The difference between

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The difference between

  1. 1. The difference between written and spoken language • Written grammar  Sentence is the basic unit of construction  Clauses are often embedded (subordination)  Sub+verb+object construction  Reported speech favored  Precision favored  Little ellipsis  No question tags  No performance effects • Spoken grammar  Clause is the basic unit of construction  Clauses are usually added (coord)  Head+body+tail construction  Direct speech favored  Vagueness tolerated  A lot of ellipsis  Many question tags  Performance effects:  Hesitations  Repeats  False starts  Incompletion  Systanctic blends
  2. 2. So…What is SPEAKING? • It is the vocalized form of human communication. It is a process that starts in the mind. • Speaking includes 4 competencies:  Grammatical  Discoursive  Strategic  Sociocultural
  3. 3. Bibliographical references: • Brown Douglas, Teaching by principles, USA, Pearson- Longman • Richards Jack, Renandya Willy, Methodology in Language Teaching, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2005 • Thornbury Scott, How to Teach Speaking, UK, Pearson-Longman, 2005

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