the following: When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers need to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the• Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and• Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. values. For example, during science practical work, the teacher• Being diligent and persevering. should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in• Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the a careful, cooperative and honest manner. environment.• Realising that science is a means to understand nature. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of scientific• Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Before the first• Appreciating the balance of nature. lesson related to a learning objective, teachers should examine all• Being respectful and well-mannered. related learning outcomes and suggested teaching-learning• Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. activities that provide opportunities for the inculcation of scientific• Being thankful to God. attitudes and noble values.• Having critical and analytical thinking. The following is an example of a learning outcome pertaining to the• Being flexible and open-minded. inculcation of scientific attitudes and values.• Being kind-hearted and caring.• Being objective. Example:• Being systematic.• Being cooperative. Level: Year 4• Being fair and just. 9
  18. 18. Learning Area: Properties of Materials TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES Learning Objective: Knowing the importance of reuse, reduce and recycle of materials. Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process that Learning Outcome: Practise reusing, reducing and helps pupils acquire knowledge and master skills that will help them recycling to conserve materials. develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning approaches such as inquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning. Learning Suggested Learning Pupils carry out activities about activities should therefore be geared towards activating pupils’ Activities reusing, reducing and recycling of critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or materials throughout the year. rote learning. Pupils should be made aware of the thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. They should be challenged with higher order questions and problems and be Scientific attitudes and Being responsible about the safety required to solve problems utilising their creativity and critical noble values of oneself, others and the thinking. The teaching and learning process should enable pupils to environment. acquire knowledge, master skills and develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated manner. Having an intrest and curiosity towards the environment. Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and to Appreciating the balance of nature. investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. Learning through Being cooperative. discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles of science are investigated and discovered by pupils themselves. Through activities such as experiments, pupils investigate a phenomenonInculcating Patriotism and draw conclusions by themselves. Teachers then lead pupils to understand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry.The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the development Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed further duringand strengthening of patriotism among pupils. For example, in the inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not belearning about the earth’s resources, the richness and variety of suitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it mayliving things and the development of science and technology in the be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and principlescountry, pupils will appreciate the diversity of natural and human directly to pupils.resources of the country and deepen their love for the country. 10
  19. 19. The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions that stimulateenhance pupils’ interest in science. Science lessons that are not thinking and getting pupils to express themselves.interesting will not motivate pupils to learn and subsequently willaffect their performances. The choice of teaching methods should Simulationbe based on the curriculum content, pupils’ abilities, pupils’repertoire of intelligences, and the availability of resources and In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation isinfrastructure. Different teaching and learning activities should be carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and theplanned to cater for pupils with different learning styles and use of models. In role-play, pupils play out a particular role basedintelligences. on certain pre-determined conditions. Games require proceduresThe following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learning that need to be followed. Pupils play games in order to learn amethods. particular principle or to understand the process of decision-making. Models are used to represent objects or actual situations so that pupils can visualise the said objects or situations and thusExperiment understand the concepts and principles to be learned.An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. Inexperiments, pupils test hypotheses through investigations to Projectdiscover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting anexperiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and manipulative A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by anskills. individual or a group of pupils to achieve a particular learning objective. A project generally requires several lessons to complete. In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding The outcome of the project either in the form of a report, an artefactpupils to carry out experiments, where appropriate, teachers should or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher and otherprovide pupils with the opportunities to design their own pupils. Project work promotes the development of problem-solvingexperiments. This involves pupils drawing up plans as to how to skills, time management skills, and independent learning.conduct experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and howto present the results of their experiment. Visits and Use of External ResourcesDiscussion The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in the school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced throughA discussion is an activity in which pupils exchange questions and the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, scienceopinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be conducted centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and factories.before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play the role of a Visits to these places make the learning of science more 11
  20. 20. interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning achievement of multiple learning outcomes according to needs andopportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Pupils may be context. Teachers should avoid employing a teaching strategy thatinvolved in the planning process and specific educational tasks tries to achieve each learning outcome separately according to theshould be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is complete order stated in the curriculum specifications.without a post-visit discussion. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on theUse of Technology scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are givenTechnology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancing with the intention of providing some guidance as to how learningthe learning of science. Through the use of technology such as outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may cover one ortelevision, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and more learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one activitylearning of science can be made more interesting and effective. may be suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers mayComputer simulation and animation are effective tools for the modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learningteaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. of their pupils. Teachers are encouraged to design other innovativeComputer simulation and animation can be presented through and effective learning activities to enhance the learning of science.courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as wordprocessors, graphic presentation software and electronicspreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation ofdata.CONTENT ORGANISATIONThe science curriculum is organised around themes. Each themeconsists of various learning areas, each of which consists of anumber of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or morelearning outcomes. Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurablebehavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for a particularlearning objective are organised in order of complexity. However, inthe process of teaching and learning, learning activities should beplanned in a holistic and integrated manner that enables the 12
  21. 21. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities1. Microorganism1.1 Understanding that Pupils view video showing Pupils Teacher uses the yeast- ragi microorganism is a various types of Pupils following recipe to make harmful- berbahaya living thing microorganism, e.g. bacteria, dough. magnifying glass- kanta virus, fungi and protozoa. • state types of pembesar microorganisms. Ingredients: uses- kegunaan Pupils make a qualitative 1 cup of flour sprinkling – merenjis comparison between the ½ cup of warm water size of microorganism and 1 teaspoon of dried yeast that of human and conclude 1 teaspoon of sugar that microorganism is very tiny. Method: 1.Mix all ingredients. Pupils discuss that yeast is a 2.Cover the mixture with fungi, an example of a damp cloth. microorganism. 3.Leave it for 20 minutes. Pupils observe the effect of • state that yeast is an yeast on dough and infer example of that microorganism breathes microorganism. and causes the dough to rise. • state that Ensure pupils use microorganism microscope or magnifying breathes. glass/hand lens. Pupils carry out activity and observe the effect when a test tube filled with 2 teaspoon of dried yeast, 1 teaspoon of sugar and half • state that test tube of water. The microorganism mouth of the test tube is grows. attached to a balloon. 13
  22. 22. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Ensure pupils clean their Pupils carry out activity by hands after handling water sprinkling a few drops of samples. water on a slice of bread. Pupils put the bread in a plastic bag and observe it for a few days. Pupils observe rotten oranges or mouldy rice using hand lens or microscope and record their observation for a few days. Pupils observe and record • state that their findings by drawing. microorganism moves. Pupils view video on the movement of microorganisms in water. Pupils collect samples of water from ponds, rivers or drains and observe the movement of microorganisms under a microscope. Pupils record their observation. 14
  23. 23. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils discuss and state that • conclude that microorganisms are living microorganisms are things and most of them living things and most cannot be seen with naked of them cannot be eyes. seen with naked eyes.1.2 Understanding that Pupils gather information on Pupils Pupils need not know the contagious- berjangkit some micro- the uses of methods of making quarantine – diasingkan organisms are microorganisms, e.g. • state examples of bread, tapai, tempe and measles- campak harmful and some a) making bread, use of fertiliser. chicken pox- cacar are useful. b) making tapai, microorganisms. stomach upset- sakit perut c) making tempe, cough- batuk d) making fertiliser. harm- kesan buruk dengue – denggi Pupils gather information on • state the harmful sneezing – bersin the harmful effects of effects of flu - selsema microorganisms, e.g. microorganisms. mumps – beguk a) causing illness, conjunctivitis – sakit mata b) causing food poisoning, c) causing food to turn bad, d) causing tooth decay. Pupils gather information on • describe that Teacher just need to diseases caused by diseases caused by mention the common microorganisms e.g. microorganisms can diseases. stomach upset, measles, spread from one cough, flu, chicken pox, person to another. dengue, conjunctivitis, mumps and AIDS. 15
  24. 24. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils discuss that diseases caused by microorganisms can spread from one person to another. Pupils discuss on how • explain ways to diseases caused by prevent diseases microorganisms can be caused by prevented from spreading, microorganisms. e.g. a) by washing hands before handling food, b) by boiling water before drinking, c) by covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, d) by washing hands after using the toilet, e) by putting patients who have chicken pox, conjunctivitis or mumps into quarantine. f) by covering wounds. 16
  25. 25. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities2. Survival of The Species2.1 Understanding that Pupils gather information to Pupils Teacher may explain that kemandirian different animals find examples of animals species means similar adapt- menyesuaikan have their own ways that take care of their eggs • give examples of types of living things that take care- menjaga to ensure the and young, e.g. animals that take can breed among protect- melindungi survival of their a) cow, care of their eggs themselves young – anak species. b) hen, and young. slimy – berlendir c) cat, pouch – kantong d) bird. herd – kumpulan yang besar disturbed- diganggu Pupils view video on how • explain how animals plenty – banyak animals ensure the survival take care of their attack- menyerang of their eggs and young, e.g. eggs and young. hide – menyembunyikan a) keep their young in their ensure- memastikan mouths, e.g fish, feed – memberi makan b) feed their young, e.g. bird, c) attack in order to protect their eggs or young when they are disturbed, e.g. snake or tiger, d) lay slimy eggs, e.g frog, e) hide their eggs, e.g. turtle, f) carry their young in their pouches, e.g kangaroo, h) stay in herds e.g. elephant. 17
  26. 26. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils discuss and conclude • explain why that animals take care of animals take care their eggs and young to of their eggs and ensure the survival of their young. species.2.2 Understanding that Pupils study live specimens, Pupils various – pelbagai different plants have view video or computer waxy – berlilin their own ways to simulation to find out the on • state various ways husk – sabut ensure the survival how plants ensure the plants disperse their shell – tempurung of their species survival of species, e.g. seeds and fruits. disperse – pencaran a) by water, edible – boleh dimakan b) by wind, flame of the forest – c) by animal, semarak api d) by explosive mechanism. chestnut – buah berangan balsam – keembung Pupils discuss and conclude • explain why plants ocra – kacang bendi that plants need to disperse need to disperse love grass- their seeds or fruits to seeds or fruits. kemuncup ensure the survival of their species. Pupils gather information to • give examples of Examples of plants that give examples of plants that plant that disperse disperse seeds and fruits disperse seeds and fruits by: seeds and fruits by by: a) water, water. a) water, e.g. coconut b) wind, and pong-pong, c) animal, • give examples of b) wind, e.g. lallang and d) explosive mechanism. plant that disperse angsana, seeds and fruits by c) animals, e.g. wind. watermelon, love grass 18
  27. 27. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities and rambutan Pupils study live specimens • give examples of d) explosive mechanism, or view video and discuss plant that disperse e.g. balsam, rubber, the relationship between seeds and fruits by flame of the forest, characteristics of seeds and animals. chestnut and ocra. fruits and their ways of dispersal : • give examples of plant that disperse a) by water – light and seeds by explosive have air space mechanism. b) by wind – light, have wing-like structure, dry, • relate characteristics have fine hairs and of seeds and fruits to small the ways they are c) by animals – fleshy, dispersed. brightly coloured, edible, have smells or have hooks. d) explosive mechanism – dry when ripe.2.3 Realising the Pupils discuss and predict Pupils extinction – importance of the consequences if certain kepupusan survival of the species of animals and • predict what will shortage – species plants become extinct, e.g. happen if some kekurangan a) shortage of food species of animals or resources, plants do not survive. b) other species may also face extinction. 19
  28. 28. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities3. Food Chain and Food Web3.1 Understanding food Pupils carry out a Pupils Food chains must begin food chain-rantai makanan chains brainstorming session on with plants as producers. producer-pengeluar animals and the food they • identify animals and consumer-pengguna eat. the food they eat. Pupils discuss and classify • classify animals into animals into the following herbivore, carnivore groups according to the and omnivore. food they eat: a) herbivore b) carnivore c) omnivore Pupils build food chains to • construct food chain. show the food relationship among organisms. From the food chains pupils • identify producer. identify the producers and the consumers. • identify consumer.3.2 Synthesizing food Pupils construct a food web Pupils chains to construct based on food chains given. • construct a food web food web. Pupils walk around the school compound to study food webs in places such as • construct food webs field, science garden, pond of different habitats. or under flower pot. 20
  29. 29. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Based on the organisms identified, pupils construct food chains and then food webs for the habitats they have studied. Pupils discuss and predict • predict what will what will happen if there is a happen if there is a change in the population of a change in population certain species in a food of a certain species web. in a food web. Pupils carry out simulation or play games based on food webs. Pupils view video to study • explain what will various species that are happen to certain facing extinction because species of animals if they only eat one type of they eat only one food. type of food. Pupils conclude that certain species of animals that eats one type of food only has difficulty to survive because their only source of food may run out, e.g. 21
  30. 30. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Suggested Learning Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities a) panda eats bamboo shoots only, b) koala bear eats eucalyptus leaves only, c) pangolin eats ants only. 22
  31. 31. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities1. Energy1.1 Understanding the Pupils discuss and Pupils sources- sumber uses of energy conclude that energy is energy- tenaga needed: • explain why energy bounce-melantun a) by living things to carry is needed. fuel-bahan api out life processes such boil-mendidih as moving, breathing and growing, b) to move, boil, melt or bounce non-living things. Pupils gather information • give examples and give examples where where and when and when energy is used. energy is used. Pupils gather information • state various about sources of energy, sources of energy. e.g. a) sun, b) food, c) wind, d) fuel, e) dry cell/ battery. Pupils discuss that the sun is the main source of energy. 23
  32. 32. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities1.2 Understanding that Pupils observe various Pupils transform-berubah energy can be events and identify the principle-prinsip transformed from form of energy involved, • state the various whistle- wisel one form to another e.g. forms of energy. appliances - peralatan a) a moving battery- operated toy car, b) a stretched rubber band, c) a burning candle, d) a ringing telephone. Pupils carry out activities to • state that energy discuss the transformation can be of energy e.g. transformed. a) switching on the lights: electrical energy light energy, b) lighting a candle: chemical energy heat energy + light energy, c) using a solar powered calculator : solar energy electrical energy light energy. Pupils discuss that energy can be transformed. Pupils gather information • give examples of and identify appliances that appliances that make use of energy make use of transformation and state the energy form of energy involved, transformation. 24
  33. 33. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities e.g. a) electric iron : electrical energy heat energy b) radio: electrical energy sound energy c) ceiling fan: electical energy kinetic energy + sound energy, d) gas stove: chemical energy heat energy + light energy.1.3 Understanding Pupils discuss that Pupils Provide real objects or renewable energy-tenaga renewable and non- renewable energy is the substances such as crude diperbaharui renewable energy energy that can be • state what renewable oil, charcoal, coal, etc for non-renewable energy- replenished when used up energy is. pupils to observe and tenaga yang tidak dapat and non-renewable energy • state what non- discuss. diperbaharui is the energy that cannot renewable energy is. replenished – be replenished when used digantikan up. used up- habis digunakan coal- arang batu charcoal- arang kayu Pupils gather information • list renewable energy wisely-secara bijaksana on the following: resources. biomass-biojisim a) renewable energy resources. e.g. solar, wind and biomass, b) non-renewable energy • list non-renewable resources. e.g. energy resources. natural gas, petroleum and coal. 25
  34. 34. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils discuss and conclude • explain why we need why we need to use energy to use energy wisely. wisely e.g. a) some energy resources cannot be replenished when used up, b) to save cost, c) to avoid wastage, d) to reduce pollution. Pupils discuss why • explain why renewable renewable energy is better energy is better than than non-renewable energy. non-renewable energy. Pupils carry out • give examples on how brainstorming session on to save energy. how to save energy in everyday life. Pupils draw a list of do’s and • practise saving don’ts on how to save energy. energy and use it as a guide to carry out daily activities.2. Electricity2.1 Knowing the sources Pupils carry out activity Pupils Provide real objects or dry cell- sel kering of electricity such as lighting up a bulb substances such as dry hydroelectric power – kuasa or ringing an electric bell to • state the sources cell, accumulator, hidro elektrik verify that the following of electricity. rechargeable battery, sources produce electricity solar cell etc for pupils to observe and discuss. 26
  35. 35. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities e.g. a) dry cell/ battery, b) accumulator, c) dynamo, d) solar cell.2.2 Understanding a Pupils build as many Pupils series circuit-litar bersiri series circuit and a different electric circuits as parellel circuit – litar selari parallel circuit they can. • identify the brightness- kecerahan symbols of various arrangement-susunan Pupils are introduced the components in a symbols of the components simple electric in an electric circuit, i.e circuit. battery, bulb, connecting wires and switch. Pupils draw circuit diagrams • draw circuit based on the circuits that diagrams. they have built. Pupils observe various • identify the When comparing the series circuits and parallel difference in the brightness of the bulbs in circuits. arrangement of series or parallel circuits bulbs in series and the number of batteries Based on observation, parallel circuits. and bulbs must be the pupils discuss the same. differences in the arrangement of bulbs in series and parallel circuits. 27
  36. 36. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities Pupils draw circuit diagrams of series and parallel circuits and compare the arrangement of the bulbs in these circuits. Pupils are given batteries, • build a series bulbs, switches and circuit. connecting wires to build series and parallel circuits. • build a parallel circuit. Pupils observe and compare • compare the the brightness of the bulbs brightness of the in: bulbs in a series a) series circuits, and a parallel b) parallel circuits, circuit. c) between series and parallel circuits. • compare the effect Pupils carry out activities on the bulbs when and compare what happen various switches in to the bulbs in a series a series circuit and circuit and a parallel circuit a parallel circuit when various switches in are off. each circuit are off.2.3 Understanding the Pupils discuss the danger Pupils Teacher can also discuss electric shock- kejutan safety precautions to of mishandling electrical other general safety elektrik be taken when appliances, e.g. • describe the precautions, e.g. appliances- handling electrical a) electric shock, danger of a) do not insert objects peralatan appliances b) fire, mishandling into power supply, 28
  37. 37. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities c) burn, electrical b) do not touch a switch d) electrocution. appliances. with wet hands, c) do not touch victims of Pupils discuss the safety • explain the safety electric shock. precautions to be taken precautions to be when using electrical taken when using appliances, e.g. electrical appliances. a) do not touch electrical appliances with wet hands, b) do not use electrical appliances that are faulty or having broken insulation wires, c) do not repair electrical appliances on your own, d) do not connect too many electrical appliances to one power supply.3. Light3.1 Understanding that Pupils carry out activities to Pupils beam- alur cahaya light travels in a observe that light travels in travel- bergerak straight line a straight line. • state that light opaque – legap travels in a straight Pupils gather information line. and give examples of events or phenomena that show • give examples to light travels in straight line. verify that light 29
  38. 38. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities travels in a straight line. Pupils observe and discuss • describe how the formations of shadow to shadow is formed. conclude that shadow is formed when light is blocked by an opaque or a translucent object. • design a fair test to Pupils carry out activities to find out what cause investigate the factors that the size of a cause the shape and size of shadow to change a shadow to change. by deciding what to keep the same, Pupils observe, discuss and what to change conclude that: and what to a) when the distance observe. between an object and its light source decreases, the size of the shadow increases and when the distance between an object and the screen decreases the size of the shadow decreases. b) the shape of the • design a fair test to shadow changes find out what according to the factors cause the 30
  39. 39. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities position of light source. shape of a shadow and to change by the shape of the deciding what to shadow changes keep the same, according to the what to change position of an object. and what to observe.3.2 Understanding that Pupils carry out activities to Pupils reflection- pembalikan light can be reflected investigate reflection of light using: • state that light can sharp bend- selekoh tajam a) a mirror, be reflected. ray diagram- gambarajah b) an aluminium foil. sinar • draw ray diagrams Pupils draw ray diagrams to to show reflection show the reflection of light in of light. the above activities. Pupils gather information • give examples of about the uses of reflection uses of reflection of light in everyday life, e.g. of light in everyday a) side mirror of a car, life. b) mirror at the sharp bend of a road, c) mirror in the barbershop, d) periscope. Pupils apply the principle of light reflection to design devices, e.g. a) periscope b) kaleidoscope. 31
  40. 40. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities4. Heat4.1 Understanding that Pupils heat 250ml of water Pupils temperature is an for 3 minutes and feel the indicator of degree water every few seconds • state that when a of hotness while heating to feel the substance gains change of temperature. heat it will become warmer. Pupils let the warm water cool down and feel the • state that when a water every few seconds. substance loses heat it will become Based on the above cooler. activities, pupils discuss and conclude that: a) heat gain causes the water to become warmer b) heat loss causes the water to become cooler. Pupils are guided to use and • measure read thermometer correctly. temperature using the correct Pupils gather information on technique. the metric unit for measuring temperature. • state the metric unit for Pupils carry out activity to temperature. measure temperature, e.g. a) heat up water and record the temperature every few minutes, 32
  41. 41. Investigating Force and Energy Science-Year 5 Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary Activities b) turn off the Bunsen burner and record the • state that temperature every few temperature of an minutes while the water object or material cools off. increases as it gains heat. Pupils discuss and conclude • state that that the temperature: temperature of an a) increases when heat is object or material gained, decreases as it b) decreases when heat is loses heat. lost. Pupils discuss and conclude • conclude that the that the temperature is an temperature is an indicator to measure indicator to hotness. measure hotness.4.2 Understanding the Pupils carry out activites to Pupils dent –kemek effects of heat on observe the effects of heat expand-mengembang matter. on matter, e.g. • state that matter contract-mengecut expands when snap - putus a) heating an iron ball and heated. inserting it into an iron ring, • state that matter b) cooling the heated iron contracts when ball and inserting it into cooled. the iron ring, c) heating some coloured water in a beaker with a glass tube dipped into it 33