Rise of the Hispanic Monarchy: Philip II

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Created by María Jesús Campos Fernández, teacher of Social Sciences, History and Geography at a bilingual section in Madrid (Spain).
learningfromhistory.wikispaces.com
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Rise of the Hispanic Monarchy: Philip II

  1. 1. THE RISE OF MODERN MONARCHIES. THE HISPANIC EMPIRE: PHILIP II María Jesús Campos learningfromhistory.wikispaces.com
  2. 2. INDEX  Phillip’s II personal background and inheritance  Domestic Policy: the Hispanic Monarchy  Foreign Policy  Succession
  3. 3. PHILIP’S II OF SPAIN PERSONAL BACKGROUND  In 1556, Charles V abdicated dividing his possesions:  His son Philip II received the Hispanic posessions: Spain, America, Italy, Flanders…  His brother Ferdinand I received the Holy Roman Empire
  4. 4.  Although Philip II did not receive the title of emperor, the amount of territories in which he ruled can be considered an empire.  The “empire” of Philip II was the most powerful of his time.
  5. 5.  The “empire” consisted of:  Spain  The Americas  Territories in the North of Africa  Territories in the Far East  The Low Countries,  A large part of Italy  Territories in Central Europe  Portugal and its overseas territories
  6. 6.  Philip II had been raised in Spain and he considered Castile the centre of his monarchy, specially as this Crown provided the bulk of the empire’s military and financial resources.  He established the court in Madrid.  For this reason, the reign of Philip II is called the Hispanic Monarchy.
  7. 7. Political Objectives Preserve the territories Defend Catholicism (unify subjects on common grounds)
  8. 8. DOMESTIC POLICY  He ruled his territories from Madrid.  He mantained the polisinodyal system with different territorial and ministerial councils.  He strengthened the bureaucracy to better control and gobern the territories  Problems he had to face:  Revolt of the Low Countries  Adquisition of Portugal
  9. 9. REVOLT IN THE LOW COUNTRIES  The Low Countries were the roots of his paternal branch.  The Protestant Reform, specially Calvinisim, spread through the Low Contries  Phillip II refused to give his subjects freedom of religion as he considered Catholicism a mean to unify his subjects.
  10. 10.  So he focused on suprressing Protestantism within his kingdom.  The Inquisition acted harshly against heretics and religious intolerance grew.  But the northern provinces of the Low Countries, in which most of the population had converted into Calvinism, were dissapointed with the religious intolerance of the monarch.
  11. 11.  Poor harvest, the interruption of trade because of the war with England, and a raise of taxes damaged the relations even more.  In 1566, the Northern provinces rebelled against Phillip II and declared their independence under the name of the United Provinces.
  12. 12.  This is called the Revolt of the Low Countries.  The war lasted 80 years so it is also known as the 80 years War.  Spanish troops quickly started attacking the rebels but the war against England forced Phillip to halt his troops advances.  The rebels obtained financial support from England who was trying to weaken Phillip II.
  13. 13.  The war was far from ending so, by the end of his reign, Phillip tried to solve the situation by naming his daugther Isabel Clara Eugenia governor of the Low Countries.  The agreement with the Flemish subjects was that if Isabel had any descendants the Low Countries would become independent, if she had none, they would again become subjects of the Hispanic Monarchy.
  14. 14. ACQUISITION OF PORTUGAL  During Phillip’s II reign, the direct line of the Portuguese royal family ended when King Sebastian of Portugal died without heir (1578).  His uncle, the elderly Cardinal Enrique, succeeded him but as a clergy he did not have descendants. So, when he died a succession crisis broke out.
  15. 15.  3 grandsons of Manuel I (former king before King Sebastian) claimed the throne:  As the son of Isabel of Portugal, Phillip II claimed his right to the throne.  Infant Catalina, duchess of Braganza  Antonio, Prior of Crato
  16. 16.  Portugal was divided among the supporters of Antonio and the supporters of Phillip II.  After a short war, Phillip became King of Portugal in 1581 as King Phillip I.  He was recognized king by the Cortes of Tomar.
  17. 17.  The kingdom of Portugal plus its vast overseas possesions in Africa, Brazil and the East Indies added to the Hispanic Empire.  He left for Madrid in 1583, leaving his nephew Albert of Austria as viceroy.  Portugal would maintain its own Cortes, law, currency and government.
  18. 18. AMERICA  Expeditions in America continued.  Government was controlled by the Council of the Indies and the Viceroys and trading and communication by the Casa de Contratación.
  19. 19.  A lot of Spaniards travelled to America where they occupied the highest positions in the Indies.  Criollos, the children of the Spaniards occupied the second highest positions in society.  Mestizos, the children of Spanish men and Native American Women were not always well considered.
  20. 20.  Indians performed manual work, largely in agriculture.  Black slaves were in the worst situation. They were captured and brought from Africa by English, French and Dutch traders and bought by Spanish to do the hardest work. They had no rights at all.
  21. 21. ECONOMY  Charles’ V wars and the policies of Philip II further burdened Spanish economy.  Despite the gold and silver that came from America, the king had to ask for loans.  Inflation spread throughout Europe.
  22. 22.  Due to the situation, Philip II was forced to declare bankruptcy 4 times.
  23. 23. FOREIGN POLICY  Although Philip was the most powerful monarch of his times, he had to face many problems:  France  The Ottoman Turks Empire  England
  24. 24.  France: he inherited Charles’ V problems with France. Philip defeated the French at the beginning of his reign and as France plunged into its own war of religion, the problem dissapeared although it started up again towards the end of his reign.
  25. 25.  The Ottoman Turks: the Turkish Empire threatened Spanish possesions in the Mediterranean. Philip II formed and alliance with the Pope and Venice (also threatened by the Turks).  The alliance, commanded by Don Juan de Austria, the king’s half brother, defeated the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto (1571)  In 1585 a permanent alliance was signed with the Ottomans.
  26. 26.  England:  Before Charles’ V abdication, Philip married Queen Mary of England in 1554.  Philip was 27 years old, Mary was 37.  According to the Act for the Marriage, Philip would received the title of King of England and Ireland for as long as their marriage should last.
  27. 27.  However, they had no children and when Queen Mary died in 1558, before the union could revitalize the Church in England, the throne wet to Elizabeth, the Protestant daughter of Henry VIII.  Philip left the Crown, but after the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, the catholic great-niece of Henry VIII and the legitimate heir to the throne for the English Catholics, Philip decided to make England a Catholic country once again by invasion.
  28. 28.  His opportunity came when England provided support for the Low Countries Revolt.  King Philip sent a fleet, the Spanish Armada, to lead an invasion.  The fleet, not properly built, was lashed by severe storms.
  29. 29.  The lack of communication between the two commanders roced the army into retreat.  Two more Armadas were assembled but also failed.  Anyway, England was unable to take advantage of its success.  English buccaneering in the Caribbean were once and again defeated by Spain’s rebuilt navy.
  30. 30. DEATH AND SUCCESSION  Philip II died in el Monasterio de El Escorial in 1598 after a long suffering.  He was succeeded by his son Philip III.
  31. 31. Developed by María Jesús Campos Chusteacher wikiteacher

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