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Brussels Briefing 54: Asfandiyar Khan '' Where are we on SDG2 implementation: Trends and projections''

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The Brussels Policy Briefing n. 54 on ”Sustainable agriculture: where are we on SDGs implementation?” took place on 27th February 2019 (European Commission, Charlemagne Building, Alcide de Gasperi Room, Rue de la Loi 170, 1040 Brussels).

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Brussels Briefing 54: Asfandiyar Khan '' Where are we on SDG2 implementation: Trends and projections''

  1. 1. Overview of FAO’s Work on SDGs Focus – SDG Indicator 2.4.1 Arbab Asfandiyar Khan Economist FAO ESS Division
  2. 2. OVERVIEW OF THE GLOBAL INDICATOR FRAMEWORK  GIF (232 indicators) endorsed in July 2017  UNSC is responsible for the SDG monitoring framework  Custodian international agency is assigned for each indicator  IAEG-SDG to prepare an initial proposal and oversee this work through to 2030 • 28 countries representing their respective regions; • International organizations as observers; • Meets twice a year (last meeting 5-8 November 2018) => The process has been fully led by countries
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF INDICATORS IN THREE TIERS  Based on the level of methodological development and the availability of data TIER LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT I • Established methodology/international standards exist • Most countries are regularly producing data (>50% of countries/ population in each region) II • An established methodology/international standards exist • Most countries are still not regularly producing data (<50% of countries/ population in each region) III • Established methodology/international standards do not yet exist or are still being tested
  4. 4. STATUS OF SDG INDICATORS UNDER FAO CUSTODIANSHIP As of November 2015 (21 SDG indicators) Goal Indicators Goal 2 (Food security, Nutrition, Sustainable Agriculture) 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4.1 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.a.1 2.c.1 Goal 5 (Gender equality) 5.a.1 5.a.2 Goal 6 (Use of Water) 6.4.1 6.4.2 Goal 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production) 12.3.1 Goal 14 (Oceans) 14.4.1 14.6.1 14.7.1 14.b.1 Goal 15 (Life on Land) 15.1.1 15.2.1 15.4.2 Tier # of indicators I 3 II 5 III 13
  5. 5. STATUS OF SDG INDICATORS UNDER FAO CUSTODIANSHIP As of January 2018 Goal Indicators Goal 2 (Food security, Nutrition, Sustainable Agriculture) 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4.1 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.a.1 2.c.1 Goal 5 (Gender equality) 5.a.1 5.a.2 Goal 6 (Use of Water) 6.4.1 6.4.2 Goal 12 (Sustainable Consumption and Production) 12.3.1 Goal 14 (Oceans) 14.4.1 14.6.1 14.7.1 14.b.1 Goal 15 (Life on Land) 15.1.1 15.2.1 15.4.2 FAO started with 13 Tier III indicators, it now has only 1 left. Tier # of indicators I 12 II 8 III 1
  6. 6. GOAL 2 - END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVED NUTRITION AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
  7. 7. GOAL 2 (NO HUNGER) – INDICATORS UNDER FAO CUSTODIANSHIP Indicator # Indicator Title Target 2.1.1 Prevalence of undernourishment 2.1 2.1.2 Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) 2.3.1 Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/ forestry enterprise size 2.3 2.3.2 Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status 2.4.1 Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture 2.4 2.5.1 Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium or long-term conservation facilities 2.5 2.5.2 Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk, not-at-risk or at unknown level of risk of extinction 2.a.1 The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures 2.a 2.c.1 Indicator of food price anomalies [The proposed indicator of food price anomalies measures the number of “Price Anomalies” that occur on a given food commodity price series over a given period of time.] GOAL 2 comprise of 14 indicators of which FAO is
  8. 8. CORPORATE CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES FOR SDG INDICATORS 2016-18 E-LEARNING COURSES GLOBAL, REGIONAL AND NATIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOPS SDG DATA & COMMUNICATION PORTAL NEW FAO vision for 2019-2030: Scale up capacity development support to maximize country reporting
  9. 9. Hunger Women’s equal rights to land ownership Severity of food insecurity Public Investment in agriculture Food price volatility Access rights for small-scale fisheries Water stress 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.a.1 2.c.1 14.b.1 6.4.2 5.a.2 E-learning courses published, freely available online2.5.1 2.5.2 Conservation of plant and animal genetic resources 5.a.1 Forest area and sustainable forest management 15.1.1 15.2.1
  10. 10. Severity of food insecurity Food price volatility Access rights for small-scale fisheries 2.1.2 2.c.1 14.b.1 E-learning courses published, freely available online  Spanish  French  Spanish  French  Russian  Spanish  French  Russian  Arabic
  11. 11. E-learning courses under development Water use efficiency Productivity and income of small-scale food producers Agricultural sustainability Global food losses Value added of sustainable fisheries Fish stocks sustainability 12.3.1 6.4.1 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4.1 14.4.1 14.7.1 Coming soon
  12. 12. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOPS 2016-2018 Aims: Enlarge the pool of SDG monitoring experts Facilitate South-South cooperation Facilitate pilot testing of new methods  40+ training workshops in 2017 and 2018  120 countries attended one or more workshops from all regions of the world Result: Increased number of reporting coun
  13. 13. By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality 13 TARGET 2.4:
  14. 14. INDICATOR 2.4.1 Defined as the “Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture”, which is expressed as: 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 = 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑢𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑎𝑔𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝐴𝑔𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 Reflects the multiple dimensions of sustainability Measured at farm level Allows measurement of progress towards more productive and sustainable agriculture 14
  15. 15. STEPS TO DEVELOP THE INDICATOR 1) Determining the scope 2) Determining the dimensions to be covered (sustainability) 3) Choosing the scale 4) Selecting the data collection instrument(s). 5) Selecting the themes to be covered, choosing a sub-indicator for each theme. 6) Developing the criteria to assess sustainability performance for each sub-indicator 7) Deciding the periodicity of monitoring the indicator 8) Developing modality of reporting the indicator 15
  16. 16. SUB-INDICATORS No. Theme Sub-indicators 1 Land productivity Farm output value per hectare 2 Profitability Net farm income 3 Resilience Risk mitigation mechanisms 4 Soil health Prevalence of soil degradation 5 Water use Variation in water availability 6 Fertilizer risk Management of fertilizers 7 Pesticide risk Management of pesticides 8 Biodiversity Use of biodiversity-friendly practices 9 Decent employment Wage rate in agriculture 10 Food security Food insecurity experience scale (FIES) 11 Land tenure Secure tenure rights to land 16
  17. 17. ASSESSING SUSTAINABILITY LEVELS 17 1. Green: ‘desirable’ 2. Yellow: ‘acceptable’ 3. Red: ‘unsustainable’ Criteria established by thematic experts, will be fine tuned in light of results of the proposed tests Helps measure progress
  18. 18. REPORTING THROUGH A DASHBOARD 18 Example of results for country X in year Y Note: This dashboard is only a simulation and is not from real data
  19. 19. NEXT STEPS FOR SDG INDICATOR 2.4.1 Extended pilots ongoing in Bangladesh Finalizing documentation Farm survey questionnaire (PAPI and CAPI versions) Enumerator’s manual Calculation procedures Preparation of training material and e-learning courses is in progress Advocacy and training workshops (global, regional and national) planned in different regions SDG data & communication portal Rolling out in countries 19
  20. 20. THANK YOU http://www.fao.org/sustainable-development-goals/en/ Contact us: Arbab.khan@fao.org; Amy.Heyman@fao.org; Francesco.Tubiello@fao.org;
  21. 21. Education for all Anytime Anywhere Free of charge Transfer of skills and competences Multilingual 500,000 learners throughout the world Public good All SDGs and SDG 4 FAO E-learning Center www.fao.org/elearning
  22. 22. CRITERIA FOR THE CHOICE OF THEMES AND SUB- INDICATORS 22 Policy relevance Universality International comparability Measurability Cost effectiveness Minimum cross-correlation
  23. 23. SCOPE Included within the scope Crop and livestock production systems  Non-food crops and livestock (example crops such as tobacco, cotton, and livestock raised for non-food products like sheep for wool).  Crops grown for fodder or for energy purposes. Agro-forestry (trees on the farm). Aquaculture, to the extent that it takes place within the agricultural area. For example, rice-fish and similar systems. Both intensive and extensive production systems (including subsistence agriculture). Excluded from the scope State and common land used commonly by several agriculture holdings. Production from gardens and backyards. Production from hobby farms. Land used exclusively for aquaculture. Forest and other wooded lands. Food harvested from the wild. 23
  24. 24. AGGREGATE INDICATOR (AT NATIONAL OR OTHER LEVELS) 𝑆𝐷𝐺241 𝑑 = min 𝑛:1−11 (𝑆𝐼 𝑑 𝑛) 𝑆𝐷𝐺241 𝑎+𝑑 = min 𝑛:1−11 (𝑆𝐼 𝑑+𝑆𝐼 𝑎) 𝑛 𝑆𝐷𝐺241 𝑢 = max 𝑛:1−11 (𝑆𝐼 𝑢 𝑛) SDG241d = proportion of agricultural land area that have achieved the ‘desirable’ level SDG241a+d = proportion of agricultural land area that have achieved at least the ‘acceptable’ level SDG241u = proportion of agricultural area that is ‘unsustainable’ 24
  25. 25. PREFERRED INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION Preferred instrument for data collection is a farm survey questionnaire Aligned with efforts supported by FAO to develop farm surveys as the most relevant instrument for agricultural data (AGRIS) Questionnaire designed as a module that contain the minimum set of questions needed to assess 2.4.1. These questions can be integrated into existing farm surveys Can be complemented with contextual information from other data sources Suggested periodicity: 3 years 17
  26. 26. CONDITIONS FOR USING ALTERNATIVE DATA SOURCES Respects the stratification (farm type, agricultural areas, etc.) Captures the same phenomenon as the proposed farm survey At least same quality as the farm survey Compliant with international/national standards and classifications systems internationally comparable Data available at the same level of territorial disaggregation as the farm survey Reference year and periodicity homogenous across the sub-indicators 20

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