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1

1
Group Members:
    1.   Phong Vichith
    2.   Ken Sibony
    3.   Try Vichet




                         1   2
I.   Introduction
II. Accepted Concept of Fossilization
III. Classification of Fossilization
IV. Type of Fossilization
V. Causal Factors of Fossilization
VI. Fossilization Reduction
VII. Conclusion



                      1                 3
   What is Fossilization?

     Fossil         Fossilize         Fossilization

    › a permanent cessation of IL learning before the learner
       has attained TL norms at all levels of linguistic structure
       and in all discourse domains in spite of the learner‟s
       positive ability, opportunity, and motivation to learn and
       acculturate into target society.




                                   1                           4
   What is Fossilization?

    › backsliding,
    › stabilized errors,
    › learning plateau,
    › typical error,
    › persistent non-target-like performance,
    › de-acceleration of the learning process,
    › ingrained errors,




                                1                5
   What is Fossilization?


    › systematic use of erroneous forms,
    › cessation of learning,
    › structural persistence,
    › ultimate attainment,
    › long-lasting free variation,
    › persistent difficulty,
    › and inability to fully master TL features describing the
      similar meaning, which lead to confusion for quite a long
      time.

                                 1                          6
1.   it may appear at different language levels
2.   it may occur at different learning stages among age groups;
3.   it may be either structure fossilization or competence
     fossilization;
4.   it is usually manifested as the deviant forms from the TL
     norms;
5.   there are soft and hard degrees of fossilization.




                                 1                         7
• Individual fossilization and group fossilization
1.

     • Temporary fossilization and permanent fossilization
2.


                        1                           8
- The inappropriate
                    Error           interlanguage structures that
                                    are thought to have been
                reappearance
                                    corrected but continue to
                                    appear regularly.
 Individual
fossilization
 and group
fossilization
                                    - The plateau in the
                 Language           development of L2 learners’
                competence          phonological, grammatical,
                fossilization       lexical and pragmatic
                                    competence.


                                1                          9
Pervasive fossilized language competence in a
                  community




             Group fossilization




               A new dialect



                      1                         10
• also called stabilization, indicates that
                  fossilized interlanguage consists of learning
Temporary         plateaus
fossilization   • where development of given TL features is
                  simply ‘arrested’ or ‘inhibited’ for shorter
                  or longer periods of time.




                • takes place as a result of social,
 Permanent        psychological and interactive variables
fossilization



                               1                              11
Phonological fossilization
Types of Fossilization


                         Morphological fossilization


                           Syntactic fossilization


                           Semantic fossilization


                           Pragmatic fossilization
                                 1                     12
   Phonological Fossilization:

    › the repetition of phonological errors which result from the
      incorrect acquisition of pronunciation of L2, usually
      affected by L1.
    › Example: [ө] does not exist in Chinese.




                                  1                           13
   Morphological Fossilization:

    › The most common problems lay in two aspects:
          inflectional morpheme
          and article.




                               1                     14
   Syntactic Fossilization:

    › Different languages have their own syntactic rules.
        Example: Chinese does not have obvious tense
         differentiation, whereas English has present tense and
         past tense in general.




                                1                           15
   Semantic Fossilization:

    › refers to the use of language forms that exist in TL but do
      not represent the meanings L2 learners intend to express in
      the context.




                                 1                         16
   Pragmatic Fossilization:

    › A pragmatic deviance = pragmatic failure.
    › Thomas (1983) views pragmatic failure takes place in the cross-
      cultural communication and refers to the “inability to
      understand what is meant by what is said”.
    › Inappropriate language use results in misunderstanding,
      embarrassment, and even insult.




                                  1                             17
Language
              transfer


                         Training
 Others
                         transfer


             6 common
               factors


Overgener                Learning
 alization               strategy

             Communic
               -ation
              strategy


                    1               18
1. Language Transfer:

   The errors in the use of L2 result mainly from L1, and
    the difference between L1 and the L2 is the reason for
    the occurrence of errors.




                           1                         19
The Transfer
                  of L1




    Positive                  Negative



                        The differences
 The similarities
                        between L1 and
shared by the L1
                        L2 that interfere
and L2 help SLA
                             SLA


                    1                       20
2. Training Transfer:

   › The lack of formal instruction in English      fossilization
     of incorrect language forms
   › “Fossilization often occurs among „street‟ learners
   › Their errors becomes systematized and are almost
     impossible to eradicate”
   › “Street” learners are never corrected, nor do they correct
     themselves.


                                1                          21
3. Learning Strategy:

   › not only to the overall strategies but also to the explicit
     methods the learner adopts in the process of SLL
   › Incorrect Learning strategies fossilization of some
     features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, lexical,
     psycholinguistic, or socio-cultural).”




                                 1                           22
4. Communication Strategy:

   › A systematic skill a speaker resorts to while having
     difficulties in expression to keep the communication going
     on.
   › Successful use of communication strategies will prevent
     acquisition”
   › The learner inclines to simplify the target language
   › Pays too much attention to the fluency but neglects the
     accuracy

                               1                            23
5. Overgeneralization

   › language overgeneralization always indicates the
     ignorance of rule restrictions, including semantic
     restrictions of lexis or other linguistic items
   › For instance, using the -ed suffix to indicate past tense for
     verbs like "go“ and "think."




                                1                           24
6. Others:

   › The causal factors fall into the following categories:
     environmental, cognitive, neurobiological, and socio-
     affective.
   › These causal factors can be put into two groups: internal
     factors and external factors




                                1                             25
2. Reduction of
1. Adoption of proper
                            negative transfer of
  learning strategies
                                    L1




            3. Exposure to TL and
                 TL culture




                        1                          26
1.   Adoption of proper learning strategies

     › “good” learning strategies
     › Appear use strategies more frequently and in qualitatively
       different ways
     › Involve attention to both form and meaning.
     › Different kinds of learning strategies may contribute to
       different aspects of L2 proficiency




                                    1                       27
2 Reduction of negative transfer of L1:

   › Not to use TL too early until the learners‟ oral competence
     is facilitated with sufficient input and without relying on
     their native language (Krashen,1983))
   › abundant input of TL can lessen the negative transfer of
     the native language




                                1                          28
3. Exposure to TL and TL culture

    Allow them to stay for some time in the native
     environment abroad
    Multimedia instruments
    Textbooks with original passages by foreign authors




                              1                            29
   Fossilization is an inevitable state in and has significance
    influence on second language acquisition.
   It needs our attention and research to solve fossilization
    problems in all aspects of language.




                                  1                           30

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Fossilization

  • 1. 1 1
  • 2. Group Members: 1. Phong Vichith 2. Ken Sibony 3. Try Vichet 1 2
  • 3. I. Introduction II. Accepted Concept of Fossilization III. Classification of Fossilization IV. Type of Fossilization V. Causal Factors of Fossilization VI. Fossilization Reduction VII. Conclusion 1 3
  • 4. What is Fossilization?  Fossil Fossilize Fossilization › a permanent cessation of IL learning before the learner has attained TL norms at all levels of linguistic structure and in all discourse domains in spite of the learner‟s positive ability, opportunity, and motivation to learn and acculturate into target society. 1 4
  • 5. What is Fossilization? › backsliding, › stabilized errors, › learning plateau, › typical error, › persistent non-target-like performance, › de-acceleration of the learning process, › ingrained errors, 1 5
  • 6. What is Fossilization? › systematic use of erroneous forms, › cessation of learning, › structural persistence, › ultimate attainment, › long-lasting free variation, › persistent difficulty, › and inability to fully master TL features describing the similar meaning, which lead to confusion for quite a long time. 1 6
  • 7. 1. it may appear at different language levels 2. it may occur at different learning stages among age groups; 3. it may be either structure fossilization or competence fossilization; 4. it is usually manifested as the deviant forms from the TL norms; 5. there are soft and hard degrees of fossilization. 1 7
  • 8. • Individual fossilization and group fossilization 1. • Temporary fossilization and permanent fossilization 2. 1 8
  • 9. - The inappropriate Error interlanguage structures that are thought to have been reappearance corrected but continue to appear regularly. Individual fossilization and group fossilization - The plateau in the Language development of L2 learners’ competence phonological, grammatical, fossilization lexical and pragmatic competence. 1 9
  • 10. Pervasive fossilized language competence in a community Group fossilization A new dialect 1 10
  • 11. • also called stabilization, indicates that fossilized interlanguage consists of learning Temporary plateaus fossilization • where development of given TL features is simply ‘arrested’ or ‘inhibited’ for shorter or longer periods of time. • takes place as a result of social, Permanent psychological and interactive variables fossilization 1 11
  • 12. Phonological fossilization Types of Fossilization Morphological fossilization Syntactic fossilization Semantic fossilization Pragmatic fossilization 1 12
  • 13. Phonological Fossilization: › the repetition of phonological errors which result from the incorrect acquisition of pronunciation of L2, usually affected by L1. › Example: [ө] does not exist in Chinese. 1 13
  • 14. Morphological Fossilization: › The most common problems lay in two aspects:  inflectional morpheme  and article. 1 14
  • 15. Syntactic Fossilization: › Different languages have their own syntactic rules.  Example: Chinese does not have obvious tense differentiation, whereas English has present tense and past tense in general. 1 15
  • 16. Semantic Fossilization: › refers to the use of language forms that exist in TL but do not represent the meanings L2 learners intend to express in the context. 1 16
  • 17. Pragmatic Fossilization: › A pragmatic deviance = pragmatic failure. › Thomas (1983) views pragmatic failure takes place in the cross- cultural communication and refers to the “inability to understand what is meant by what is said”. › Inappropriate language use results in misunderstanding, embarrassment, and even insult. 1 17
  • 18. Language transfer Training Others transfer 6 common factors Overgener Learning alization strategy Communic -ation strategy 1 18
  • 19. 1. Language Transfer:  The errors in the use of L2 result mainly from L1, and the difference between L1 and the L2 is the reason for the occurrence of errors. 1 19
  • 20. The Transfer of L1 Positive Negative The differences The similarities between L1 and shared by the L1 L2 that interfere and L2 help SLA SLA 1 20
  • 21. 2. Training Transfer: › The lack of formal instruction in English fossilization of incorrect language forms › “Fossilization often occurs among „street‟ learners › Their errors becomes systematized and are almost impossible to eradicate” › “Street” learners are never corrected, nor do they correct themselves. 1 21
  • 22. 3. Learning Strategy: › not only to the overall strategies but also to the explicit methods the learner adopts in the process of SLL › Incorrect Learning strategies fossilization of some features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, lexical, psycholinguistic, or socio-cultural).” 1 22
  • 23. 4. Communication Strategy: › A systematic skill a speaker resorts to while having difficulties in expression to keep the communication going on. › Successful use of communication strategies will prevent acquisition” › The learner inclines to simplify the target language › Pays too much attention to the fluency but neglects the accuracy 1 23
  • 24. 5. Overgeneralization › language overgeneralization always indicates the ignorance of rule restrictions, including semantic restrictions of lexis or other linguistic items › For instance, using the -ed suffix to indicate past tense for verbs like "go“ and "think." 1 24
  • 25. 6. Others: › The causal factors fall into the following categories: environmental, cognitive, neurobiological, and socio- affective. › These causal factors can be put into two groups: internal factors and external factors 1 25
  • 26. 2. Reduction of 1. Adoption of proper negative transfer of learning strategies L1 3. Exposure to TL and TL culture 1 26
  • 27. 1. Adoption of proper learning strategies › “good” learning strategies › Appear use strategies more frequently and in qualitatively different ways › Involve attention to both form and meaning. › Different kinds of learning strategies may contribute to different aspects of L2 proficiency 1 27
  • 28. 2 Reduction of negative transfer of L1: › Not to use TL too early until the learners‟ oral competence is facilitated with sufficient input and without relying on their native language (Krashen,1983)) › abundant input of TL can lessen the negative transfer of the native language 1 28
  • 29. 3. Exposure to TL and TL culture  Allow them to stay for some time in the native environment abroad  Multimedia instruments  Textbooks with original passages by foreign authors 1 29
  • 30. Fossilization is an inevitable state in and has significance influence on second language acquisition.  It needs our attention and research to solve fossilization problems in all aspects of language. 1 30