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Education in Malaysia


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Education in Malaysia

  1. 1. MI S IA NI AY ST R L Y A OF M E D U C AT I O NEducational Planning and Research Division 2008
  2. 2. © Copyright @ 2008 Ministry of Education ISBN 978-983-9522-21-1 All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any other information storages and retrieval system, without written permission from the Ministry of Education. Cataloguing - in -- Publication-DataMalaysia, Educational Planning and Research Division. Education in Malaysia: A Journey to Excellence / prepared by the Educational Planning and Research Division. Ministry of Education Malaysia. Includes index ISBN 978-983-9522-21-1 1. Education- Malaysia I. Ministry of Education Malaysia II. Faridah, Abu Hassan 379.595Ministry of EducationLevel B - 4, Block E8,Government Complex Parcel EFederal Government Administrative Centre62604 PutrajayaMALAYSIATel : +603-8884 6522Fax : +603-8884 6579Web : byAmpang Press Sdn. Bhd.6 & 8, Jalan 6/91,Tmn. Shamelin PerkasaBatu 3 1/2 Jln. Cheras,56000 Kuala LumpurTel : +603-9284 9448 (7 lines)
  3. 3. ContentsList of Tables and Figures viiEducation Act 1996 ixEducation Vision xEducation Mission xNational Education Philosophy xiEducation Objectives xiiMinisters of Education (1955 - 2008) xiiiMessage by the Minister of Education Malaysia xivMessage by the Secretary-General of Education Malaysia xvMessage by the Director-General of Education Malaysia xviForeword by the Director of the Educational Planning and Research Division xviiCHAPTER ONE : EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA : A HISTORICAL REVIEWIntroduction 3Pre-Independence : Education During the British Occupancy (1824 - 1957) 3 English Schools 4 Malay Schools 4 Religious Schools 5 Chinese Schools 6 Tamil Schools 6 Development of Secondary Education 7Education During the Japanese Occupancy (1942-1945) 7Development of Education in Sabah and Sarawak 8Post Independence : Education During the Post-Independence Era (1957-1970) 10Education Development : Education During the Era of New Economic Policy (1971-1990) 14Education Development : Education During the Era of National Development Policy(1991-2000) 15Education Development : Education During the Era of National Vision Policy (2001-2010) 17Education Development Plan (2001-2010) 19 Education Development Master Plan (EDMP) 2006-2010 20 The EDMP Strategic Thrusts 20CHAPTER TWO : THE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEMIntroduction 29Pre-school Education 30Primary Education 31 The Compulsory Education Act 33 Strengthening of National Schools 33 The Pupils’ Integration Programme for Unity (RIMUP) 34 Vision Schools 35Smart Schools 35Special Model Schools 36 K-9 Comprehensive Special Model Schools 37 iii | education in malaysia
  4. 4. Special Programme for Orang Asli and Penan 38Cluster Schools 38Special Education 39 Special Education Service Centre 40Secondary Education 40 Technical and Vocational Education 41 National Religious Secondary School 42 Sports School 42 Arts School 43Form Six 44Matriculation Programme 44j-QAF Programme 45KIA2M Programme 45English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science (ETeMS) 46Civics and Citizenship Education 46Co-Curricular Activities 46School Assessment 46 Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) 46 Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) 47 Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) 47 Peperiksaan Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM) 47 Peperiksaan Sijil Menengah Ugama (SMU) 48 Peperiksaan Sijil Tinggi Agama Malaysia (STAM) 48 Peperiksaan Majlis Lembaga Vokasional Malaysia (MLVK) 48Private Education 48CHAPTER THREE : EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND SUPPORT PROGRAMMESIntroduction 53The Textbook Loan Scheme (TBLS) 53The Poor Students’ Trust Fund (PSTF) 54The Tuition Aid Scheme (TAS) 55The Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP) 56The Supplementary Food Programme (SFP) 58The School Milk Programme (SMP) 59The 3K Programme (Safety, Health and Aesthetic) 60The Safe School Programme (SSP) 61The Scholarship Programme 62The Counselling and Guidance Programme 64The Emergency Preparedness Programme (EPP) 64The School Boarding Programme 65The Assistance Programme for Students with Special Needs 65The Supplementary Reading Programme in Sabah and Sarawak (SRP) 66The NILAM Programme 66The School Resource Centre (SRC) 68ICT in Education 68Educational Television Programme 69Eduweb TV 69CHAPTER FOUR : TERTIARY EDUCATIONIntroduction 73History of Higher Education in Malaysia 73 iv | education in malaysia
  5. 5. Community Colleges 74Polytechnics 76Public Higher Education Institutes (Public HEIs) 76Private Higher Education Institutes (Private HEIs) 78The Malaysian Students’ Department 79Financial Assistance for Students at HEIs 79 Allowance for the Disabled Students 80 Allowance for the Community College Students 80 Financial Assistance Programme for Matriculation 80 Education Loan 81Promotion for Tertiary Education 81The National Higher Education Strategic Plan:“Beyond 2020” 81CHAPTER FIVE : TEACHER EDUCATIONIntroduction 87Historical Background 87Pre-service Teacher Education 88In-service Teacher Education 91Teachers Professional Guidance in ICT Project 93Management of Co-Curricular Activities 93Aminuddin Baki Institute (IAB) 93Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) 94Universiti of Malaya 95Teachers’ Welfare 95 Teachers’ Quarters 95 Special Allowences for Teachers in Rural/Remote Areas 96Excellent Teachers 96Award for Innovative Teachers 96Expert Teachers 96Teachers Day 97CHAPTER SIX : EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATIONIntroduction 103The Federal Level 103Policy and Educational Development Sector 103 The Educational Planning and Research Division 104 The Curriculum Development Division 105 The Educational Technology Division 106 The Malaysian Examinations Syndicate 107 The Textbook Division 108 The Malaysian National Book Council 108Educational Operations Sector 108 The School Management Division 109 The Islamic Education Division 109 The Technical and Vocational Education Division 110 The Special Education Division 110 The Sports, Art and Co-curriculum Division 111 The Private Education Division 111Professional Development Sector 112 The Teacher Education Division 112 v | education in malaysia
  6. 6. The Institute of Aminuddin Baki 112 The School Inspectorate and Quality Assurance 113Development Sector 113 The Development Division 114 The Finance Division 114 The Procurement and Asset Management Division 114 The Account Division 115The Management Sector 115 The Human Resource Management Division 115 The Competency Development and Evaluation Division 116 The Education Sponsorship Division 116 The Information and Communication Technology Division 117 The Service Management Division 117 The Corporate Affairs Division 117Divisions Directly Under the Secretary General 118 The Matriculation Division 118 The Policy and International Relations Division 118 The Internal Audit Division 119 The School Audit Division 120The Statutory Bodies Under the Ministry of Education 120 Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) 120 The Malaysian Examination Council 121 The Malaysian National Institute of Translation 122Decision Making at Federal Level 122 The Educational Planning Comittee (EPC) 122 Educational Administration at State Level 122 The State Education Departments (SED) 122Educational Administration at District Level 123Educational Administration at School Level 123Educational ExpenditureEducation For All 124 EFA Steering Committee 125 Technical Working Committee 125Internationalization Policy and Goals 126Programmes Implemented to Promote Internationalization of Education in Malaysia 126 United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) 128 Membership in UNESCO Subsidiaries 129 Collaboration with the International Bureau of Education (IBE) and 129 the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO) 129 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 130 Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) 130 Collaboration between ASEAN and SEAMEO 131 The Commonwealth 131 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Human Resources Development Working Group (APEC HRDWG) 132 Asia Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU) 132 Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) 133 International Exhibitions 133 Official Overseas Visits 133 vi | education in malaysia
  7. 7. List of Tables, Figures and GraphsChapter 1 : EDUCATION IN MALAYSIATable 1.1 Features of Colonization 3Table 1.2 Number of Students According to Type of School and Gender, 1938 3Table 1.3 Enrolment in Educational Institutions (1970-2008) 18Figure 1.1 Sabah and Sarawak School System, 1955 8Figure 1.2 The School System According to the Razak Report 9Figure 1.3 List of Important Education Committee Reports 10Figure 1.4 The Education Structure, 1968 12Figure 1.5 Formal Education System - Rahman Talib Report 1960 13Figure 1.6 List of Educational Legislation 17Figure 1.7 Framework of Educational Development Master Plan 2006-2010 23Graph 1.1 Total Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools at Primary Level 11 (1958 - 2008)Graph 1.2 Total Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools at Secondary Level 14 (1958 - 2008)Graph 1.3 Total Number of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools 18 (1980 - 2008)Chapter 2 : THE EDUCATION SYSTEMTable 2.1 Number of Pre-schools, Classrooms, Teachers and Enrolment 30Table 2.2 Intake of Special Model School, 2005-2009 36Table 2.3 Enrolment of Orang Asli Pupils, 2007 and 2008 38Table 2.4 Special Education Programmes in Primary and Secondary Schools, 2008 39Table 2.5 Special Education Integration Programmes for Primary Schools, 2008 39Table 2.6 Achievements of Malaysian Sports School Athletes at 43 International Games, 2008Table 2.7 Schedule of the j-QAF Programme 45Table 2.8 Statistics of Private Education Institutions and Agencies, 2008 49Table 2.9 Statistics of International Students in Private Schools 1995-2008 49Figure 2.1 The School System and Curricular Emphasis 29Figure 2.2 Development of Education Policy and National Education System 29Figure 2.3 List of Subjects in Primary School 32Figure 2.4 Aspects Emphasized Across the Curriculum 32Figure 2.5 Rationale for Compulsory Education 33Figure 2.6 Making National Schools as the School of Choice 34Figure 2.7 Aims of the Vision School 35Figure 2.8 List of Subjects at Lower Secondary Level 40Figure 2.9 List of Subjects at Upper Secondary Level 40 vii | education in malaysia
  8. 8. Figure 2.10 List of Elective Subjects at Upper Secondary Level 40Figure 2.11 List of Vocational Subjects at the Regular Secondary Schools 41Figure 2.12 List of Courses in Technical Schools 41Figure 2.13 List of Subjects Offered at the Form Six Level 44Figure 2.14 List of Matriculation Colleges 44Graph 2.1 Number of Primary Schools by Type, 2008 32Chapter 3 : EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPPORT PROGRAMMESTable 3.1 Allocation of the Poor Students’ Trust Fund (PSTF) 2005-2008 55Table 3.2 Scholarship Programmes under the Ministry of Education in 2007 63Table 3.3 Recognition of the Jauhari Level for Primary and Secondary Schools 67Table 3.4 The Reading Peer (RP) Reward System 67Figure 3.1 Types and Rate of Allocation in PSTF 55Figure 3.2 Scholarship Programmes for Pupils 63Chapter 4 : TERTIARY EDUCATIONTable 4.1 Number of Higher Education Institutions, December 2007 74Table 4.2 Number of Malaysian Students Studying Abroad (2002-2007) 79Figure 4.1 Full-time Courses at Certificate Level in Community College 75Figure 4.2 List of Skills Training Offered in Community Colleges 75Figure 4.3 List of Community Colleges in 2008 75Figure 4.4 List of Polytechnics in 2008 76Figure 4.5 List of Public Higher Education Institutes Based on Categories 77Figure 4.6 The National Higher Education Strategic Plan Implementation Phase 82Figure 4.7 The National Higher Education Strategic Plan 83Chapter 5 : TEACHER EDUCATIONTable 5.1 List of Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia (ITEM) 88Table 5.2 Pre-service Courses in Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia 91Table 5.3 In-service Programmes 91Figure 5.1 List of Courses Offered in IAB 94Figure 5.2 List of Courses Offered in Master of Education Programme in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) 94Figure 5.3 List of Courses Offered in Principalship Programme at the Masters Level 95Chapter 6 : EDUCATION ADMINISTRATIONTable 6.1 List of State Education Departments 104Figure 6.1 Flowchart of MOE’s Management and Administration 103Figure 6.2 The Policy Decision- Making Structure 123 viii | education in malaysia
  9. 9. An Act that provides for education and for matters connected therewith.WHEREAS acknowledging that knowledge is the key determinant of thedestiny and survival of the nation:AND WHEREAS the purpose of education is to enable the Malaysian societyto have a command of knowledge, skills and values necessary in a worldthat is highly competitive and globalised, arising from the impact of rapiddevelopment in science, technology and information:AND WHEREAS education plays a vital role in achieving the country’s visionof attaining the status of a fully developed nation in terms of economicdevelopment, social justice and spiritual, moral and ethical strength,towards creating a society that is united, democratic, liberal and dynamic:AND WHEREAS it is the mission to develop a world class quality educationsystem which will realize the full potential of the individual and fulfil theaspiration of the Malaysian nation:AND WHEREAS the National Education Policy is based on the NationalPhilosophy of Education which is expressed as follows:AND WHEREAS the above policy is to be executed through a nationalsystem of education which provides for the national language to be themain medium of instruction, a national curriculum and commonexaminations; the education provided being varied and comprehensive inscope and which will satisfy the needs of the nation as well as promotenational unity through cultural, social, economic and political developmentin accordance with the principles of Rukunegara:AND WHEREAS it is considered desirable that regard shall be had, so far as iscompatible with that policy, with the provision of efficient instruction andwith the avoidance of unreasonable public expenditure in accordancewith the wishes of their parents: ix | education in malaysia
  10. 10. x | education in malaysia
  11. 11. “ Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforttowards further developing the potential ofindividuals in a holistic and integrated manner, soas to produce individuals who are intellectually,spiritually, emotionally and physically balancedand harmonious, based on a firm belief in anddevotion to God. Such an effort is designed toproduce Malaysian citizens who areknowledgeable and competent, who possess highmoral standards, and who are responsible andcapable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to theharmony and betterment of the family, the societyand the nation at large.“ xi | education in malaysia
  12. 12. The objectives of national education are: l To produce a loyal and united Malaysian nation; l To produce faithful, well-mannered, knowledgeable, competent and prosperous individuals; l To produce the nation’s human resource for development needs; and l To provide educational opportunities for all Malaysians.The National Education Policy, the Education Vision, theEducation Mission and Education Objectives are derivedfrom the National Education Philosophy, which constitutesthe basis for all education activities and programmes. Inother words, the National Education Philosophy istranslated into action and implementation particularly theimplementation of the National Education Policy. xii | education in malaysia
  13. 13. Ministers Of Education Malaysia (1955 - 2008) xiii | education in malaysia
  14. 14. Message Minister of Education Malaysia Y. B. Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin bin Tun HusseinThe Ministry of Education is constantly endeavouring to ensure that oureducation system provides quality learning experiences to equip our youth withrelevant and current knowledge and skills. To ensure this, our education systemhas undergone rigorous changes as we have adopted cutting edge solutions tomake the system more effective and responsive to the needs of the globalisedworld. We have, at the same time, ensured that changes to the education systemare consistent with the main tenets of our National Philosophy of Education.Malaysia can be proud of the successes and achievements of its education system in this era ofglobalisation.The education system has also taken account of the new frontiers in the creation and dissemination ofknowledge brought about by the spectacular developments in information and communicationtechnologies. Education initiatives and programmes in the country take into account the necessity tocreate a work force that is comfortable with, and able to utilize these new information and communicationtechnologies. Our education system is, in many respects, on par with those of many developed countriesand has proven to be capable of developing human assets that are able to compete in the global arena.This has been possible because the Ministry of Education has been willing to embrace the latestdevelopments and innovations in education. This willingness has ensured that we maintain the integrityof our education system so that it is one of the best in the world.In our efforts to develop a world-class education system, we have ensured that all initiatives andprogramme implementations are closely monitored and evaluated so that returns on funding andresources are maximized. Apart from the emphasis on developing quality human capital, our educationsystem also plays a major role in fostering unity and social balance in our multi-cultural nation.The successes and achievements of the education system can be attributed to the work of the Ministry ofEducation in partnership with all stakeholders, especially parents and the community at large. We areconfident that Malaysia is set to be a centre of educational excellence, both regionally as well asinternationally. DATO’ SERI HISHAMMUDDIN BIN TUN HUSSEIN xiv | education in malaysia
  15. 15. Message Secretary-General of Education Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Dr. Zulkurnain bin Haji AwangI offer my congratulations to the Educational Planning and Research Division,Ministry of Education, Malaysia for having successfully published this book. I alsoextend my deepest appreciation for the opportunity to pen a few words in thisbook.This new edition of Education in Malaysia is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the national educationsystem. It contains a wealth of accurate and current information relating to the developments and innovations that havebeen implemented as part of our continuing efforts to improve the system. I am confident that the book will be aconvenient and useful reference for information relating to the various divisions and agencies of the Ministry ofEducation Malaysia for education specialists at home and abroad.Education is vital to the development of a country. A stable and flexible education system facilitates the citizens of thenation in their efforts to generate knowledge and wealth and to improve the quality of life for their people. Awareness ofthis critical role of education has strengthened our determination to ensure that our education system is capable ofrealizing national goals for nation building.In the era of globalisation the world is borderless. The Ministry of Education Malaysia accepts this new reality and hasplanned strategically and systematically to face the challenges pitted against us by this brave, new world. Our efforts toimprove our education system are geared towards ensuring that the younger generations in this country are equippedwith the knowledge, skills and competencies that will enable them to cope with the challenges posed by globalisation.Information relating to our efforts to ensure that our education system is competitive and capable of providing qualityinstruction can be found in this book. I am confident that this publication can become an important reference resourcefor all those who are interested in learning more about our education system.TAN SRI DR. ZULKURNAIN BIN HAJI AWANG xv | education in malaysia
  16. 16. Message Director-General of Education Y. Bhg. Dato’ Hj. Alimuddin bin Hj. Mohd. DomThe Ministry of Education is committed to developing the competitiveness ofthe national education system for the international arena.This challenge requiresall officers of the ministry dedicate themselves toward the goal of creating aquality education system that equips our youth with the attitudes, skills andcompetencies they require in the 21st century.Quality education is critical to the development of quality human capital. Quality human capital that isknowledgeable, competent and competitive can contribute to the peace and prosperity of the nation. Animportant part of our responsibility for the national education system is to ensure that the Malaysian educationsystem is able to respond to the demands imposed by the challenges of globalisation.We have expended mucheffort on planning and preparing a variety of innovative initiatives and programmes that are designed to bringabout the wholesome development of our learners so that they can contribute significantly to nationaldevelopment. We have also made great strides in ensuring equity and access to quality education for all ourpeople.Change brought about by rapid technological developments is a hallmark of our times. The Ministry ofEducation has attempted to harness the latest developments in education to ensure that we provide effectiveand enjoyable learning experiences for our students. Our curricular changes and innovations are designed toforeground the role of our schools as agents of social transformation, preparing our students to confront thechallenges of the 21st century while simultaneously fostering national unity, patriotism and a shared nationaldestiny. In response to the recent surge in new information and communication technologies, the Ministry ofEducation has committed itself to the preparation and implementation of programmes that are intended toequip our learners with the skills and competencies that will allow them to master these new technologies andexploit their development potential for the nation.This effort is just one part of a wider spectrum of programmes and initiatives that are detailed in the EducationDevelopment Master Plan 2006-2010. The master plan maps out the development emphases for the nationaleducation system. Continuous monitoring is an integral part of the plan and is designed to ensure that stagedtargets are achieved on schedule. By the will of Allah SWT and the diligent work of all, we are confident that wewill achieve the objectives of the Education Development Master Plan and make our education system one ofthe best in world.DATO’ HAJI ALIMUDDIN BIN HAJI MOHD. DOM xvi | education in malaysia
  17. 17. Foreword Director Educational Planning and Research Division Dr. Amir bin Salleh @ Mohd SalehPraise be to Allah. His blessings had enable Educational Planning and ResearchDivision to once again successfully publish “Education in Malaysia” .The current publication focuses on the latest developments and changes in Malaysian education. It dealswith all important aspects of the education structure as well as the management system in allorganisations and agencies under the Ministry of Education. The book highlights the Ministry’sachievements in adapting and improving its education system in order to meet the challenges ofglobalisation and address the rapid changes brought about by the development of information andcommunication technologies. It is important to note that these developments have been attained whiletaking account of the aspirations of the National Philosophy of Education.The Educational Planning and Research Division wishes to acknowledge the cooperation of the variousagencies of the Ministry of Education in the publication of this book. We wish to thank all officers in theMinistry of Education who have contributed their ideas and suggestions. We hope that this cooperationwill continue and be further enhanced in the future.Finally, it is our hope that this publication will prove to be a useful reference for information pertaining tothe Malaysian education system.DR. AMIR BIN SALLEH @ MOHD SALEH xvii | education in malaysia
  18. 18. “This country must seriously enhance the production and supply of information, knowledge and wisdom and assure their accessibility to all our people” Y.A.B. Dato’ Seri Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad Former Prime Minister of Malaysia
  19. 19. CHAPTER 1 Education in Malaysia : A Historical ReviewIntroductionInformal education in Malaysia began since the Malacca Sultanate. For decades, the education in Malaysia went througha series of transformation according to local needs. There was no significant change in the provision of education duringthe occupancy of the Portuguese and Dutch. However, the arrival of the English in 1786 brought a new era in educationfor the Malays until it was disrupted by the invasion of the Japanese in 1941. After the fall of the Japanese in 1945, theEnglish again played a significant role in the development of education until Malaya achieved its independence from theBritish on 31st August 1957.Since independence, education in Malaysia has undergone tremendous changes and development. From a diverse andfragmented system of education based upon communal needs, it has evolved into an education system that strives tobuild a united nation according to the Malaysian mould. Malaysia aims to produce a competitive society that is strong,united and resilient in facing challenges and adversity. Features of Colonization No. Colonist Period Features 1 Portuguese 1511-1641 l Based in Malacca (130 years) l Language and cultural influence l Limited impact on education 2 Dutch 1641-1824 l Based in Malacca (183 years) l Limited influence, focus was on Betawi (Jakarta) l No impact on education 3 English 1824-1942 l Significant influence on development of education 1945-1957 l Development of English, Malay, Chinese, Tamil and religious education (130 years) l Did not promote ethnic unity 4 Japanese 1942-1945 l Significant influence on relationship between ethnic groups (3 1/2 years) l School curriculum promoted Japanese culture and values Table 1.1: Features of ColonizationPre-Independence : Education During the British Occupancy (1824-1957)Prior to attaining independence from Type of Male Female Totalthe British in 1957, there was an absence Schoolof uniformity in the provision ofeducation. Each ethnic group Malay 68 905 21 531 90 436established its own school. Malay, Chinese 63 338 22 951 86 289English, Chinese and Tamil schools used Tamil 14 866 7 775 22 641their respective medium of instruction, English 40 577 17 038 57 615curricula, books and teachers. Childrenof different ethnic background could Source : Buku Pendidikan di Malaysia: Sejarah, Sistem dan Falsafah. Edisi Kedua, 2004only study together in the English Table 1.2 : Number of Students According to Type of School and Gender ,1938schools. Teachers for the Chinese andTamil schools were brought in fromChina and India respectively while local Malays were recruited to teach in Malay schools. At that time, education wasfocused on maintaining loyalty towards the country of origin. As a result, segregation existed among the ethnic groups. 3 | education in malaysia
  20. 20. • English SchoolsThe establishment of English schools in Malaya was led by the British government, individualsand Christian missionaries. The missionaries felt that it was an opportunity to spreadChristianity among the locals. The curriculum emphasized preparing students for theCambridge Overseas School Certificate. Students who obtained good results in theSchool Certificate examination were given the opportunity to further theireducation at the diploma level at Kings Edward Medical College VII (1912) inSingapore, Raffles College (1919) or at degree level at the University ofEngland. Among the earliest schools established were thePenang Free School (1816) in Pulau Pinang, VictoriaInstitution (1893) and St. John’s Institution (1893)in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the Methodist Boys’School (1897) in Selangor.The Malay College KualaKangsar (MCKK) was founded in 1905 to cater forMalay aristocrats. These schools adopted thecurriculum used by the Grammar Schools inEngland.Secondary education was only available in English Penang Free School, 1816government and mission schools as well as inindependent Chinese schools. In the 1930s, the British government introduced the Special Malay Class to enable Malaychildren from Malay schools to further their secondary education in English schools. The missionaries played aninstrumental role in developing and promoting the English education in Malaya. To cater for the growing teaching force,the English language teacher training programme was initiated in Kuala Lumpur (1905) and Pulau Pinang (1907). Diplomain teaching was offered at Raffles College, Singapore and Kirby College, United Kingdom. Prior to the establishment of theUniversity of Malaya in Singapore in 1949, graduate teachers for English secondary schools obtained training from RafflesCollege and the University of Hong Kong.• Malay Schools Initially, education among the Malays was informal and mainly focused on Al Quran and religious matters.The British government, on the other hand, set up Malay schools to teach Malay children to become better farmers than their parents. The first Malay school was established in 1855 in Gelugur, Pulau Pinang. As the number of students increased, two more schools were set up in Teluk Belanga and Kampung Gelam, Singapore. The Teluk Belanga Malay School was upgraded to a high school in 1876 and later into a teacher training college. The school in Kampung Gelam was transformed into a religious school. Sekolah Melayu Setapak, 1908 4 | education in malaysia
  21. 21. As the Malay community was not keen on co-edschools, the British government established the firstMalay Girls’ School in Teluk Belanga. The curriculumemphasized on reading, writing, arithmetics,geography and physical education. Later elements ofbasic living skills such as farming and weaving wereintroduced at the request of the Malay community.Statistics show that there were 16 Malay schools with569 students in 1872. In 1892, the number of Malayschools increased to 189 with a total of 7,218 students.The Sultan Idris Training College (1922) and the MalayWomen’s Training College (1935) were established totrain teachers. Maktab Perguruan Perempuan Melayu Melaka, 1935• Religious Schools Sekolah Agama Madrasah or Islamic religious schools were pervasively established to compete with English and Malay schools by Islamic religious figures such as Sheikh Tahir Jalaluddin and Sayid Syeikh Ahmad Al-Hadi. These schools had better infrastructure, and were more organized and systematic compared to sekolah pondok (informal religious classes managed by individuals). Sekolah Agama Madrasah Madrasah Al-Iqbal, Singapore (1907), Sekolah Al-Hadi, Malacca (1917) and Madrasah Al-Mashoor, Pulau Pinang (1919) were the pioneer religious schools. More schools were rapidly established between the 1920’s - 1940’s. The establishment of these religious schools provided a sense of security among the Malays that the position of Islam was secured despite the influence of other religions and way of life brought about by the English and vernacular schools. However, the aim to build a modern, rationale and progressive Muslim society was not realized as the curriculum lacked emphasis on Mathematics, Science and English Language, which were considered as essential subjects to promote mobility amongst a modern Muslim society. Sayed Sheikh Al-Hadi 5 | education in malaysia
  22. 22. • Chinese SchoolsThe Chinese were brought to Malaya from mainland China towork at the tin mines in urban areas. Chinese schools wereestablished and financed by this community until the 1920’s.The curriculum, textbooks and teachers were brought in fromChina.The first Chinese school was set up in Malacca in 1816 bya group of missionaries from London.In the early 20th century, the Chinese schools were very muchinfluenced by the reformation movement in mainland China.Kang Yu Wei, a Chinese scholar, introduced a modern andmore systematic curriculum in the Chinese schools in Malayaand Singapore. This curriculum included subjects such asHistory, Geography, Science, Mathematics, Ethics, Writing, Physical Educationand Music. Schooling was divided into six years of primary, three years of Junior Middle and three years ofSenior Middle school. The new curriculum provided an avenue for the British to interfere in the administration of Chineseschools.The British government introduced the School Registration Ordinance to control the administration and expansion ofChinese schools. In 1924, some Chinese schools received financial aid from the British government, and by 1938, a total of 684Chinese schools received this financial aid.• Tamil SchoolsThe Indians were brought into Malaya to work in estates and plantations.The development and growth of Tamil schools wasthus closely linked to the opening of rubber estates, coffee, sugar-cane and coconut plantations in Penang, Malacca andJohore.The textbooks and teachers were brought in from India while the curriculum was adapted from the Indian curriculum.However, since the Tamil schools were initially built by the Indian workers without any aid or assistance from the British government or their employers, these schools failed to function effectively as they lacked proper resources. Most pupils remained in the plantation and worked as labourers. In 1923, the Labour Enactment introduced by the British government enforced that it is compulsory for each estate to open a school when there was more than 10 Indian children aged 7-14 years. In addition, the British government provided some financial assistance to schools that showed progress and opened free Tamil schools for the children of public works department and railway workers. Since then, most Tamil schools were financed either by the British government, the estate management, the local Indian SJK(T) Kinrara, 1947 community or the Christian missionaries. However, due to the poor development of Tamil schools, some parents opted to sendtheir children to English schools as they had better facilities and resources. By 1930, there were four types of Tamil schoolsnamely, government schools, estate schools, Indian community private schools and the Christian missionary private schools. 6 | education in malaysia
  23. 23. • Development of Secondary EducationThe British government provided free secondary education in English, missionary and Chinese schools while the Malay andthe Tamil schools were confined to primary education. Students who wanted to further their education had no choice but toattend English schools. Students from Malay schools had to attend a Special Malay Class upon completion of Year 3 or Year 4as a requirement for entry. The policy of the British government was to produce an educated Malayan civil service.Nevertheless, the higher ranking positions were reserved for and filled by the Europeans.Several tertiary education institutions were established during this period. The first institution of higher education, in fieldsother than teaching, was not established until 1905 when the King Edward VII College of Medicine was founded in Singapore.The second institution was the Raffles College which was also established in Singapore in 1928. These two colleges wereamalgamated to constitute the former University of Malaya in Singapore. The Public Works Department set up a technicalschool in 1925. It was taken over by the Education Department in 1931 and later became a Technical College in 1946. A yearlater, it was renamed the College of Agriculture, Serdang.The upsurge of nationalism and the desire for self-government resulted in the setting up of two committees, popularlyknown as the Barnes (1950) and Fenn-Wu (1951), to look into problems of and recommend improvements to Malay andChinese education. As an outcome of the deliberations of these two committees, the Education Ordinance of 1952 waspassed but it did not produce the desired changes in the system. As a result, a special committee was set up in 1956 to workout a policy based upon the decision to make Malay the national language whilst preserving the languages and culture ofthe other domiciled races of the Federation of Malaya. The recommendations of this committee contained in the report ofthe Education Committee 1956, commonly referred to as the Razak Report, formed the basis of the Education Ordinance of1957, which laid the foundation for the educational policy.Education during the Japanese Occupancy (1942-1945)Malaya was occupied by the Japanese from 1941-1945. The Japanese army continued the vernacular schools but added theJapanese language into the curriculum. The Japanese established the Nippon-Go school which emphasized on the cultureand values of the Japanese.Education at the secondary level was replaced with the establishment of technical schools and technical colleges whichemphasized on the learning of telecommunication, fishery, agriculture and civil engineering. School facilities were also usedas base for the Japanese army. This had hampered the education progress.Local teachers were given training in the teaching of the Japanese language. In their effort to acculturate Japanese valuesamong the locals, Japanese classes were offered in associations and clubs. A special section was reserved for the Japaneselanguage in the local newspapers.There were no clear educational objectives during the occupation, merely as a tool to assistthe Japanese administer the country. 7 | education in malaysia
  24. 24. Development of Education in Sabah and SarawakThe British government did not give due emphasis on the development of vernacular schools for the natives of Sabah andSarawak. Efforts to build schools in remote areas were initiated by the Christian missionaries. Before the 20th century, schoolsthat taught the Quran was established by Muslims from the Bajau, Sulu, Illanum, Kedayan, Brunei, Tidong and Bisaya ethnics.Sekolah Jesselton, the first Malay school was built in 1915 by the families of various ethnic leaders. St. Joseph School Kuching(1833) was the first school to be built in Sarawak, followed by the Chinese school (1872) in Paku and Pekan Bau. TheWoodhead Report (1955) recommended that emphasis be made on the: l importance of primary education; l need to improve primary and secondary education; l provision for primary and secondary education, and l need to establish a teaching service in North Borneo.Based on this report, the school system and organization was realigned as shown in the table below. Type of School Type of examination Secondary school l Year 5 Examination l Year 6 Examinations English Schools l Year 6 Examination l North Borneo Certificate of Education Chinese schools l Year 6 Examination l Junior Middle Examination Sabah and Sarawak School System, 1955 Special Course (1 Year) Chinese ( 2 Years ) English ( 2 Years ) Vernacular ( 2 Years ) Teacher Trainning Post Tertiary Tertiary Secondary Education Education Abroad Abroad Upper Secondary Secondary (3 Years) (5 Years) Commerce School Secondary Upper Secondary Post Primary (2 Years) (3 Years) ( 3 Years ) Lower Secondary Upper Secondary (3 Years) (3 Years) Remove Remove 6 Years 6 Years 6 Years Primary Chinese English Vernacular Figure 1.1 : Sabah and Sarawak School System, 1955 8 | education in malaysia
  25. 25. The School System According to the Razak Report Primary School A B C Malay Medium English, Chinese English, Malay, National Schools & Tamil medium Chinese,& Tamil National Type School that are Schools not national schools. SECONDARY EDUCATION EmploymentNational Schools (Academic and Vocational) Commerce School EmploymentDifferent medium of instruction during the or 2 year coursefirst 3 years of school. Teachers trained inTeacher Training Colleges where possible. Employment LOWER CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONTeacher Training Colleges for basic Second part of Secondary Technical Instructionschool teacher. Education. Graduate teachers where possible. Different medium of instruction at the SPM level. Employment Employment Pre University classes (Arts and science stream in English) Technical Teachers College Institutions for special education Teacher University Figure 1.2: The School System According to the Razak Report 9 | education in malaysia
  26. 26. Post Independence : Education During Post-Independence (1957-1970) Prior to independence, there was awareness amongst the leaders and List of Important Education the locals for the need to replace the education systems left behind by Committee Reports the colonists with one common education system for all.This awareness resulted in the Razak Report 1956. The Education Committee Report Barnes Report 1950 1956 established an education system that incorporated national characteristics and guaranteed a place in schools for all children Fenn-Wu Report 1950 regardless of their ethnic or religion. The education policies as outlined in the Razak Report were the foundation in the formulation of a national education system that placed high emphasis on national unity. Razak Report 1951 In 1960, a Review Committee looked into the implementation of Rahman Talib Report 1960 recommendations made by the 1957 Razak Report. The findings of this committee, commonly known as the Rahman Talib Report, confirmed Higher Education the educational policy in the Razak Report and its general acceptance by Committee Report 1967 the public. The recommendations of these two reports became the integral components of the Education Act 1961. In January 1976, the Act Dropout Report 1973 was extended to Sabah and Sarawak, which had been incorporated into the formation of Malaysia in 1963. Cabinet Committee Report 1979 The most important challenges facing the new nation after independence were unity and democratization of education. The Cabinet Committee Report process of consolidating the diverse school systems into a cohesive on Training 1991 national education system, with the national language as the main medium of instruction, was initiated during this period. In 1957, all Figure 1.3: List of Important Education Committee existing primary schools were converted to national and national-type Reports schools. Malay medium primary schools were renamed national schools. English, Chinese and Tamil schools became national-type primaryschools. Whilst Malay was the medium of instruction in national schools, English and the vernacular languages were themedium of instruction in national-type schools. The national language was made a compulsory subject in these nationaltype-schools. The English national-type schools were converted into national schools in stages beginning 1968, with theimplementation of five subjects taught in the Malay language for Year One to Year Three pupils. English and Chinese secondary schools were converted to national-type secondary schools. These schools became fully orpartially assisted schools. Private Chinese Schools that opted to become government-aided schools were termed asConforming schools.The year 1958 marked the beginning of Malay medium secondary education. Malay medium secondaryclasses started as an annex in English secondary schools.These classes eventually developed into national secondary schools.Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (1956) and the Language Institute (1958) were responsible for the development of the Malaylanguage. The main function of the Language Institute was to train Malay language specialist teachers. The Dewan Bahasadan Pustaka’s main function was to promote the Malay language as the national language, and to produce textbooks andreference books in the national language.In 1962, school fees were abolished in all fully assisted primary schools. Free primary education was made available to allchildren regardless of their ethnic group or religion. The entrance examination into the secondary school, the MalaysianSecondary School Examination was abolished in 1964 and universal education was extended from six to nine years inPeninsular Malaysia. This examination was abolished in Sarawak in 1974 and in Sabah in 1977. 10 | education in malaysia
  27. 27. Graph 1.1: Total Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools at Primary Level (1958-2008)The national agenda to unite the various ethnic groups in Malaya started with the reformation of the curricular. Curricularreforms were focused on reviewing the existing syllabuses and designing a common content curriculum with a Malaysianoutlook.The first comprehensive review of the scope and content of what was taught in schools was conducted in 1956.TheGeneral Syllabus and Review Committee was set up in 1964 to revise, amend or in some cases to devise new syllabuses. Acomprehensive education system for lower secondary education was introduced in 1965.Technical and vocational educationwas given an impetus with the establishment of the Technical and Vocational Education Division in 1964.Following the declaration of independence, a division of the University of Malaya (Singapore) was established in KualaLumpur. On 1 January 1962, this division became a separate autonomous university. It continued to be the only university inthe country until University of Science Malaysia (USM) was established in 1969.Two colleges, subsidized by the government,namely, Institut Teknologi MARA and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman were established in 1967 and 1969 respectively. 11 | education in malaysia
  28. 28. The Education Structure, 1968I : Peninsular Malaysia Gred Basic Lower Secondary Upper Secondary Form 6 Tertiary EducationMasuk Terus 6 11 12 3 14 15 16 17 18 19 and abovePer. I Per. IV 2 13 14 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 Technical Agriculture Commerce Homescience Tamil 1 6 IV V Transition Class IV Malay Malay University (3 years and above) 1 6 I II III IV V VI VI Malaya, Sains, Kebangsaan, Overseas Science National English Transition Class IV English English MARA Overseas Degree Programmes (3 years and above) 1 6 I II III IV V VI VI Tuanku Abdul Rahman College (Professional Course 3 years and above) Technical College Chinese (Profesional Course (4 years)) Teacher Traning College (2 years) 1 6 IV V Colleges Teaching (2 years) Secondary Vocational Islam (2 years) Schools Polytechnic (2 years) Tunku Abdul Rahman (2 years) Key Agriculture (2 years) LCE / SRP Diploma MARA (2 years) Technical Diploma (2 years) MCE / OSC / SPM HSC / STP Vocational CertificateII : Sabah and Sarawak 1 2 3 Work English 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MalaySarawak 1 2 3 4 5 6 Academic Academic University P Chinese 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Key Teacher Maktab Teknik, LCE Training Pertanian, Politeknik, Perguruan, MARA, STAR MCE HSC Remove Vocational 1 2 3 English 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Malay Academic Academic T P UniversitySabah 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 T P Chinese Technical School 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 Figure 1.4 : The Education Structure, 1968 12 | education in malaysia
  29. 29. Formal Education System - Rahman Talib Report 1960 A B Sekolah Kebangsaan Non- Standard Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (National Primary Schools) Primary School (National Type Primary (To Be Converted to A or B) Schools) MALAYAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS ENTRANCE EXAMINATION 30% 70% Remove Class Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan / Sekolah Menengah Sekolah Lanjutan Jenis Kebangsaan Kampung Sekolah Pelajaran (National Type (Rural Secondary Lanjutan Secondary Schools) Schools) (Post Primary Schools) Lower Certificate Of Education Primary Teacher Secondary Trade Secondary Technical Upper Secondary Training Institution Schools Schools Schools (Course 2) Federation Of Malaya Certificate / Schools Certificate Lower Sixth Form Training Colleges Technical College Upper Sixth Form (Primary Course Post- Primary Secondary) Higher School Certificate University EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETYNote : ---- lines indicate course duration in a yearSource : Report of the Education Review Committee 1990. Kuala Lumpur : Government Press. (Rahman Talib Report) pg 26 Figure 1.5 : Formal Education System - Rahman Talib Report 1960 13 | education in malaysia
  30. 30. Educational Development During the Era of New Economic Policy ( 1971-1990 ) Social and economic issues shaped the development of education from 1971 to 1990.Racial harmony and efforts to curb economic imbalances in the society were crucial to sustain development, stability and progress. This was the period of the New Economic Policy (NEP) that is a socio-economic policy to achieve national unity and development. The focus was on eradicating poverty and restructuring the Malaysian society to eliminate the identification of race with economic function and geographical location. Improving the income of the poor especially in rural areas, bridging disparities between races and location, increasing production and creatingSource: Educational Statistics of Malaysia 1938, 1967, 1977, 1987, 1997, 2000 to 2008 more opportunities for Bumiputera in the commercial, industrial and Graph 1.2: Total Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools at Secondary Level (1958-2008) professional sectors were of paramount importance. The NEP brought about significant changes in the national education system. All pupils follow the same curriculum and sit for the same examinations. Civics was introduced as a subject to instil self reliance in pupils. Science and technical subjects were offered at the secondary level to produce skilled workforce in the areas of science and technology. The aim of achieving national unity through the use of Malay language as the medium of instruction in all primary and secondary schools had begun since 1970, and implemented in stages. In Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, English ceased to be the medium of instruction at the primary level in 1975, at the secondary level in 1982, and at the tertiary level in 1983. In Sarawak, the conversion of the medium of instruction was implemented in 1977 beginning with Standard One. 14 | education in malaysia
  31. 31. Today Malay language is the medium of instruction in all national schools and a compulsory subject in Chinese and Tamilschools. English is taught as a second language in all schools. In 1980, the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) examination wasconducted in Malay language. In 1970, English ceased to be the medium of instruction for teacher training at the primarylevel.The provision of education, which was more focused in urban centres, was extended to the rural areas. More schools werebuilt in the rural areas hence providing greater access for rural children, especially the economically disadvantaged. Inaddition, the government introduced support programmes such as the fully residential schools, science schools, rural schoolhostels, the textbook loan scheme and educational television programmes. The government also expanded the provision ofscholarships, the school meal programme and the health programmes.In 1974, a Cabinet Committee was formed to study the implementation of the national education system. The focus of thiscommittee was to ensure that the education system was able to produce citizens who are united, progressive, disciplined andtalented in diverse fields as required to achieve the national mission. As a result of the Cabinet Committee Report, the NewIntegrated Primary School Curriculum was formulated in 1983 and the New Integrated Secondary School Curriculum wasformulated in 1989. The National Education Philosophy was also formulated in 1988 to guide and strengthen the nation’seducation system. Higher education was also expanded during this period with the establishment of three universitiesnamely National University of Malaysia (1970), University of Agriculture Malaysia (1971) and University of TechnologyMalaysia (1972).Educational Development During the Era of National Development Policy ( 1991-2000 )Drastic changes in education took place in the last decade of the 20th century. The vast development of ICT hasten theglobalization era. In concurrence with the demands of globalization and the information and technology era,Vision 2020 waslaunched by Dato’ Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad in 1991 to aspire Malaysians towards achieving the status of a developednation by the year 2020. In line with the vision 2020, MOE outlined an education system to realise the vision. Educationlegislation was amended in order to be relevant to current needs. The 1961 Education Act was replaced with the 1996Education Act. One of the major amendments made was to include preschool into the National Education System. Theenactment of the 1996 Private Higher Education Act was also amended to allow the establishments of more private highereducation institutes. The MOE formulated four new acts to encourage a more systematic development of higher education.The acts are: i. 1996 National Higher Education Council Act - to allow the establishment of a council that will determine the policy and manage development of higher education. ii. 1996 National Accreditation Board Act - quality assurance, especially for the private higher education programmes. iii. 1996 University and College University Act (Amendment) - grants more financial and management autonomy to public universities. iv. 1996 National Higher Education Fund Cooperation Act - provides student loans and funds in order to increase access to higher education. 15 | education in malaysia
  32. 32. One of the major moves at this time was to increase access to higher education by setting up more public universities, collegeuniversities, matriculation colleges, community colleges, private colleges and universities as well as branch campus ofoverseas universities. University of Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) was established in 1992, followed by University of MalaysiaSabah (UMS) in 1997. Maktab Perguruan Sultan Idris was upgraded to Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) in 1997. TheMalaysian Teaching Diploma Programme was also introduced to replace the Teaching Certificate Programme for pre-serviceteachers at Teachers Colleges.Measures were also taken to improve leadership qualities amongst school heads. Institut Aminuddin Baki (IAB) was entrustedwith the task to provide leadership and management training to school heads and administrators. Another significantchange was the introduction of the open concept for SPM and STPM examinations in 2000. Maktab Perguruan Sultan Idris (MPSI), established in 1922, upgraded to Universiti Perguruan Sultan Idris (UPSI) in 1997. 16 | education in malaysia
  33. 33. Education Development During the Era of National Vision Policy (2001 - 2010) Globalization, liberalization and the vast development of ICT has Education Legislation influenced the development of the national education system. The challenge for the nation is to produce human capitals that are 1 Education Ordinance, 1952 knowledgeable, competent and globally competitive. The National Educational Policy was formulated based on the 2 Education Ordinance, 1957 Education Ordinance of 1957 which was later amended through the Razak Report (1956), the Rahman Talib Report (1960) and the Cabinet Committee Report (1979). To promote unity amongst the Malaysians, 3 Education Act, 1961 the education system was extended to 11 years of schooling with Malay language as the medium of instruction, a uniformed national 4 National Language Act 1963 / 67 curriculum and a standardised national assessment. Steps were taken (Revised - 1971) to amend the Education Act in order to strengthen the national education system as shown in Figure 1.6. 5 Universities and Colleges Act 1971 Steps were taken to provide quality infrastructure as well as to increase the number of education facilities in all education 6 Ungku Omar Polytechnic Act 1974 institutions, as an effort to accommodate the increase of enrolment. In 2008, there are 7,627 primary schools, 2,062 secondary schools, 24 7 Malaysias Examination Council Act 1980 polytechnics, 27 teachers’ education institutes and 21 public universities across the nation. 8 Education Act, 1996 Developing competency and efficiency amongst leaders, teachers and education officers was also an important agenda during this Private Higher Education period of time. Empowerment and learning organization concepts 9 Institution Act 1996 were widely instilled and encouraged. Allocations were made to promote continuous human resource development. Programmes Universities and Colleges Act such as in service training on developing management, leadership 10 (Amendment) 1996 and research skills were carried out at all levels of the ministry as an effort to implement a competent and efficient education 11 National Acreditation Board Act 1996 management system capable of providing quality and relevant education to the nation. National Higher Education 12 Fund Board 1997 National Council on Higher Education 13 Act 1996 MARA Institution of Technology Act 14 (Amendment) 2000 National Higer Educational 15 Finance Board (Amendment) 2000 Educational Act (Amendment) 2002 - 16 Section 29A Education Regulations 17 (Compulsory Education) 2002. Figure 1.6: List of Educational Legislation 17 | education in malaysia
  34. 34. Enrolment in Educational Institutions, (1970-2008)Tahun Primary Secondary Teacher Polytechnics College School School Training and Colleges University1970 1 421 489 478 610 2 927 455 17 4231980 2 008 973 1 083 818 13 247 3 024 41 4471990 2 447 206 1 376 337 23 006 9 404 92 0532000 2 907 123 1 998 744 23 740 43 248 229 1312003 3 071 121 2 098 817 24 587 49 135 317 7142005 3 137 280 2 217 879 28 755 64 303 348 2292007 3 167 775 2 253 383 30 937 83 848 371 1862008 3 151 780 2 243 693 33 744 84 250 408 750Source :Educational Statistics of Malaysia 1970-2008, Educational Statistics of Malaysia 1977, 1987, 1997, 2000 and2007 Table 1.3: Enrolment in Educational Institutions (1970 - 2008) Source: Educational Statistics of Malaysia. Graph 1.3: Total Number of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools (1980 - 2008) 18 | education in malaysia
  35. 35. Education Development Plan 2001 - 2010 The Education Blueprint The Education Development Plan for Malaysia (2001 -2010) also referred to as the Blueprint takes into account the goals and aspirations of the National Vision Policy to build a resilient nation, encourage the creation of a just society, maintain sustainable economic growth, develop global competitiveness, build a knowledge-based economy (K-economy), strengthen human resource development and maintain sustainable environmental development. The Blueprint aims to ensure that all citizens have the opportunity to twelve years of education in terms of access, equity and quality. Thus the MOE aims to gradually restructure the national education system from 11 years of schooling to 12 years similar to that of many developed nations. The Blueprint also outlines goals and strategies to further develop the potentials of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner so as to produce individual who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced in line with the NEP. The plan is inclusive of strategies to nurture creativity and innovativeness amongst students; enhance learning cultures; develop a science and technology culture; encourage life long learning; and to provide an efficient, effective and quality education system.The Blueprint focuses on the development of pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary education which will bestrengthened through the development of support programmes, funding, management and integration of informationand communication technology (ICT). The Blueprint is used as a framework for preparing action plans for educationdevelopment, which encompass the expansion and strengthening of existing programmes as well as the replacementsof non-relevant programmes with new programmes that are more realistic to current and future needs. The EducationDevelopment Plan was developed based on four thrusts: l to increase access to education; l to increase equity to education; l to increase quality of education; and l to increase the competency and efficiency level of the educational management.To implement the programmes in the Blueprint, the Federal Government continuously increased funds allocation forMOE. In 1997, a total of RM12 billion that is 20 percent of the federal expenditure was allocated to the MOE, and over thenext 11 years, MOE’s expenditure has increased to RM22.14 billion. Although the budget for MOE has been increasing, itis still not sufficient to sustain the actual amount needed to fully develop the National Education System to that of adeveloped nation. The MOE constantly encourages the involvement of NGOs, the private sectors and individualsproviding financial support, apart from offering competitive fees to international students studying in Malaysian schoolsor education institutes. The private sectors involvement in tertiary education is very encouraging. Smart partnership,incentives, twinning programmes and cost sharing in training and R&D has helped the government towards achievingthe educational goals.Education managers were given adequate training in financial management to build up their competency and efficiencyin managing funds. They were empowered to manage education finance to facilitate the implementation of educationprogrammes. Emphasize were also placed on supervision and monitoring of expenditure of all educational programmes. 19 | education in malaysia