Rise of the Hispanic Empire: Charles V


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Created by María Jesús Campos Fernández, Geography and History teacher in a bilingual section in Madrid.

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Rise of the Hispanic Empire: Charles V

  1. 1. THE RISE OF MODERN MONARCHIES. THE HISPANIC EMPIRE: CHARLES I/V María Jesús Campos learningfromhistory.wikispaces.com “I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse”
  2. 2. THE RISE OF THE HISPANIC EMPIRE: CHARLES V  In 1516, Charles I became king of “Spain”. The dynastic union has been “completed”.  He would become Charles I of Spain and V of the Holy Roman Empire.
  3. 3. CHARLES I-V: INDEX 1. Personal background and inheritance 2. Domestic Policy. 3. Foreign Policy 4. Abdication
  4. 4. CHARLES I’ PERSONAL BACKGROUND AND INHERITANCE  Charles was born in Ghent (Gante), a Flemish city.  Son of Queen Juana of Castile (Joanna the Mad) and Philip I (Philip the Handsome).  His grandparents were:  The Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and his wife, Mary of Burgundy (paternal branch)  The Catholic Monarchs: Isabel I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon (maternal branch)
  5. 5.  After the death of his maternal grandparents, since his mother was insane, he inherited:  The Crown of Castile with the Americans’ and Africans’ possesions  The Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Naples.
  6. 6.  After his father’s death and the death of his paternal grandparents, he inherited the possesions of the German Habsburgs and the House of Burgundy:  The Low Countries  The French-Comté  Flanders  Access to the Imperial Crown
  7. 7.  With this heritage, Chares built a huge empire: the Hispanic Empire.
  8. 8.  Charles was born in Ghent, so the culture and courtly life of the Low Countries were an important influence on his early life.  Especially as he had not been suposed to inherit the territories in Spain.
  9. 9. CHARLES I OF SPAIN  When, in 1516 Charles was proclaimed King of Castile and of Aragon jointly with his mother, he couldn’t speak Spanish and he knew little about Spanish culture or customs.  The dynastyc union planned by the Catholic Monarchs has been achieved.
  10. 10. • To build a huge empire uniting the subjects on common grounds (Catholicism) Domestic Policy (Charles I) • To strengthen, defend and expand his empire Foreign Policy (Charles V)
  11. 11. DOMESTIC POLICY 1. The Revolt of the Comuneros 2. The Germanías 3. Charles’ V Empire 4. The Lutheran’s Revolt in the Holy Roman Empire 5. America
  12. 12. THE CROWN OF CASTILE: THE REVOLT OF THE COMUNEROS  When Charles arrived to Spain in 1517, he brought many Flemish noblemen with him and gave them the most important government positions.  This angered Castilian’s noblemen.
  13. 13.  When his grandfather Maximilian died in 1519, Charles became a natural candidate to the Holy Roman Empire’s Crown.  So, he spent large amounts of Castilian money (taxes) to bribe the electors.  This angered Castilian’s cities (Comunidades).
  14. 14.  When Charles travelled to the empire to be elected, he left his Flemish noblemen to rule Castile and Aragon.  Supported by the nobles, the cities or “Comunidades de villa y tierra”, started the Revolt of the Comuneros. Adrian of Utrecht Regent / fut. Pope Adrian VI
  15. 15.  The rebels were successful during the first months of the revolt.  However, the king later came to an agreement with Castilian nobles.  The nobles abandoned the revolt and helped the king fight the rebels.
  16. 16.  The Comuneros were defeated in 1521 in the battle of Villalar (Valladolid).  The leaders of the revolt, Juan de Padilla, Juan Bravo and Francisco Maldonado, were executed.
  17. 17.  It led to a change in Charles I approach to the Crown of Castile. He paid more attention to Castilian issues and he spent more time here than in any other territory.  Castilian nobles were appointed to the highest government positions.  Castile became integrated into the empire and would provide the bulk of the empire’s military and financial resources.  The Comunidades lost almost all of their power and from that moment on would have little to say in governmental matters.  Consequences of the Revolt of the Comuneros:
  18. 18. CHARLES’V EMPIRE  Made up of many different territories, each of them with their own laws, institutions and customs.  Charles V had a lot of power but not an absolute power (decisions about taxes still needed the approval of the Parliaments/Cortes)
  19. 19. “Charles, by the grace of God, Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Italy, King of all Spains, of Castile, Aragon, León, of Hungary, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Cordova, Murcia, Jaén, Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, King of Two Sicilies, of Sardinia, Corsica, King of Jerusalem, King of the Western and Eastern Indies, of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Neopatria, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Asturia and Catalonia, Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Gorizia, Barcelona, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Drenthe, Zutphen, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Oristano and Gociano, Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molin, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen.”
  20. 20. CHARLES V’S COAT OF ARMS (1520) Columnas de Hércules con las coronas imperial y real y leyenda “Plus ultra” Casa de Austria Ducado de Borgoña Brabant e Flandes Tirol Toisón de oro (orden de caballería de Borgoña fundada en 1430) Águila bicéfala imperial Corona imperial Cruz de S. Andrés (Ducado de Borgoña) Jerusalé n Nápoles Navarr a
  21. 21.  The court was itinerant. There was not a capital city.  The king travelled in person to problem territories.  Each territory had a viceroy or governor, who ruled in the king’s name
  22. 22.  Most of the emperor’s revenue came from taxes, especially from Castile.  But taxes alone were not enough to finance his policies, so the emperor had to ask for loans which burdened Castilian’s economy.  Nevertheless it was a huge empire. The biggest empire history has ever known.
  23. 23. THE LUTHERAN’S REVOLT IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE  Although Charles tried to stop (Diet of Worms) the expansion of Lutheranism in the Holy Roman Empire, German princes used Lutheranism as a way to weaken the emperor’s power.  Although he was able to defeat the Smalchaldic League (Lutheran Princes), the division among Lutheranism and Catholic did not disspear.  Finally, the Peace of Augsburg (1555), solved the situation. It established that each prince had a right to choose his religion and his
  24. 24. AMERICA  The territories in America were considerably extended by conquistadors:  Hernan Cortés defeated the Aztec Empire  Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire
  25. 25.  Fernando de Magallanes and El Cano’s expedition first circumnavigated the globe in 1522.
  26. 26.  The expansion of the empire provided the state treasury with enormous amounts of bullions.  America was treated as an extension of Spain, so the same laws were applied there.
  27. 27.  Indians were considered Spanish citizens.  Charles I convened a conference at Valladolid to review the morality of the force used against the indigenous populations. As a result, the use of excessive violence was forbidden.
  28. 28.  As a part of the polisinodyal system, a Council of Indies was created to advise the king on matters of government.  The Casa de Contratación was in charge of migration and trade with America.
  29. 29.  To better govern and control the territory, it was divided into:  The Viceroyalty of New Spain  The viceroyalty of Perú
  30. 30. FOREIGN POLICY  Charles’ V idea of building a strong empire united by Catholicism led to many wars:  France  The Ottoman Turks
  31. 31. FRANCE  France was the emperor’s main rival for supremacy in Europe.  France was specially interested in Charles’ Italian territories.  Both countries were at war during Charles’ V reign although most of the wars were won by the emperor.
  32. 32. THE OTTOMAN TURKS  The Ottoman Turks were constant threats in the Mediterranean and along the eastern boundary of the Holy Roman Empire.  Charles V kept a constant fight against the Turks but he was not able to end the problem.
  33. 33. CHARLES V ABDICATES  Between 1554 and 1556, Charles V abdicated dividing his possesions:  His son Philip II received the Hispanic posessions: Spain, America, Italy (Naples, Sicily, the Duchess of Milan, Flanders…)  His brother Ferdinand I received the Holy Roman Empire
  34. 34.  He retired to the monastery of Yuste (Extremadura) and died in 1558.
  35. 35. Developed by María Jesús Campos Chusteacher wikiteacher