Atomic Structure and Bonding


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An introduction to basic atomic structure and bonding. Good for middle to high school, very basic introduction.

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Atomic Structure and Bonding

  1. 1. Atomic Structure
  2. 2. <ul><li>Atomic Structure and Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>What We Will Cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Subatomic Particles </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass Unit Number and Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding – Ionic and Covalent </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sub Atomic Particles <ul><li>Protons </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons </li></ul>
  4. 4. Protons <ul><li>Located in nucleus of atom </li></ul><ul><li>Has a positive charge </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Protons = Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><li>Has 1 AMU in mass (Atomic Mass Unit) </li></ul>+ + +
  5. 5. Neutrons <ul><li>Located in nucleus of atom </li></ul><ul><li>Has NO electrical charge </li></ul><ul><li>Has mass of 1 amu </li></ul><ul><li>Number of neutrons usually is equal to number of protons </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Quiz – Subatomic Particles </li></ul><ul><li>The positive particle is the ___. </li></ul><ul><li>The negative particle is the ___. </li></ul><ul><li>The neutral particle is the ___. </li></ul><ul><li>The proton is the same as the __ number. </li></ul><ul><li>The two particles located inside the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>are the __ and the __. </li></ul><ul><li>6.Each of these particles </li></ul><ul><li>have a mass of ___. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Electrons <ul><li>Located outside the nucleus of the atom </li></ul><ul><li>Housed in Electrical Clouds, Shells, Orbits </li></ul><ul><li>Has a negative charge </li></ul><ul><li>Does not have an amu because of tiny size </li></ul><ul><li>Moves around the nucleus in an orbit </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hydrogen Atom Electron Cloud
  9. 9. Quick Quiz – Subatomic Particles (continued) 7. The electron ___ around the nucleus. 8. The ___ electrons are the outer ___ electrons and are involved in ___ bonding. 9.To find the number of neutrons in an atom you subtract the __ number from the ___ number .
  10. 10. Atomic Numbers <ul><li>Number used to arrange the Periodic Table </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Left to Right </li></ul><ul><li>Same as number of Protons or Electrons in a neutral atom </li></ul>
  11. 11. Atomic Mass <ul><li>The sum of the Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Atomic Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ Neutrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Weight </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Electron Arrangement <ul><li>Electrons orbit the nucleus in Energy levels </li></ul><ul><li>The first level (or cloud, or shell) contains up to 2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>The second level contains up to 8 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>The third level contains up to 18 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>4 th 32; 5 th 50; 6 th 72 max in shell </li></ul>
  13. 13. Electron Arrangement ctd. <ul><li>The electrons in the outermost shell (if it is not completely full) are available for bonding </li></ul><ul><li>These electrons are called Valence Electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Bonding is the chemical combining of 2 or more atoms. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Quick Quiz – Numbers, Electron Arrangement 10. The __ __ is used to arrange the periodic table as it increases from __ to __. 11. The atomic number is the same as the number of ___ . 12. The __ number is the sum of protons and neutrons inside the ___. 13. The outermost electrons are the __ electrons and they orbit the nucleus in __ levels. 14. Bonding is the ___________ combining of 2 or more ____________________
  15. 15. Bonding <ul><li>The process when 2 or more atoms combine chemically is known as Bonding </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 we are learning today are </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic Bonding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent Bonding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Ionic Bonding <ul><li>Electrons are either gained or lost by atom </li></ul><ul><li>One atom is positive +, One is negative - </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs between Metals and Nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Metals lose electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals gain electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Very strong bond – usually solids - with high melting temperatures </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sodium and Chlorine
  18. 18. Sodium – a soft grey highly flammable metal Chlorine – a highly poisonous green gas +
  19. 19. = (equals) Table Salt
  20. 20. Lithium and Fluorine diagram shows Ionic Bonding in action
  21. 21. Common Ionic Bonds <ul><li>NaCl Sodium Chloride Table Salt </li></ul><ul><li>CuSo 4 Copper Sulfate Kills algae </li></ul><ul><li>NaHCO 3 Baking Soda Baking & Health </li></ul>
  22. 22. Quiz – Bonding Ionic 15. In ionic bonding electrons are either _ or _. 16. __ lose electrons and ___ gain electrons. 17. A positive ions has __ electrons and a negative ion has __ electrons. 18. __ bonds are strong, usually solid, and have __ melting and boiling points. 19.The magic number of valence electrons needed by all but two atoms is ___. 20.Name two common ionic bonds.
  23. 23. Covalent Bonding <ul><li>Electrons are shared between atoms (co) </li></ul><ul><li>Neither atom has an electrical charge </li></ul><ul><li>Forces between atoms are weak – have low boiling or melting points </li></ul><ul><li>Usually are liquids or gasses </li></ul><ul><li>If a solid is usually a crystal </li></ul>
  24. 24. Water Methane
  25. 25. Common Covalent Bonds <ul><li>H 2 O Water </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 Methane </li></ul><ul><li>C 3 H 8 Propane </li></ul>
  26. 26. Quick Quiz – Bonding Covalent 21. In a covalent bond, electrons are ___. 22. Neither atom has a ___. 23. Intermolecular forces __ __ are weak. 24. Covalent bonds have ___ melting and ___ points. 25. Covalent bonds are usually found in these two states of matter. 26. Two common covalent compounds are __ and __.
  27. 27. Ionic – Gain or Lose Electrons Covalent – Share Electrons