Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVApplying PES in practiceStimulating investment in C, H2O andBiodiversity benefits from peatland...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVLearning points from this seminar1. Legal and practical issues with ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVPeat’s Story
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDistribution of upland peatlands in the SouthWest of England
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVThe mires on ExmoorDrainage for agriculturalimprovement
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDomestic and commercial peat cutting forfuelCutting carried on until...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVExmoor peatlands have become largelydry and dominated by Molinia (se...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVExmoor Mires Project• Initiated in 1998 by ENPA, EA and NE. First re...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhat has the project achieved?• The blocking of 85km of ditches and ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhere?- the pink bits, the brown bits arepossible future sites
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVHow is restoration done?• Peat blocks, sometimes with wood and bales
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVPeat and wooden blocks6 weeks after restoration
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhat other equipment is used?• Tracked dumper for logistics• Tractor...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhat is the end result• Most sites get a bit wetter and a some have ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDitch blocks on a typical site with lots ofsmall ditches
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDitch blocks on big ditches = Pools
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCurrent Exmoor Project 2010- 15• £2m budget for Exmoor• 2,000ha targ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVProof of Concept monitoringPlant monitoring has found anincrease in ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVOther Wildlife monitoring (Birds,dragonflies, amphibians, reptiles,e...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVAgricultural Impact of Mire restorationmonitoring• base line survey ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAV•Monitoring Equipment per site:54 dipwells, 18 temperature loggers, ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVMonitoring GHG flux and storageGround CollarsFan to mixchamber airTe...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhy Monitor?• Need to prove to the Water Regulatorthat peatland rest...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAV
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVContext: Exmoor exampleExmoorR BarleR ExeWimbleball Resr &R HaddeoEx...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVPumping CostsTreatment CostsFutureStorage/AbstractionCostsIncentive ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVTop Three Concerns• Confidence• Revenue/Cost• Scheme Relationships
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVTop Three Positives• Environmental• Revenue• Asset Value and wider e...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVTop Three Questions• Legal/ownership concerns• Revenue and cost• Con...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVQuestions for consideration• Contractual aspects• Land tenure• Effec...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDecision Criteria and guidanceSite suitability• Peatland  knownmapp...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVFinancial evaluationExtra costs, eg• Access time to more difficultgr...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVKey Questions for PES developers• Working with the positives• Addres...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVSo to conclude:• Legal and practical issues• Building the business c...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDiscussion andintroduction of casestudy
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVRed Earth Farm is a mixed tenure farm of total 500hectares. Of this ...
Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVContact DetailsCharles CowapTranslating new knowledge forrural profe...
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Stimulating investment in Carbon, Water and Biodiversity from peatland restoration

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Slides presented at the Ecosystems Knowledge Network Seminar in Bristol, 22 May 2013

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  • 1. Gas fluxes are measured from the surface of the peatlands using closed chambers.2. Each site is fitted with permanent ground collars onto which the chamber is placed during gas collection.3. The chamber is sealed with a gas-tight lid.4. Gas samples are collected over a 15-min period every 5 minutes and the change of concentration with time of the gas species is used to determine their flux rate (taking into account chamber volume, internal temperature and the foot print of the chamber).5. A balloon on the inside on the chamber is connected to the external air. It helps dampen any sudden pressure changes that might trigger ebullition events (i.e., sporadic bubble release from the soil).6. The vent tube allows outside air to enter the chamber at the same rate that it is being withdrawn during sample collection. The total volume of each sample is ~60 ml (1 x 20 ml sample + duplicate flushing). The amount of ‘fresh’ air entering the chamber is taking into account in the flux data processing (i.e., as a dilution). The vent tube prevent negative pressure from forming in the chamber which could trigger or enhance the rate of gas release from soil.
  • Stimulating investment in Carbon, Water and Biodiversity from peatland restoration

    1. 1. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVApplying PES in practiceStimulating investment in C, H2O andBiodiversity benefits from peatlandrestorationEcosystems Knowledge NetworkBristol22 May 2013Charles Cowap, Chartered Surveyor Knowledge for RuralProfessional Practice, and Harper Adams UniversityDr David Smith, Mires in the Moors and UpstreamThinking, South West Water
    2. 2. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVLearning points from this seminar1. Legal and practical issues with land ownership and managementfor the implementation of PES2. Building the business case for land managers3. Key considerations and concerns for landowners, farmers andtheir professional advisers
    3. 3. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVPeat’s Story
    4. 4. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDistribution of upland peatlands in the SouthWest of England
    5. 5. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVThe mires on ExmoorDrainage for agriculturalimprovement
    6. 6. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDomestic and commercial peat cutting forfuelCutting carried on until the end of the c20th
    7. 7. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVExmoor peatlands have become largelydry and dominated by Molinia (sedgegrass) as a result
    8. 8. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVExmoor Mires Project• Initiated in 1998 by ENPA, EA and NE. First restoration work atExe-head in 2001-4 aimed to benefit the River Exe.• New Partnership for 2006-9 project with SWW - Wildliferestoration was the main funding aim of the partners.• 2010-15 SWW customers funded project for water supply, qualityand wildlife.
    9. 9. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhat has the project achieved?• The blocking of 85km of ditches and the re-wetting of 735ha ofmire at 22 sites
    10. 10. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhere?- the pink bits, the brown bits arepossible future sites
    11. 11. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVHow is restoration done?• Peat blocks, sometimes with wood and bales
    12. 12. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVPeat and wooden blocks6 weeks after restoration
    13. 13. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhat other equipment is used?• Tracked dumper for logistics• Tractor with big tyres for cutting and bales
    14. 14. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhat is the end result• Most sites get a bit wetter and a some have got a lot wetter inplaces
    15. 15. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDitch blocks on a typical site with lots ofsmall ditches
    16. 16. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDitch blocks on big ditches = Pools
    17. 17. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCurrent Exmoor Project 2010- 15• £2m budget for Exmoor• 2,000ha target restoration area• 3,400ha of peatland has now been surveyed, the ditches/peat-cuttings measured and GPS mapped and the restoration potentialassessed.• 340 ha has been restored so far.• Another 300ha planned for this August
    18. 18. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVProof of Concept monitoringPlant monitoring has found anincrease in Sphagnum species andless Molinia
    19. 19. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVOther Wildlife monitoring (Birds,dragonflies, amphibians, reptiles,etc)Dragonflies example is typical of increases;Black Darter- (rare on Exmoor as itneeds bog pools) Blackpitts now haspossibly the largest population inSomerset (100’s seen in 2011)Common Hawker-(rare in southernEngland) x10 seen at Blackpitts andx2 at Squallacombe in 2012
    20. 20. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVAgricultural Impact of Mire restorationmonitoring• base line survey started in 2012 by WRT,• post-restoration surveys in subsequent years.
    21. 21. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAV•Monitoring Equipment per site:54 dipwells, 18 temperature loggers, 60capacitance probes, 30 mini conductivityloggers, 3 seepage meters.HydrologicalMonitoring:Water storageand qualitychanges
    22. 22. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVMonitoring GHG flux and storageGround CollarsFan to mixchamber airTemperature andrelative humidityloggerInternal balloon (to dampenpressure changes)Sample OutletVent TubeLid & chamberChamber, lidand collarare sealedusing awater-filledgroove
    23. 23. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVWhy Monitor?• Need to prove to the Water Regulatorthat peatland restoration achieves itsaims of improving water supply andquality.• The outcome information is alsoneeded for the set-up of a revenuepayment for Mire restoration.
    24. 24. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAV
    25. 25. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVContext: Exmoor exampleExmoorR BarleR ExeWimbleball Resr &R HaddeoExebridgePumpingStationReplenishmentPumpingApprox 5miles, lifting waterfrom 120 to 240 mAODCO 2
    26. 26. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVPumping CostsTreatment CostsFutureStorage/AbstractionCostsIncentive payments tolandowners –managers - occupiersSavings for waterbuyersProfit for reinvestmentor distributionCARBONEconomics+ OTHER ESSPAYMENTS???
    27. 27. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVTop Three Concerns• Confidence• Revenue/Cost• Scheme Relationships
    28. 28. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVTop Three Positives• Environmental• Revenue• Asset Value and wider economic aspects
    29. 29. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVTop Three Questions• Legal/ownership concerns• Revenue and cost• Confidence
    30. 30. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVQuestions for consideration• Contractual aspects• Land tenure• Effects on otherinterested parties• Practical farmingconsiderations• Animal welfare andhealth• Public liability• Relationship otherschemes• Other businessconsiderations• Maintenanceobligations• Tax• Impact on value• Security/risk
    31. 31. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDecision Criteria and guidanceSite suitability• Peatland  knownmapped damage• Detailed survey & mapping• Damage restorable?• Farming impact?• Drainage/wetnessimplications forsurrounding landLand manager• All interests• New managementrequirement?• Impact on otheropportunities (+/-)• Financial
    32. 32. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVFinancial evaluationExtra costs, eg• Access time to more difficultground• Vet and med bills• Insurance• Feed• Machinery costs (ifcontracting to be offered)Costs saved• Eg some livestock purchasesLost Revenue• Eg some livestock LWG orsalesExtra Revenue eg• PES income• Contracting opportunities forSWW+ Balance: financiallyworthwhile• Consider capital and taximplicationsBalance positive: not financiallyworthwhile
    33. 33. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVKey Questions for PES developers• Working with the positives• Addressing the negatives• Market infrastructure– Eg willing buyer– Trading terms• Eg Peatland Carbon Code• Contractual infrastructure– Eg Law CommissionConservation CovenantReview
    34. 34. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVSo to conclude:• Legal and practical issues• Building the business case• Key considerations and concerns forlandowners, farmers and theirprofessional advisers
    35. 35. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVDiscussion andintroduction of casestudy
    36. 36. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVRed Earth Farm is a mixed tenure farm of total 500hectares. Of this 400 ha is rented under theAgricultural Holdings Act 1986, and the remainder isowned (but subject to a mortgage with theAgricultural Mortgage Corporation). The mainfarmhouse and two workers’ cottages are located onthe rented land along with the farm buildings. Theowned land consists exclusively of bare land with nodwellings or buildings. The land abuts the west bankof the River Severn to the north of Tewkesbury (boththe tenanted and owned land).FoodPollination Raw materialsMedicineBiodiversity Local climate and air qualityCarbonMitigate extreme eventsWaterSoil quality and stabilityDisease HealthWaste treatment
    37. 37. Charles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVCharles CowapMBA MRICS FAAVContact DetailsCharles CowapTranslating new knowledge forrural professional practice cdcowap@gmail.com 07947 706505Twitter: @charlescowapBlog:http://charlescowap.wordpress.com/Slideshare:http://www.slideshare.net/cdcowapDr David SmithSouth West WaterMires Project Managerdmsmith@southwestwater.co.uk056 0118 1600http://www.exmoormires.org.uk/http://www.southwestwater.co.uk

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