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Chapter 12 - Craft


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Chapter 12 - Craft

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Crafts
  2. 2. Lost Wax Casting Process• 1- Create a clay sculpture as a model.• 2- Create a 2 part mold with rubber and plaster over the clay core.• 3- Create a wax replica of the clay sculpture by pouring wax into the 2 part mold.• 4- Attach sprues and gates, which are wax rods all over the piece, creating an artery system.• 5- Encase the wax sculpture with the rod system in a ceramic shell.• 6- Melt the wax out (at this time, the ceramic shell is fired to create a mold)• 7- Pour molten bronze into the mold.• 8- Break the mold off of the bronze sculpture.• 9- Remove the channels & smooth & polish the sculpture.• 10- Patination: create a colored patina on the finished surface.
  3. 3. FINE CRAFT• Most crafts have roots in the middle ages, when a craftsman had a trade – potter, glassblower, woodworker, weaver.• The word “craft” alludes to expert work done by hand.• “Craft” and “Art” originally had the same meaning. During the Renaissance, painting, sculpture and architecture were elevated to a different level. – Thus much of art history before the Renaissance includes craft.
  4. 4. Craft vs Art• Western cultures (Europe & US) have Fine Art and Fine Craft in separate categories. – Often the dividing line is function.• Many other cultures around the world attribute artistic meaning to craft objects. – Often fine art objects like sculpture have a spiritual function.• There is no definite division between art and craft, nor should there be. – Labels are a convenience for talking about art.
  5. 5. Traditional Materials of Craft• Clay• Glass• Metal• Wood• Fiber
  6. 6. Ceramics• Many kinds of clay • Terra cotta ∙ Stoneware • Earthenware ∙ Porcelain• Greenware – Clay before it is fired• Bisqueware – Clay that has been kiln-fired once.  After clay has been fired its chemical composition changes, it can never be clay again• Glazeware – Clay that has been glazed, it can be fired multiple times, not all ceramics are glazed
  7. 7. Ceramics Forming Techniques• Wheel throwing – Used in Egypt 6000 years ago• Slab construction• Coiling – Maria Martinez used this method• Hand-forming or pinching
  8. 8. Maria Martinez, BlackwareThis type of blackware was onlyfired once.Maria used a red clay.Before firing she would burnishthe entire pot and then paint ona design with a slip (liquid clay.)The dull area is the slip.The shinier area is the raw claythat has been burnished.The ware becomes black bysmothering the flames with drymanure partway thru the firing.The smoke reacts with the iron inthe clay to turn it black.
  9. 9. Maria Martinez
  10. 10. Magdalene Odundo, Vessel Series IIasymmetrical, no.1, 2005, red clay, carbonized and multi- fired Bodily terms are used to describe vessels Mouth Neck Shoulder Body Foot
  11. 11. Etruscan amphora of the Pontic group, ca. 540–530 BC. From Vulci
  12. 12. Chinese Longquan celadon,Song Dynasty, 13th century
  13. 13. Elaine ColemanIncised Lizard and Leaf Teapot
  14. 14. Hellenistic Tanagra figurine, ca. 320 BCE
  15. 15. Earliest known ceramics are the Gravettianfigurines that date to 29,000 to 25,000 BC
  16. 16. Chris Antemann, Paradise, 2009, porcelain, decals, luster, 27 × 17 × 17 inches
  17. 17. Islamic tilework in a mosque,Iran, 1602-1619
  18. 18. 17th century Kütahya tiles in Hall of the Ablution Fountain, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
  19. 19. Glass• Made from silica (sand)• Becomes molten as it is heated and hardens as it cools• Can be formed in many ways – Blown glass – Fused glass, fired in a kiln – Various types of molds – pate de verre• Can be decorated with sandblasting• Stained glass is made by cutting sheets of glass into pieces and fitting them together
  20. 20. Dale Chihuly
  21. 21. Chihuly
  22. 22. Dale Chihuly
  23. 23. The North Transept windows fromChartres Cathedral, France, c. 1230
  24. 24. The Mucha window in Pragues St. VitusCathedral was designed in the early 1930s
  25. 25. Metal• Types of metals – Copper - Silver – Brass - Gold – Bronze - Steel – Nickel - Iron• Can be shaped in many ways – Casting - Forging – Cutting - Hammering – Soldering• Can be decorated in many ways – Enameling – Chasing & Repoussé – Inlay – Vermail (a marriage of 2 metals)
  26. 26. A blacksmith forging hot iron
  27. 27. Handforged silver wine goblets by Emma-Kate Francis.
  28. 28. Modern Chinese cloisonné enamel
  29. 29. Detail showing cloisons beforeenameling. Wire is soldered to the piece to separate each color
  30. 30. This slide shows a girl meticulouslyadding frit to areas, the piece will bekiln fired, then ground and polished.
  31. 31. Lidded copper-body cloisonné enamel vase with a dragon motif, Probably from Nagoya, it is dated to 1880-1890
  32. 32. Chasing and repoussé - high relief
  33. 33. The underside of the ginko leaf relief
  34. 34. 3 bronze custom butterfly cupboard pulls
  35. 35. Chasing tools
  36. 36. Wood• Easy to work with• Readily available• Subject to environmental effects (it rots, distorts, insects)• Furniture – The Chair was developed about 2800 yrs ago
  37. 37. The Chair of Hetepheres, Egypt,2575-2551 BCE, wood and gold leaf
  38. 38. Chair designed by Henry Van de Velde for his house "Bloemenwerf" in Brussels
  39. 39. LCW (Lounge chair wood), Charles and Ray Eames 1946, molded plywood and rubber
  40. 40. Fiber• Almost endless design possibilities• Some civilizations highly prize textiles – Incas• Construction methods are unique to itself – Weaving – the general method for all textiles • Warp – held taut • Weft – is interwoven through the warp• Tapestry – a type of weaving wear the warp yarns are manipulated to form a pattern or design – The golden age of tapestry was in Europe from late 14th to 17th century, it was the art of choice.
  41. 41. The Hunt of the Unicorn, 1475-1500Netherlands, wool, silk and metallic thread.Bought for $1million in 1922 and donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1937.• A series of 7 tapestry panels• Depict a midieval story showing the unicorn being hunted• When it lays its head in the lap of a virgin it is captured and killed, then later restored to life• A mixture of pagan and Christian symbolism• Its an allegory to the Passion of Christ
  42. 42. The Hunters Enter the Woods
  43. 43. Unicorn Is Found at the Fountain
  44. 44. The Unicorn is Attacked
  45. 45. The Unicorn Defends Herself
  46. 46. The Unicorn is Captured by the Maiden
  47. 47. The Unicorn is Killed and Brought to the Castle
  48. 48. The Unicornin Captivity
  49. 49. In the Sterling Castle, Scotland, there arereplicas of the original Unicorn Tapestries
  50. 50. Gee’s Bend Quilts• A rural community near Selma, Alabama• Was once the site of cotton plantations• After the Civil War, the freed slaves took the last name Pettway and became tenant farmers• The unique quilting style has been practiced for at least 6 generations• In 2002 there was an exhibition titled “The Quilts of Gee’s Bend” featuring 70 masterpieces.• There are still more than 50 women there who are part of the Gee’s Bend Quilters Collective• Their style is reminiscent of Amish quilts and modern art• In early years, the primary influence for the style was the newspaper and magazine collages used for insulation on the inside walls of homes
  51. 51. Women of GeesBend, Alabama, quilting, 2005
  52. 52. Roman Stripes by Deborah Pettway Young, circa 1963.
  53. 53. Drunkard´s Path -- Variation (Snowball) by Lucy T. Pettway, circa 1950
  54. 54. Allie PettwayHousetop, 1970-1975
  55. 55. Annie Mae Young, Work-clothes quilt with center medallion of strips, 1976; denim,corduroy, synthetic blend; 108 by 76.5 inches.
  56. 56. Jessie T. Pettway, Bars and string-piecedcolumns, 1950s; cotton; 95 by 76 inches.
  57. 57. Annie E. Pettway, Flying Geesevariation, ca. 1935; cotton, wool; 86 by 71 inches.
  58. 58. Blocks & Strips Quiltby Mary Lee Bendolph, 2002
  59. 59. Jade and Lacquer• Jade – a mineral stone of either nephrite or jadeite – Color from white to brown to green – Found mostly in the East, Central Asia & Central America – Prized in China for 6000 yrs• Lacquer – made from the sap of a tree that originally only grew in China, it is brushed over wood in very thin coats – Hardens to a smooth glasslike finish – Demands patience, can take 30 coats to build up a substantial layer, must fully dry between coats
  60. 60. A jade Bi with dragons, Warring States (403–221 BC)
  61. 61. A Chinese Ming Dynasty mother of pearl lacquer box, 16th century
  62. 62. Carved Cinnabar Lacquer Tray with Blue Magpies and Camellias, China, Yuan Dynasty, 14th century
  63. 63. Blurring the Boundaries between Art and Craft• Taking something functional and making it nonfunctional gives it a whole new meaning – Voulkos’s Pottery broke this barrier• Using craft methods to make Fine Art elevates the notion of craft – Chicago’s The Dinner Party used traditional “womens work” in multiple ways to create a fine art installation.
  64. 64. Peter Voulkos,Noodle, 1996, stoneware sculpture
  65. 65. Peter Voulkos plates, 1981
  66. 66. Peter Voulkos is on the left.
  67. 67. The Dinner Party, Judy Chicago, 1979• ner_party/place_settings/webtour/• The table has 39 place settings to honor influential women in history.• An additional 999 important women’s names are written on the tile floor.
  68. 68. Mary Wollstonecraft and Sojourner Truth place settings
  69. 69. The Virginia Woolf setting
  70. 70. Judy Chicago with her masterpiece.