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Chapter 10
Graphic design and illustration
• Graphic design – Visual presentation of information
– the goal is communication of a specific message
– Usually trying t...
Examples of things that are designed
before production
• Books • Book jackets
• Newspapers • Magazines
• Advertisements • ...
How old is graphic design art?
• Since the beginning of civilization
• Written languages
• Symbols
• Today’s graphic desig...
symbols
• Most basic level of communication
• Letters are symbols
Ω Ж Φ Ш М
• Even arrows had to be developed
→ Δ
yin yang – dynamic balance of opposites,
explains existence
female/male
being/nonbeing
light/dark
action/inaction
opposite...
Symbols have no meaning in themselves,
they are given meaning by society.
The swastika dates back
to Neolithic Europe,
up ...
US Dept of
Transportation,
1974
developed to
communicate to
international travelers
by
Cook and Shanosky
Associates
logos
typography
• The arrangement and appearance of letters
• Calligraphy • Font, typeface
• People began to pay special attent...
Joan Dobkin,
leaflet for Amnesty International, 1991
Textbook,
pg 243
layout
• Blueprint for how an extended work such as a
book or magazine should look
– The way a page or a pair of pages are...
posters/ads
• Color lithography (19th century) brought about
eye-catching posters
– Color wasn’t practical in magazines or...
Toulouse-Lautrec
Toulouse-Lautrec
Constructivism – a graphic
design art movement after the
Russian Revolution of 1917
They had high hopes to create a
new so...
Milton Glaser, 1996
illustration
• An image created to accompany words
– Books - Poems
– Magazines - Newspapers
• Illustration is a different ...
Norman Rockwell
did about 6 covers a year for
The Saturday evening Post for over 40 yrs.
He did 322
covers for
TSEP
Rockwell’s last cover for the Post
1960, 1963
Norman Rockwell, lithograph, 1942
Part of
The Four Freedoms
series.
Norman Rockwell
He also worked for
the Boy Scouts, and
he illustrated over
40 books.
He produced over
4000 original
works.
Alan Lee
John Howe
Ted Nasmith
End of chapter 10
• Except digital realms…….
Chapter 11
Sculpture and Installation
Sculpture
Maman, Louise Bourgeois, 1999,
Bronze, steel and marble, St. Petersburg, Russia
Sculpture
• Sculpture is 3D, the third dimension is depth
• One of the most ancient art forms
– Still very exciting today
...
4 basic methods for making sculpture
• Modeling
 Additive process
• Assembling
 Additive process
• Carving
 Subtractive...
Modeling
• The most direct sculpture method
• Most common material is clay
• The pliable material is shaped and
formed wit...
Ife head, terracotta, Africa,
probably 12-14th centuries
Olmec baby-face figurine,
hollow, whiteware ceramics
Mesoamerica, 1400-400BCE
Venus of Dolní Věstonice, clay,
before 25,000 BCE
Casting
• Very indirect method of forming sculpture
– Sometimes an artist never touches the finished work
• Bronze is the ...
Somaskanda (Shiva and his wife Uma)
12th century, Chola dynasty, Bronze
Ife, bronze casting from Yoruba,
13th century
lost-wax casting
• 5000 year history
• Simple and ingenious
• Textbook, pg 254
• http://www.andresteadsculpture.com/castin...
Vaquero, Luis Jimenez,
Modeled 1980, cast 1990. Height 16’7”
Acrylic, urethane, fiberglass, steel armature.
The Thinker, Rodin, 1879-89
The Burghers of Calais, Rodin, 1884
carving
• More aggressive than modeling, more direct
than casting
• Sculptor begins with a block of material
– Wood, stone...
Dagger with horse head pommel. India, Mughal dynasty, 17th
century. Blade: Damascus steel inlaid with gold; hilt: jade wit...
Colossal head of La Venta, Mexico,
Olmec, 700 BCE
Olowe of Ise, Bowl with figures,
early 20th century, wood, pigment, height 25”
Olowe of Ise
“The Dying Gaul” marble, 3rd cen BCE,
a roman copy of Hellenistic bronze
Michelangelo’s Pieta
assembling
• Assemblage - Individual parts can be placed on
or near each other
• Construction – the pieces are joined toge...
Joseph Cornell, 1945
Joseph Cornell, 1936
Joseph Cornell, 1943
Meret Oppenheim, Object, 1936
gazelle fur covered teacup, saucer & spoon
Alexander Calder
Alice Aycock, "The Uncertainty of Ground State
Fluctuations," installation view in Clayton, Missouri (2007)
John Kearney, chromed car bumpers
www.cedarhurst.org
John Kearney
Sculpture
• Low relief – the subject projects very slightly from
the background
– A coin, carved doors, an Egyptian tomb w...
Pharaoh Akhenaten with his wife Nefertiti and daughters.
Sometimes called sunken relief or intaglio
Roman frieze
Lapith fighting a centaur, Parthenon,
ca. 447–433 BC
Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise
Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, detail
Ghiberti, 1401
earthwork
• Art made for a specific place usually using the
materials found on the site
Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson,
Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1970 - present
Spiral Jetty
Serpent Mound, Ohio, 1070,
overall length 1300’
Serpent Mound
Nazca Lines, Peru, 200BCE-700CE
Nazca lines
The lines are shallow designs made in the ground by removing the ubiquitous
reddish pebbles and uncovering the...
Christo and Jeanne-Claude, pg 275
http://www.christojeanneclaude.net/#
The Umbrellas, Japan, 1991
The Umbrellas, California
Reichstag, Berlin, Germany
Wrapped Reichstag, 1995
Valley Curtain, Colorado, 1972
Running Fence, Sonoma, California,
1976
Jeff Koons, Puppy, 1992+, live flowering plants,
earth, geotextile, internal irrigation system
End of chapter
Chapter 10 & 11
Chapter 10 & 11
Chapter 10 & 11
Chapter 10 & 11
Chapter 10 & 11
Chapter 10 & 11
Chapter 10 & 11
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Chapter 10 & 11

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Chapter 10 & 11

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Graphic design and illustration
  2. 2. • Graphic design – Visual presentation of information – the goal is communication of a specific message – Usually trying to sell something or give directions • Sometimes called commercial art – At SIU they call the degree a communications design
  3. 3. Examples of things that are designed before production • Books • Book jackets • Newspapers • Magazines • Advertisements • Packaging • Websites • CD covers • Road signs • Logos • Television & film credits
  4. 4. How old is graphic design art? • Since the beginning of civilization • Written languages • Symbols • Today’s graphic design is rooted in – Invention of the printing press, 15th century • Reproduction and distribution –Industrial Revolution, 18th-19th centuries Increased commercial applications – Prior, most products were local – After, mass manufacturing
  5. 5. symbols • Most basic level of communication • Letters are symbols Ω Ж Φ Ш М • Even arrows had to be developed → Δ
  6. 6. yin yang – dynamic balance of opposites, explains existence female/male being/nonbeing light/dark action/inaction opposites are mutually interdependent both are necessary to make the whole
  7. 7. Symbols have no meaning in themselves, they are given meaning by society. The swastika dates back to Neolithic Europe, up to 5,700 yrs ago. Svastika = Sanskrit for good luck. India
  8. 8. US Dept of Transportation, 1974 developed to communicate to international travelers by Cook and Shanosky Associates
  9. 9. logos
  10. 10. typography • The arrangement and appearance of letters • Calligraphy • Font, typeface • People began to pay special attention to this with the invention of movable type, 1450 • Sometimes designers will create their own lettering • Sometimes designers use a combination of typefaces
  11. 11. Joan Dobkin, leaflet for Amnesty International, 1991 Textbook, pg 243
  12. 12. layout • Blueprint for how an extended work such as a book or magazine should look – The way a page or a pair of pages are balanced • Using smaller and larger shapes • Using darker and lighter colors • Generally asymmetrical • Looking for a visual appeal
  13. 13. posters/ads • Color lithography (19th century) brought about eye-catching posters – Color wasn’t practical in magazines or newspapers • Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Flat simplified forms influenced by Japanese prints – Immediately collector’s items
  14. 14. Toulouse-Lautrec
  15. 15. Toulouse-Lautrec
  16. 16. Constructivism – a graphic design art movement after the Russian Revolution of 1917 They had high hopes to create a new society, wanted to make art for the masses, not the elite. They used bold compositions. During the 1930s, the Soviet gov’t abolished independent artist groups, the gov’t demanded all art to be clear, easy to understand & realistic. Poster for the 1930 film "Earth" by the Stenberg brothers
  17. 17. Milton Glaser, 1996
  18. 18. illustration • An image created to accompany words – Books - Poems – Magazines - Newspapers • Illustration is a different kind of environment for artists – Tight deadlines – The work is usually thrown away • Illustrators usually find ways to work quickly but still create striking images
  19. 19. Norman Rockwell did about 6 covers a year for The Saturday evening Post for over 40 yrs. He did 322 covers for TSEP
  20. 20. Rockwell’s last cover for the Post 1960, 1963
  21. 21. Norman Rockwell, lithograph, 1942 Part of The Four Freedoms series.
  22. 22. Norman Rockwell He also worked for the Boy Scouts, and he illustrated over 40 books. He produced over 4000 original works.
  23. 23. Alan Lee
  24. 24. John Howe
  25. 25. Ted Nasmith
  26. 26. End of chapter 10 • Except digital realms…….
  27. 27. Chapter 11 Sculpture and Installation
  28. 28. Sculpture Maman, Louise Bourgeois, 1999, Bronze, steel and marble, St. Petersburg, Russia
  29. 29. Sculpture • Sculpture is 3D, the third dimension is depth • One of the most ancient art forms – Still very exciting today • New materials – Metal, wood, stone – fiberglass, fabric, actual light, flowers • Installation – incorporates the entire exhibit space
  30. 30. 4 basic methods for making sculpture • Modeling  Additive process • Assembling  Additive process • Carving  Subtractive process • Casting  Liquid is poured into a mold to harden
  31. 31. Modeling • The most direct sculpture method • Most common material is clay • The pliable material is shaped and formed with hands and tools – Pinching, smoothing – Gouging, scratching, making textures • More material can be added • While kept wet, clay can be worked and reworked indefinitely
  32. 32. Ife head, terracotta, Africa, probably 12-14th centuries
  33. 33. Olmec baby-face figurine, hollow, whiteware ceramics Mesoamerica, 1400-400BCE
  34. 34. Venus of Dolní Věstonice, clay, before 25,000 BCE
  35. 35. Casting • Very indirect method of forming sculpture – Sometimes an artist never touches the finished work • Bronze is the most common association with casting – the metal can be superheated until it flows easily to be poured into a mold – It hardens to extreme durability
  36. 36. Somaskanda (Shiva and his wife Uma) 12th century, Chola dynasty, Bronze
  37. 37. Ife, bronze casting from Yoruba, 13th century
  38. 38. lost-wax casting • 5000 year history • Simple and ingenious • Textbook, pg 254 • http://www.andresteadsculpture.com/casting.php • Sometimes sculptures are cast in pieces and then assembled, welded together over an armature • Usually the mold is reusable & multiples are made • The sculptures are not solid • Other materials besides metal can be used for finished cast artworks: fiberglass, resin,
  39. 39. Vaquero, Luis Jimenez, Modeled 1980, cast 1990. Height 16’7” Acrylic, urethane, fiberglass, steel armature.
  40. 40. The Thinker, Rodin, 1879-89
  41. 41. The Burghers of Calais, Rodin, 1884
  42. 42. carving • More aggressive than modeling, more direct than casting • Sculptor begins with a block of material – Wood, stone, plaster • Jade is too hard to be carved, can only be shaped through abrasion • Basalt – a volcanic stone used by the Olmec – The grain must be considered when carving
  43. 43. Dagger with horse head pommel. India, Mughal dynasty, 17th century. Blade: Damascus steel inlaid with gold; hilt: jade with carved decoration, inlaid with gold and semi-precious stones.
  44. 44. Colossal head of La Venta, Mexico, Olmec, 700 BCE
  45. 45. Olowe of Ise, Bowl with figures, early 20th century, wood, pigment, height 25”
  46. 46. Olowe of Ise
  47. 47. “The Dying Gaul” marble, 3rd cen BCE, a roman copy of Hellenistic bronze
  48. 48. Michelangelo’s Pieta
  49. 49. assembling • Assemblage - Individual parts can be placed on or near each other • Construction – the pieces are joined together • Sometimes the parts are called “found objects”
  50. 50. Joseph Cornell, 1945
  51. 51. Joseph Cornell, 1936
  52. 52. Joseph Cornell, 1943
  53. 53. Meret Oppenheim, Object, 1936 gazelle fur covered teacup, saucer & spoon
  54. 54. Alexander Calder
  55. 55. Alice Aycock, "The Uncertainty of Ground State Fluctuations," installation view in Clayton, Missouri (2007)
  56. 56. John Kearney, chromed car bumpers www.cedarhurst.org
  57. 57. John Kearney
  58. 58. Sculpture • Low relief – the subject projects very slightly from the background – A coin, carved doors, an Egyptian tomb wall • High relief – the subject projects much more boldly from the background – Projects at least half its depth • sculpture “in the round” – the viewer can walk completely around the sculpture, the view from all sides is interesting – Sometimes there is still a front and back
  59. 59. Pharaoh Akhenaten with his wife Nefertiti and daughters. Sometimes called sunken relief or intaglio
  60. 60. Roman frieze
  61. 61. Lapith fighting a centaur, Parthenon, ca. 447–433 BC
  62. 62. Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise
  63. 63. Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, detail
  64. 64. Ghiberti, 1401
  65. 65. earthwork • Art made for a specific place usually using the materials found on the site
  66. 66. Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson, Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1970 - present
  67. 67. Spiral Jetty
  68. 68. Serpent Mound, Ohio, 1070, overall length 1300’
  69. 69. Serpent Mound
  70. 70. Nazca Lines, Peru, 200BCE-700CE
  71. 71. Nazca lines The lines are shallow designs made in the ground by removing the ubiquitous reddish pebbles and uncovering the whitish ground beneath.
  72. 72. Christo and Jeanne-Claude, pg 275 http://www.christojeanneclaude.net/# The Umbrellas, Japan, 1991
  73. 73. The Umbrellas, California
  74. 74. Reichstag, Berlin, Germany
  75. 75. Wrapped Reichstag, 1995
  76. 76. Valley Curtain, Colorado, 1972
  77. 77. Running Fence, Sonoma, California, 1976
  78. 78. Jeff Koons, Puppy, 1992+, live flowering plants, earth, geotextile, internal irrigation system
  79. 79. End of chapter

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