Chapter 12
Crafts
CRAFT
• Most crafts have roots in the middle ages, when a
craftsman had a trade – potter, glassblower,
woodworker, weaver....
Craft vs Art
• Western cultures (Europe & US) have Fine Art and
Craft in separate categories.
– Often the dividing line is...
Traditional Materials of Craft
• Clay
• Glass
• Metal
• Wood
• Fiber
Ceramics
• Many kinds of clay
• Terra cotta ∙ Stoneware
• Earthenware ∙ Porcelain
• Greenware – Clay before it is fired
• ...
Ceramics Forming Techniques
• Wheel throwing
– Used in Egypt 6000 years ago
• Slab construction
• Coiling
– Maria Martinez...
Maria Martinez, Blackware
This type of blackware was only
fired once.
Maria used a red clay.
Before firing she would burni...
Maria Martinez
Magdalene Odundo, Vessel Series II asymmetrical, no.1,
2005, red clay, carbonized and multi-fired
Bodily terms are used to...
Etruscan amphora of the Pontic group,
ca. 540–530 BC. From Vulci
Chinese Longquan celadon,
Song Dynasty, 13th century
Elaine Coleman
Incised Lizard and Leaf Teapot
Hellenistic Tanagra figurine, ca. 320 BCE
Earliest known ceramics are the Gravettian
figurines that date to 29,000 to 25,000 BC
Chris Antemann, Paradise, 2009, porcelain,
decals, luster, 27 × 17 × 17 inches
Islamic tilework
in a mosque,
Iran, 1602-1619
17th century Kütahya tiles in Hall of
the Ablution Fountain, Topkapı Palace,
Istanbul, Turkey
Glass
• Made from silica (sand)
• Becomes molten as it is heated and hardens
as it cools
• Can be formed in many ways
– Bl...
Dale Chihuly
Chihuly
Dale Chihuly
The North Transept windows from
Chartres Cathedral, France, c. 1230
The Mucha window in Prague's St. Vitus
Cathedral was designed in the early 1930s
Metal
• Types of metals
– Copper - Silver
– Brass - Gold
– Bronze - Steel
– Nickel - Iron
• Can be shaped in many ways
– C...
A blacksmith forging hot iron
Handforged silver wine goblets by
Emma-Kate Francis.
Modern Chinese cloisonné enamel
Detail showing cloisons before
enameling. Wire is soldered to the
piece to separate each color
This slide shows a girl meticulously
adding frit to areas, the piece will be
kiln fired, then ground and polished.
Lidded copper-body cloisonné enamel vase with a dragon
motif, Probably from Nagoya, it is dated to 1880-1890
Chasing and repoussé - high relief
The underside of the ginko leaf relief
3 bronze custom butterfly cupboard pulls
Chasing tools
Wood
• Easy to work with
• Readily available
• Subject to environmental effects (it rots,
distorts, insects)
• Furniture
–...
The Chair of Hetepheres, Egypt,
2575-2551 BCE, wood and gold leaf
Chair designed by Henry Van de Velde for
his house "Bloemenwerf" in Brussels
LCW (Lounge chair wood), Charles and Ray Eames
1946, molded plywood and rubber
Fiber
• Almost endless design possibilities
• Some civilizations highly prize textiles
– Incas
• Construction methods are ...
The Hunt of the Unicorn, 1475-1500
Netherlands, wool, silk and metallic thread.
Bought for $1million in 1922 and donated t...
The Hunters Enter the Woods
Unicorn Is Found at the Fountain
The Unicorn is Attacked
The Unicorn Defends Herself
The Unicorn is Captured by the Maiden
The Unicorn is Killed and Brought to the Castle
The Unicorn
in Captivity
In the Sterling Castle, Scotland, there are
replicas of the original Unicorn Tapestries
Gee’s Bend Quilts
• A rural community near Selma, Alabama
• Was once the site of cotton plantations
• After the Civil War,...
Women of Gee's Bend, Alabama,
quilting, 2005
Roman Stripes by Deborah Pettway
Young, circa 1963.
Drunkard´s Path -- Variation (Snowball)
by Lucy T. Pettway, circa 1950
Allie Pettway
Housetop, 1970-1975
Annie Mae Young, Work-clothes quilt with
center medallion of strips, 1976; denim,
corduroy, synthetic blend; 108 by 76.5 i...
Jessie T. Pettway, Bars and string-pieced
columns, 1950s; cotton; 95 by 76 inches.
Annie E. Pettway, Flying Geese variation,
ca. 1935; cotton, wool; 86 by 71 inches.
Blocks & Strips Quilt
by Mary Lee Bendolph, 2002
Jade and Lacquer
• Jade – a mineral stone of either nephrite or jadeite
– Color from white to brown to green
– Found mostl...
A jade Bi with dragons, Warring States
(403–221 BC)
A Chinese Ming Dynasty mother of
pearl lacquer box, 16th century
Carved Cinnabar Lacquer Tray with
Blue Magpies and Camellias,
China, Yuan Dynasty, 14th century
Blurring the Boundaries between
Art and Craft
• Taking something functional and making it
nonfunctional gives it a whole n...
Peter Voulkos,
Noodle, 1996,
stoneware
sculpture
Peter Voulkos plates, 1981
Peter Voulkos is on the left.
The Dinner Party, Judy Chicago, 1979
• http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/din
ner_party/place_settings/webtour/
• The ta...
Mary Wollstonecraft and Sojourner
Truth place settings
The Virginia Woolf setting
Judy Chicago with her masterpiece.
Art apprec ch 12
Art apprec ch 12
Art apprec ch 12
Art apprec ch 12
Art apprec ch 12
Art apprec ch 12
Art apprec ch 12
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Art apprec ch 12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Crafts
  2. 2. CRAFT • Most crafts have roots in the middle ages, when a craftsman had a trade – potter, glassblower, woodworker, weaver. • The word “craft” alludes to expert work done by hand. • “Craft” and “Art” originally had the same meaning. During the Renaissance, painting, sculpture and architecture were elevated to a different level. – Thus much of art history before the Renaissance includes craft.
  3. 3. Craft vs Art • Western cultures (Europe & US) have Fine Art and Craft in separate categories. – Often the dividing line is function. • Many other cultures around the world attribute artistic meaning to craft objects. – Often fine art objects like sculpture have a spiritual function. • There is no definite division between art and craft, nor should there be. – Labels are a convenience for talking about art.
  4. 4. Traditional Materials of Craft • Clay • Glass • Metal • Wood • Fiber
  5. 5. Ceramics • Many kinds of clay • Terra cotta ∙ Stoneware • Earthenware ∙ Porcelain • Greenware – Clay before it is fired • Bisqueware – Clay that has been kiln-fired once.  After clay has been fired its chemical composition changes, it can never be clay again • Glazeware – Clay that has been glazed, it can be fired multiple times, not all ceramics are glazed
  6. 6. Ceramics Forming Techniques • Wheel throwing – Used in Egypt 6000 years ago • Slab construction • Coiling – Maria Martinez used this method • Hand-forming or pinching
  7. 7. Maria Martinez, Blackware This type of blackware was only fired once. Maria used a red clay. Before firing she would burnish the entire pot and then paint on a design with a slip (liquid clay.) The dull area is the slip. The shinier area is the raw clay that has been burnished. The ware becomes black by smothering the flames with dry manure partway thru the firing. The smoke reacts with the iron in the clay to turn it black.
  8. 8. Maria Martinez
  9. 9. Magdalene Odundo, Vessel Series II asymmetrical, no.1, 2005, red clay, carbonized and multi-fired Bodily terms are used to describe vessels Mouth Neck Shoulder Body Foot
  10. 10. Etruscan amphora of the Pontic group, ca. 540–530 BC. From Vulci
  11. 11. Chinese Longquan celadon, Song Dynasty, 13th century
  12. 12. Elaine Coleman Incised Lizard and Leaf Teapot
  13. 13. Hellenistic Tanagra figurine, ca. 320 BCE
  14. 14. Earliest known ceramics are the Gravettian figurines that date to 29,000 to 25,000 BC
  15. 15. Chris Antemann, Paradise, 2009, porcelain, decals, luster, 27 × 17 × 17 inches
  16. 16. Islamic tilework in a mosque, Iran, 1602-1619
  17. 17. 17th century Kütahya tiles in Hall of the Ablution Fountain, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
  18. 18. Glass • Made from silica (sand) • Becomes molten as it is heated and hardens as it cools • Can be formed in many ways – Blown glass – Fused glass, fired in a kiln – Various types of molds – pate de verre • Can be decorated with sandblasting • Stained glass is made by cutting sheets of glass into pieces and fitting them together
  19. 19. Dale Chihuly
  20. 20. Chihuly
  21. 21. Dale Chihuly
  22. 22. The North Transept windows from Chartres Cathedral, France, c. 1230
  23. 23. The Mucha window in Prague's St. Vitus Cathedral was designed in the early 1930s
  24. 24. Metal • Types of metals – Copper - Silver – Brass - Gold – Bronze - Steel – Nickel - Iron • Can be shaped in many ways – Casting - Forging – Cutting - Hammering – Soldering • Can be decorated in many ways – Enameling – Chasing & Repoussé – Inlay – Vermail (a marriage of 2 metals)
  25. 25. A blacksmith forging hot iron
  26. 26. Handforged silver wine goblets by Emma-Kate Francis.
  27. 27. Modern Chinese cloisonné enamel
  28. 28. Detail showing cloisons before enameling. Wire is soldered to the piece to separate each color
  29. 29. This slide shows a girl meticulously adding frit to areas, the piece will be kiln fired, then ground and polished.
  30. 30. Lidded copper-body cloisonné enamel vase with a dragon motif, Probably from Nagoya, it is dated to 1880-1890
  31. 31. Chasing and repoussé - high relief
  32. 32. The underside of the ginko leaf relief
  33. 33. 3 bronze custom butterfly cupboard pulls
  34. 34. Chasing tools
  35. 35. Wood • Easy to work with • Readily available • Subject to environmental effects (it rots, distorts, insects) • Furniture – The Chair was developed about 2800 yrs ago
  36. 36. The Chair of Hetepheres, Egypt, 2575-2551 BCE, wood and gold leaf
  37. 37. Chair designed by Henry Van de Velde for his house "Bloemenwerf" in Brussels
  38. 38. LCW (Lounge chair wood), Charles and Ray Eames 1946, molded plywood and rubber
  39. 39. Fiber • Almost endless design possibilities • Some civilizations highly prize textiles – Incas • Construction methods are unique to itself – Weaving – the general method for all textiles • Warp – held taut • Weft – is interwoven through the warp • Tapestry – a type of weaving wear the warp yarns are manipulated to form a pattern or design – The golden age of tapestry was in Europe from late 14th to 17th century, it was the art of choice.
  40. 40. The Hunt of the Unicorn, 1475-1500 Netherlands, wool, silk and metallic thread. Bought for $1million in 1922 and donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1937. • A series of 7 tapestry panels • Depict a midieval story showing the unicorn being hunted • When it lays its head in the lap of a virgin it is captured and killed, then later restored to life • A mixture of pagan and Christian symbolism • Its an allegory to the Passion of Christ
  41. 41. The Hunters Enter the Woods
  42. 42. Unicorn Is Found at the Fountain
  43. 43. The Unicorn is Attacked
  44. 44. The Unicorn Defends Herself
  45. 45. The Unicorn is Captured by the Maiden
  46. 46. The Unicorn is Killed and Brought to the Castle
  47. 47. The Unicorn in Captivity
  48. 48. In the Sterling Castle, Scotland, there are replicas of the original Unicorn Tapestries
  49. 49. Gee’s Bend Quilts • A rural community near Selma, Alabama • Was once the site of cotton plantations • After the Civil War, the freed slaves took the last name Pettway and became tenant farmers • The unique quilting style has been practiced for at least 6 generations • In 2002 there was an exhibition titled “The Quilts of Gee’s Bend” featuring 70 masterpieces. • There are still more than 50 women there who are part of the Gee’s Bend Quilters Collective • Their style is reminiscent of Amish quilts and modern art • In early years, the primary influence for the style was the newspaper and magazine collages used for insulation on the inside walls of homes
  50. 50. Women of Gee's Bend, Alabama, quilting, 2005
  51. 51. Roman Stripes by Deborah Pettway Young, circa 1963.
  52. 52. Drunkard´s Path -- Variation (Snowball) by Lucy T. Pettway, circa 1950
  53. 53. Allie Pettway Housetop, 1970-1975
  54. 54. Annie Mae Young, Work-clothes quilt with center medallion of strips, 1976; denim, corduroy, synthetic blend; 108 by 76.5 inches.
  55. 55. Jessie T. Pettway, Bars and string-pieced columns, 1950s; cotton; 95 by 76 inches.
  56. 56. Annie E. Pettway, Flying Geese variation, ca. 1935; cotton, wool; 86 by 71 inches.
  57. 57. Blocks & Strips Quilt by Mary Lee Bendolph, 2002
  58. 58. Jade and Lacquer • Jade – a mineral stone of either nephrite or jadeite – Color from white to brown to green – Found mostly in the East, Central Asia & Central America – Prized in China for 6000 yrs • Lacquer – made from the sap of a tree that originally only grew in China, it is brushed over wood in very thin coats – Hardens to a smooth glasslike finish – Demands patience, can take 30 coats to build up a substantial layer, must fully dry between coats
  59. 59. A jade Bi with dragons, Warring States (403–221 BC)
  60. 60. A Chinese Ming Dynasty mother of pearl lacquer box, 16th century
  61. 61. Carved Cinnabar Lacquer Tray with Blue Magpies and Camellias, China, Yuan Dynasty, 14th century
  62. 62. Blurring the Boundaries between Art and Craft • Taking something functional and making it nonfunctional gives it a whole new meaning – Voulkos’s Pottery broke this barrier • Using craft methods to make Fine Art elevates the notion of craft – Chicago’s The Dinner Party used traditional “womens work” in multiple ways to create a fine art installation.
  63. 63. Peter Voulkos, Noodle, 1996, stoneware sculpture
  64. 64. Peter Voulkos plates, 1981
  65. 65. Peter Voulkos is on the left.
  66. 66. The Dinner Party, Judy Chicago, 1979 • http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/din ner_party/place_settings/webtour/ • The table has 39 place settings to honor influential women in history. • An additional 999 important women’s names are written on the tile floor.
  67. 67. Mary Wollstonecraft and Sojourner Truth place settings
  68. 68. The Virginia Woolf setting
  69. 69. Judy Chicago with her masterpiece.

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