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Sec2 - Ageing Population & Increasing Br


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Sec2 - Ageing Population & Increasing Br

  1. 1. Population pyramid
  2. 2. Elderly Children The rest is working adult
  3. 3. Wide base represent a lot of children therefore high BR
  4. 4. Narrow peak represent a small number of elderly Life expectancy (How old the elderly live till)
  5. 5. Population Effect of increasing birth rates Effects of decreasing birth rates (Ageing population)
  6. 7. <ul><li>What do you think the people are lining up in the street? </li></ul>
  7. 8. Shortage of jobs <ul><li>When there are more people looking for jobs than there are number of jobs available. </li></ul><ul><li>There will be unemployment. </li></ul>
  8. 12. Shortage of housing <ul><li>Lack of affordable housing can lead to the construction of temporary and illegal housing in squatter settlements </li></ul>
  9. 18. Shortage of education <ul><li>When there are too many children competing for limited places in schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Many children from the poorest families are deprived of a chance to study. </li></ul>
  10. 24. Shortage of resources <ul><li>Overcrowding leads to many people having to share limited resources. </li></ul><ul><li>There will be a lack of food and water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger and health problems result. </li></ul>
  11. 29. <ul><li>What do you see on the shelves? </li></ul>
  12. 34. Environmental Pollution <ul><li>Pollution becomes severe due to urban sprawl. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(urban sprawl refers to the condition where the area of an urban settlement increases rapidly without proper planning) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation when the natural landscape has reduced to make more space for the increasing population. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.. The clearing of forests to construct houses and factories. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 41. Solutions
  14. 42. Public education <ul><li>Government should provide information on the need of birth control and benefits of family planning to poor uneducated people. </li></ul>
  15. 43. Birth control <ul><li>Setting up free clinics and provide subsidised or free contraceptives. </li></ul><ul><li>Information on the proper use of contraceptives should be given to the people </li></ul>
  16. 44. Family planning <ul><li>In China, ‘One Child Policy’ is implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents enjoy benefits such as a paid holiday, a larger apartment, free medical and hospitalisation expenses (for the first child). </li></ul><ul><li>They will be penalised by government when the second child is born. They have to return all bonuses paid to them. </li></ul>
  17. 45. Family planning <ul><li>In India, fathers are encouraged to go for vasectomy. </li></ul><ul><li>In Singapore, during the 1970s, there were incentives such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority for HDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority for primary one registration for couples who had only two children. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 46. Transmigration <ul><li>In Indonesia. The government encourage migration from crowded areas to sparsely populated areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Transmigration Program moved people from Java and Madurai to Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 47. Ageing population
  20. 48. Ageing population <ul><li>Low death rate </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth rate </li></ul>
  21. 49. Problems caused by ageing population <ul><li>Shortage of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Lower income for the country </li></ul><ul><li>Country’s defence </li></ul>
  22. 50. Shortage of labour <ul><li>Shortage of labour, the cost of manpower will increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, there is a need to mechanise and to bring in foreign labour. </li></ul>
  23. 51. Lower income for the country <ul><li>There are more retired than working adults. </li></ul><ul><li>The government has to spend more money to built facilities for the aged. </li></ul><ul><li>Working adults have to pay higher taxes to fund the projects. </li></ul>
  24. 52. Country’s defence <ul><li>A country’s defence can become at stake due to the lack of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the government will have to invest in more military hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>The government has to spend more money to buy advance weaponry. </li></ul><ul><li>Working adults have to pay higher taxes to fund the buying. </li></ul>